Information on EC 3.1.4.4 - phospholipase D

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.1.4.4
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phospholipase D
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
acts also on other phosphatidyl esters
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism, structural requirements of substrate
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
catalytic mechanism, PLD uses a ping-pong type of reaction through the formation of a covalent phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate, structure-function relationship, and substrate recognition and specificity, overview
P84147
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
catalytic mechanism, PLD uses a ping-pong type of reaction through the formation of a covalent phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate, structure-function relationship, and substrate recognition and specificity, overview
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
general reaction mechanism through an SN2-type associative pathway for phospholipase D-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids, the formation of the phosphohistidine intermediate involves the conserved histidine 167 of the N-terminal HKD domain, overview
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
catalytic mechanisms of PLD isozymes, overview
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
mode of substrate binding, the catalysis proceeds via two-step reaction with the formation of phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate. Both of the two catalytic His residues are critical in the reaction course, where one acts as a nucleophile, while the other functions as a general acid/base, reaction cycle overview
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
the catalysis proceeds via two-step reaction with the formation of phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate. Both of the two catalytic His residues are critical in the reaction course, where one acts as a nucleophile, while the other functions as a general acid/base, reaction cycle overview
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
the catalysis proceeds via two-step reaction with the formation of phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate. Both of the two catalytic His residues are critical in the reaction course, where one acts as a nucleophile, while the other functions as a general acid/base, reaction cycle overview
O82549
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
the catalysis proceeds via two-step reaction with the formation of phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate. Both of the two catalytic His residues are critical in the reaction course, where one acts as a nucleophile, while the other functions as a general acid/base, reaction cycle overview
P36126
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
the catalysis proceeds via two-step reaction with the formation of phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate. Both of the two catalytic His residues are critical in the reaction course, where one acts as a nucleophile, while the other functions as a general acid/base, reaction cycle overview
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508
-
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
Streptomyces sp. AA586
-
-
a phosphatidylcholine + H2O = choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
the catalysis proceeds via two-step reaction with the formation of phosphatidyl-enzyme intermediate. Both of the two catalytic His residues are critical in the reaction course, where one acts as a nucleophile, while the other functions as a general acid/base, reaction cycle overview
Actinomadura sp. 362
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of phosphoric ester
-
-
-
-
transphosphatidylation
-
-
simultaneously to hydrolysis, methanol, ethanolamine, glycerol serve as acceptors, ethanol, aliphatic alcohols with more than 5 carbons e.g. geraniol, aromatic or heterocylic compounds, saccharides, polyalcohols, steroids serve as acceptors
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
choline biosynthesis III
-
-
Ether lipid metabolism
-
-
Glycerophospholipid metabolism
-
-
glycine betaine biosynthesis
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
phosphatidate metabolism, as a signaling molecule
-
-
phospholipases
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase
Also acts on other phosphatidyl esters.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
AtPLDalpha1
-
-
-
-
AtPLDalpha1
Q38882
-
AtPLDalpha2
-
-
-
-
AtPLDbeta1
-
-
-
-
AtPLDbeta2
-
-
-
-
AtPLDdelta
-
-
-
-
AtPLDdelta
Q9C5Y0
-
AtPLDepsilon
-
-
-
-
AtPLDgamma1
-
-
-
-
AtPLDgamma2
-
-
-
-
AtPLDgamma3
-
-
-
-
AtPLDp1
-
-
-
-
AtPLDp2
-
-
-
-
AtPLDzeta
-
-
-
-
Ca2+-dependent phospholipase D
-
-
choline phosphatase
-
-
-
-
D type phospholipase
-
-
dermonecrotic toxin
A4USB4
-
endonuclease Nuc
-
high sequence identity
hPLD1
-
-
-
-
hPLD2
-
-
-
-
lecithinase D
-
-
-
-
LePLDalpha1
-
-
LePLDbeta1
-
-
lipophosphodiesterase II
-
-
-
-
LiRecDT1
P0CE81
-
LiRecDT2
P0CE83
-
LiRecDT3
Q2XQ09
-
mPLD1
-
-
-
-
mPLD2
-
-
-
-
N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D
-
-
NAPE-PLD
-
-
phosphatidylcholine choline hydrolase
-
-
Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D1
-
-
-
-
Phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D2
-
-
-
-
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-dependent PLD
-
-
phosphatidylinositol-synthesizing phospholipase D
Q53728
-
phospholipase D
-
-
phospholipase D
-
-
phospholipase D
-
-
phospholipase D
O82549, P55939
-
phospholipase D
-
-
phospholipase D
O14939, Q13393
-
phospholipase D
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
-
phospholipase D
-
-
phospholipase D
P70496, P70498
-
phospholipase D
Q53728
-
phospholipase D
-
-
phospholipase D
B0FZD9
-
phospholipase D
-
-
phospholipase D
-
-
phospholipase D alpha
-
-
phospholipase D alpha
Fragaria x ananassa Duch
-
-
-
phospholipase D delta
Q9C5Y0
-
phospholipase D epsilon
-
-
phospholipase D1
-
-
phospholipase D1
-
-
phospholipase D1
-
-
phospholipase D1
Q8W1B2
-
phospholipase D1
Q5WR67
-
Phospholipase D1 PHOX and PX containing domain
-
-
-
-
phospholipase D1beta
Q13393
-
phospholipase D2
-
-
phospholipase D2
-
-
phospholipase D2
Q8VWE9
-
Phospholipase D2 PHOX and PX containing domain
-
-
-
-
phospholipase D2alpha
O14939, Q13393
-
phospholipase Dalpha
-
-
phospholipase Dalpha
-
-
phospholipase Dalpha
-
-
phospholipase Dalpha1
-
-
phospholipase Dalpha1
Q38882
-
phospholipase Dalpha1
-
-
phospholipase Dalpha3
-
-
phospholipase Dalpha3
Q9C888
-
phospholipase Dbeta
-
-
phospholipase Dzeta2
-
-
phospholipid-specific phosphodiesterase
-
-
PIP2-dependent PLD
-
-
PIP2-independent PLD
D7P5E0
-
PIP2-PLD
-
-
PLD
-
-
-
-
PLD
Actinomadura sp. 362
-
-
-
PLD
O82549
-
PLD
Q13393
-
PLD
D2E4A5
-
PLD
D7P5D9, D7P5E0, D7P5E1
-
PLD
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508
P36126
-
-
PLD
B0FZD9
-
PLD
-
-
PLD delta
-
-
-
-
PLD epsilon
-
-
-
-
PLD type 2
-
-
PLD zeta
-
-
-
-
PLD1
-
-
PLD1
-
-
PLD1
Q8W1B2
-
PLD1
P70496
-
PLD103
Streptomyces racemochromogenes 10-3
E0D7I2
-
-
PLD1C
-
-
-
-
PLD2
A2BG86
-
PLD2
-
-
PLD2
Q8VWE9
-
PLD2
P70498
-
PLD2a
-
-
PLD2alpha
-
-
PLDalpha
-
-
-
-
PLDalpha
D2E4A5
-
PLDalpha
D7P5D9
-
PLDalpha
-
-
PLDalpha1
Q38882
-
PLDalpha1
O82549
-
PLDalpha2
-
-
PLDalpha3
-
-
-
-
PLDalpha3
Q9C888
-
PLDalpha3
D7P5D9
-
PldB
Dictyostelium discoideum AX3
-
-
-
PLDbeta
-
-
-
-
PLDbeta
D7P5E0
-
PLDbeta1
D7P5E0
-
PLDbeta1
-
-
PLDdelta
D7P5E1
-
PLDdelta1
-
-
-
-
PLDzeta1
-
-
-
-
PLDzeta2
-
-
-
-
pPLD1
Q8W1B2
-
pPLD2
Q8VWE9
-
rPLD1
-
-
-
-
rPLD2
-
-
-
-
sphingolipid-specific phospholipase D
-
-
TH-2PLD
Streptomyces septatus TH-2
-
-
-
Meiosis-specific sporulation protein SPO14
-
-
-
-
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the PLD superfamily containing two HKD motifs
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9001-87-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain ATCC 19606
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
diverse strains from soil, isolated from 25 soil samples in Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Actinomadura sp. 362
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; isozymes PLDalpha1, PLDdelta, and PLDepsilon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Columbia ecotype
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ecotype Columbia-O
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene pldepsilon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLDgamma1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLDgamma2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLDzeta2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDalpha, mechanically wounded leaves
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDalpha1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDalpha3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDbeta
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDdelta
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDzeta1, comparison to other isozymes
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PLDalpha, PLDbeta
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
commercial preparation
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
drought tolerant lines Tifton 8 and A13, moderate line Georgia green and drought sensitive line PI 196754
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Handate
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Bug
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate independent isoform PLDalpha, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate dependent isoform PLDbeta/gamma, oleate-stimulated PLDdelta
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Winter rape
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cabbage, best source of enzyme tested
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
commercial preparation
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLDalpha2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. capitata
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white cabbage, isozyme PLD2alpha
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
madagascar periwinkles
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
patients with acute coronary syndromes infected with Chlamydophila pneumoniae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene pld1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PLD2; isozyme PLD2 encoded by gene pld2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDA; three isozymes PLDA, PLDB, and PDLC, encoded by genes plda, pldb, and pldc
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDB; three isozymes PLDA, PLDB, and PDLC, encoded by genes plda, pldb, and pldc
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDC; three isozymes PLDA, PLDB, and PDLC, encoded by genes plda, pldb, and pldc
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dictyostelium discoideum AX3
gene pldB
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fragaria x ananassa Duch
Duch
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soybean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene HaPLDalpha
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform D2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PL D1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLD1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLD1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2, and two splice variants of PLD1, PLD1a and PLD1b
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2, PLD2 has three splice variants, PLD2a, 2b, and 2c
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1, PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1b and PLD2a
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozynmes PLD1 and PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
N-acylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PLD1; isozyme PLD1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PLD1; isozymes PLD1beta and PLD2alpha
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PLD2; isozyme PLD2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PLD2; isozyme PLD2alpha
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two splice variants, PLD1 and PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLDalpha, gene PLD
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform 6
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LiRecDT2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LiRecDT3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1 and PDL2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1, PLD2, regulation of enzyme activity
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLD1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLD2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2, and two splice variants of PLD1, PLD1a and PLD1b
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male BALB/c mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PLD1 and PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium marinum 1218R
1218R
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155
mc(2)155
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain H37Rv and strain H37Ra
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Samsun and Bright Yellow 2, different isozymes
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Samsun and Bright Yellow 2, isozyme PLDbeta1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Samsun and Bright Yellow 2, isozyme PLDdelta
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-dependent isozyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tabacco
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD2 and PLD1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Nipponbare
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PLDbeta1; identification of 17 phospholipase D genes including isoform SP-PLD harboring a signal peptide at the N-terminus. Most genes are differentially expressed in different tissues, are induced by hormones or stress conditions
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
rice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. japonica cv. Nipponbare, 17 PLD genes encoding isozymes, e.g. genes OsPLDalpha1, OsPLDalpha5, and OsPLDbeta1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. Vajovecky
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pimpinella brachycarpa
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
not all strains carry the gene pldA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
female and male Sprague-Dawley rats, isozyme PLD1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLD1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2, and two splice variants of PLD1, PLD1a and PLD1b
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
N-acylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D, NAPE-PLD
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
castor bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Madrid Evir, a virulent revertant of the attenuated Madrid E strain, gene pld
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC type strain
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces halstedii subsp. scabies K6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces racemochromogenes 10-3
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TH-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TH-2, recombinant enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces septatus TH-2
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces septatus TH-2
strain TH-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces septatus TH-2
strain TH-2, recombinant enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PMF strain
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CS-57
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PMF, commercial preparation
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
YU100, optimal culture conditions
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces sp. AA586
AA586
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces sp. CS-57
strain CS-57
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces spp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
elevated activity during early logarithmic growth phase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mung bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cow pea
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. Walp, isozyme PLDalpha, recombinant enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. Walp, recombinant protein
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme expression and activity are increased at beginning of heat acclimation
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
maize
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
-
the enzyme belongs to the PLD superfamily, PLD superfamily members share a common core structure, and a common catalytic mechanism
evolution
-
the enzyme belongs to the PLD superfamily, PLD superfamily members share a common core structure, and thereby, a common catalytic mechanism
evolution
O82549
the enzyme belongs to the PLD superfamily, PLD superfamily members share a common core structure, and thereby, a common catalytic mechanism
evolution
P36126
the enzyme belongs to the PLD superfamily, PLD superfamily members share a common core structure, and thereby, a common catalytic mechanism
evolution
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508, Actinomadura sp. 362
-
the enzyme belongs to the PLD superfamily, PLD superfamily members share a common core structure, and thereby, a common catalytic mechanism
-
malfunction
-
disruption of phospholipase D causes a reduction in the organism's ability to thrive in serum, a deficiency in epithelial cell invasion, and diminished pathogenesis in a murine model of pneumonia
malfunction
-
inhibition of Pld1 function, by siRNA-mediated downregulation or 1-butanol, does not strongly impair the dorsal-ventral guidance of primary/secondary motor axons
malfunction
-
inhibition of RalA or PKC, activators of PLD, also inhibits endocytosis of EGFR
malfunction
-
lipase-inactive PLD1 or inhibition of PLD1 by pharmacological inhibitors blocks PKD1 activation under oxidative stress
malfunction
-
phospholipase D isozymes are overexpressed in various human tumor tissues and involved in tumorigenesis. The increased expression of PLD and its enzymatic activity in the glioma stimulate the secretion and expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, MMP-2 and induce the invasiveness of glioma cells, mechanism, overview
malfunction
-
phospholipase D, a phosphatidic acid-synthesizing enzyme, is linked to multiple aspects of normal brain function and to Alzheimer's disease, the most common neurodegenerative disorder, an imbalance in phospholipids is involved in development of Alzheimer's disease, overview
malfunction
-
PLD inhibition disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in tobacco pollen tubes, with severe disorganization of actin, both in the apex and in the shank
malfunction
-
PLD2 is active in lymphoma cell metastasis, cells expressing active PLD2 form metastases in syngeneic mice
malfunction
-
pretreatment of human neutrophils with PLD inhibitor resveratrol significantly blocks oxidative burst, leukocyte migration, degranulation, and inflammatory cytokine production involving inhibition of sphingosine kinase activity and ERK1/2 phosphorylation
malfunction
-
pretreatment of mouse neutrophils with PLD inhibitor resveratrol significantly blocks oxidative burst, leukocyte migration, degranulation, and inflammatory cytokine production involving inhibition of sphingosine kinase activity and ERK1/2 phosphorylation
malfunction
-
suppression of PLDbeta1 enhances disease resistance against rice bacterial blight as well as rice blast
malfunction
-
cells lacking PldB preferentially sort to the stalk in chimeric fruiting bodies with wild-type cells
malfunction
-
knockdown of OsPLD-1 affects H+-ATPase- and Na+/H+ antiporter-related gene expression and inhibits salt-induced increase of H+-ATPase activity
malfunction
Dictyostelium discoideum AX3
-
cells lacking PldB preferentially sort to the stalk in chimeric fruiting bodies with wild-type cells
-
metabolism
-
phosphatidic acid is a source of diacylglycerol, the two versatile lipid second messengers are at the centre of a phospholipid signalling network and as such are involved in several cellular functions
metabolism
-
phospholipase D1 is regulated by ADP-ribosylation factors which are themselves regulators of vesicle trafficking
metabolism
-
the regulation of PLD activity by phosphoinositides, particularly by PtdIns(4,5)P2 provides a link with a number of proteins known to regulate cytoskeletal changes associated with adhesion and migration of cells, while this is also apparent when the additional PLD regulators, in particular the small GTPases, are considered
metabolism
-
the sites of phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholiphosphatidic acids D, C, A, and the targets of phosphatidic acid identified in plants that are potentially involved in hyperosmotic stress responses, and regulation of PLD isozymes in hyperosmotic stresses, overview
metabolism
-
high glucose increases insulin secretion through a PLD1-related pathway, high glucose induces the PLD1 binding of Arf6, which is involved in the glucose-induced insulin secretion pathway
metabolism
-
identification of a signaling pathway for PLD in the lacrimal gland with Rho and ROCK1 activating PLD1, but not PLD2, in response to cholinergic agonists causing their association with one another. Formation of this signaling complex results in the downstream activation of MEK and ERK, but the activation is independent of the signaling molecules Ras, Raf, Pyk2, and cSrc, which usually activate ERK. Activation of ERK then attenuates cholinergic agonist-stimulated protein secretion. The muscarinic activation of PLD1 attenuates protein secretion by activating ERK
metabolism
-
PldB mediates quorum sensing in the CMF pathway and regulates the dissociation of G protein Galpha2betagamma
metabolism
-
when rice suspension-cultured cells are treated with 100 mM NaCl, PLDalpha activity in cell extracts show a transient activation with a threefold increase at 1 h. The amount of OsPLDalpha protein decreases slightly in the cytosolic fractions, whereas it increases significantly in the tonoplast after NaCl treatment. Knockdown of OsPLD-1 prevents the NaCl-induced increase in the transcript level of OsVHA-A, encodes TP H+-ATPase, and OSA2, encodes PM H+-ATPase, as well as OsNHX1, encodes TP Na+/H+ antiporter
physiological function
-
activity of Pld1 in the developing notochord is essential for vascular development in vertebrates. Pld1 may regulate the ISV development through a parallel pathway controlling angiogenesis or play a role downstream of these angiogenic pathways, overview
physiological function
-
different PLD isozymes are likely to serve diverse functions in membrane trafficking, endocytosis, exocytosis, cell growth, differentiation and actin cytoskeletal organization. Regulatory function of PLD, detailed overview. Phospholipase D signalling is involved in neurite outgrowth
physiological function
-
essential role of PLD2 activity in the opioid-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species synthesis
physiological function
-
importance and activating role of PLD2 for LPS-induced NO synthesis in Raw 264.7 cells with involvement of the S6K1-p42/44 MAPK-STAT3 pathway. Binding of transcription factor STAT3 to the iNOS promoter is mediated by PLD2
physiological function
-
involvement of isozyme phospholipase Dzeta2 in root hydrotropism through the suppression of root gravitropism by abscisic acid, overview
physiological function
-
involvement of PLD in response to water deficits and salinity. Isozyme PLDdelta plays an important role in protecting cells from damage by reactive oxygen species. Isozyme PLDalpha1 promotes stomatal closure and reduces water loss. PLDalpha1 and PLDdelta are involved in seedling tolerance to salt stress. PLDalpha3 and PLDepsilon enhance plant growth and hyperosmotic tolerance. The different PLDs regulate the production of phosphatidic acid, a key class of lipid mediators in plant response to environmental stresses. Signalling and regulatory functions of PLD isozymes and phosphatidic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana response to drought and salinity, overview. PLDalpha1 and phosphatidic acid play a positive role in abscisic acid effects on preventing water loss. Involvement of PLDalpha3 in salt stress response, and of isozyme PLDepsilon in N signalling and plant growth under salt stress and water deficiency with genetic alterations of PLDepsilon affecting plant root architecture and biomass production, overview
physiological function
-
isozyme PLDalpha3 plays a positive role in hyperosmotic stress through a mechanism different from that for PLDalpha1, which mediates the effect of abscisic acid on stomatal movements. PLDalpha3 enhances root growth and accelerates flowering time under hyperosmotic stress. Alterations of PLDalpha3 activity affect the level of phosphatidic acid, and of transcripts of TOR and AGC2.1, of ABA-responsive genes, and of phosphorylated S6K protein under hyperosmotic stress, overview. PLDalpha3 may be involved in the crosstalk among glucose sensing, abscisic acid response, and S6K activation to regulate growth and development
physiological function
-
key role for phospholipase D in the generation of the slow excitatory postsynaptic current in cerebellar Purkinje cells
physiological function
O14939
main function of PLD is to hydrolyze membrane phosphatidylcholine to generate the precursor signaling molecule phosphatidic acid and choline. PLD activity is required for osteoblast differentiation, and isozyme PLD2 is the main isoform involved in this pathway
physiological function
-
participation of PLD/phosphatidic acid in the light-mediated transduction signalling cascade of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, C4-PEPC, phosphorylation through a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase, PEPC-k, overview
physiological function
-
phosphatidic acid plays a regulatory role in important cellular processes such as secretion, cellular shape change, and movement. PLD-based signaling also plays a pro-mitogenic and pro-survival role in cells and therefore anti-apoptotic
physiological function
-
phosphatidic acid, a lipid generated by PLD, favors membranes with negative curvature and thus can facilitate both membrane fission and fusion. Role for PLD in endocytosis and membrane recycling from endocytic pathways, overview. PLD is involved n internalization of signaling receptors in endocytosis
physiological function
-
phospholipase D and its product phosphatidic acid are upstream regulators of the mitogenic mTOR signaling in both mitogenesis and the mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle growth. Isozyme PLD1, but not PLD2, is required for Rheb activation of the mTOR pathway and for Rheb activation of S6K1, PLD1 is a bona fide effector for Rheb
physiological function
-
phospholipase D cleaves phospholipids into phosphatidic acid and free-head groups such as choline
physiological function
D2E4A5
phospholipase D is a key enzyme involved in phospholipid catabolism, initiating a lipolytic cascade in membrane deterioration during senescence and stress
physiological function
-
phospholipase D signaling is involved in serotonin-induced mitogenesis of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. PLD activation participates in the cellular proliferation response to serotonin
physiological function
-
PLD acting upstream of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 may play a key role in the regulation of IL-2 production by stimulated Jurkat cells. PLD2 promotes an early and sustained increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in recombinant T-cell lines, which is inhibited by 1-butanol
physiological function
-
PLD activity controls the structure of the actin cytoskeleton in tobacco pollen tubes, actin forms affect differently the activity of distinct tobacco C2 PLDs, overview
physiological function
-
PLD activity is a key enzyme involved in CpG oligodeoxynucleotides-induced intracellular mycobacterial killing in human monocytes/macrophages. Phagolysosome biogenesis from endosomes appears to be mediated by PLD activation, which is inhibited by ethanol in vivo in A-549 cells, overview
physiological function
-
PLD generates bioactive lipid second messengers in vascular endothelial cells
physiological function
-
PLD is a key enzyme involved in secretion, endocytosis and receptor signalling with importance of PLD1 in formyl peptide receptor, FPRL1 and FPRL2, function. Function in endocytosis, receptor recycling, and reactivation for receptor activity, overview, PLD is a key enzyme involved in secretion, endocytosis and receptor signalling with importance of PLD2 in formyl peptide receptor, FPRL1 and FPRL2, function. Function in endocytosis, receptor recycling, and reactivation for receptor activity, overview
physiological function
-
PLD is activated by Rho family G-protein RhoB or C, which facilitates dopamine-induced Na+ current response in neurons, overview
physiological function
-
PLD is especially involved in regulating biosynthesis and metabolism of phospholipids. Role of phospholipase D in amyloid-beta protein precursor, APP, trafficking, amyloid-beta protein generation, and in signaling mechanisms downstream of beta-amyloid as well as in the trafficking and processing of amyloid precursor protein. PLD1 positively regulates the delivery of PS1 to the cell surface in an APP-independent fashion. Role of the PLD pathway in brain regulation, PLD function, overview
physiological function
-
PLD is involved in stress fiber formation
physiological function
-
PLD may play a role in mitosis through the production of diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, and lysophosphatidic acid
physiological function
-
PLD mediates amyloid beta peptides endocytosis into glial cells, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation by a formyl-peptid-receptor-like 1, FPRL1, agonists in glial cells
physiological function
-
PLD serves as a sigalling intermediate for activation of matrix metalloproteinase 9, MMP-9, that is critical in digesting the extracellular matrix and has a vital function in tumor metastasis and invasion, overview. PKC-dependent activation of MMP-9 in fibrosarcoma cells requires PLD activity
physiological function
-
PLD1 controls Rap1 trafficking and regulates Rap1 activity, a small GTPase that modulates adhesion of T cells by regulating inside-out signaling through LFA-1, by controlling exocytosis of a stored, vesicular pool of Rap1 that can be activated by C3G upon delivery to the plasma membrane, overview. Inside-out signaling through Rap1 requires PLD1. PLD1 resides on the same vesicles as Rap1, is delivered along with Rap1 to the plasma membranes of stimulated T cells, and is required for Rap1 activation and T-cell adhesion
physiological function
-
PLD2 is involved in activation of phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, and it plays a role in spreading and elongation of cells. Active PLD2 enhances FAK phosphorylation, Akt activation, and cell invasion in EL4 lymphoma cells, overview
physiological function
-
PLD2 plays the role of master regulator and in an ill-defined manner regulates Rho function, PLD1 activity is downstream of this activation, however the generated phosphatidic acid controls changes in cytoskeletal organisation through its regulation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase activity, overview. Regulatory mechanisms of PLD1 and PLD2 cellular activities, overview
physiological function
-
PLD2 plays the role of master regulator and in an ill-defined manner regulates Rho function, PLD1 activity is downstream of this activation, however the generated phosphatidic acid controls changes in cytoskeletal organisation through its regulation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase activity, PLD2 master regulator model, overview. Relation between PLD activation and cytoskeletal remodelling, PLD signalling during cell adhesion, PLD regulation of integrin adhesiveness, cell spreading, and of actin polymerisation during cell spreading, regulation of of stress fibre formation, regulatory mechanisms of PLD1 and PLD2 cellular activities, overview. PLD signalling regulates actin-myosin contractility necessary for cell spreading
physiological function
-
PLD2 promotes an early and sustained increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in recombinant T-cell lines, which is inhibited by 1-butanol.
physiological function
-
PLDepsilon and phosphatidic acid promote organism growth and play a role in nitrogen signaling. The lipid-signaling process may play a role in connecting membrane sensing of nutrient status to increased plant growth and biomass production
physiological function
-
polymorphonuclear neutrophil stimulation with fMLP stimulates small G proteins such as ADP-ribosylation factors Arf1 and Arf6, leading to phospholipase D activation and functions such as degranulation and the oxidative burst, regulation, overview
physiological function
-
role for PLD1-induced diacylglycerol as a competent second messenger at the mitochondria that relays ROS to PKD1-mediated mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling, overview
physiological function
-
Role of PLD in the production of diacylglycerol, overview. Possible role for PLD in facilitating the fission of vesicles from the trans-Golgi network which are targeted to the embryonic cortex, and it is required for fusion of vesicles into the plasma membrane, overview
physiological function
-
role of PLD in the production of diacylglycerol, overview. Role of phospholipase D at the Golgi apparatus, overview
physiological function
-
role of PLDalpha1 in promoting abscisic acid sensitivity and stomatal closure. PLDalpha1 and phosphatidic acid regulate stomatal closure via a bifurcating pathway and interacts with the Galpha1 subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein to inhibit stomatal opening. PLDalpha1-derived phosphatidic acid binds to ABI1, a protein phosphatase 2C, that functions as a negative regulator in the abscisic acid signaling pathway, overview
physiological function
-
roles of phospholipase D in epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR, signaling, modelling, overview. Coordination of EGF signaling by the PX domain of PLD, detailed overview. PLD is a key mediator of EGFR function, and can be directly regulated by upstream binding partners in an EGF-dependent manner
physiological function
-
the phospholipid degrading PLD plays an important role in regulation of cytoskeleton remodelling
physiological function
-
the PLD1 protein in the heart is strongly associated with the early postnatal development of the heart in rats. Isozyme PLD1, but not PLD2, is the major PLD isozyme involved in the natal and postnatal development of the rat heart
physiological function
-
vesicular trafficking such as macropinocytosis is a dynamic process that requires coordinated interactions between specialized proteins and lipids that involves PLD and its physiological activator, the fission protein CtBP1/BARS in agonist-induced macropinocytosis, overview. Molecular mechanisms of lipid remodelling regulation during macropinocytosis. PLD-catalysed PtdOH formation may be necessary for EGF-induced macropinocytosis
physiological function
-
D type phospholipases are enzymes that hydrolyze the head group of phospholipids to produce phosphatidic acid
physiological function
-
OsPLDalpha is involved in salt tolerance in rice through the mediation of H+-ATPase activity and transcription
physiological function
-
phospholipase D is involved in myogenesis, process modelling with PLD requirement for cell differentiation. PLD is required for S6K1 phosphorylation both the long (p85) and short (p70) S6K1 isoforms are phosphorylated in a PLD1-dependent way, vasopressin stimulation also induces phosphorylation of Akt on Ser-473 through PLD1-dependent activation of mTORC2 complex. Under differentiating conditions, mTORC2 and Akt are activated in a PLD-dependent way. Regulation of mTOR by PLD and myogenic differentiation, overview
physiological function
-
phospholipase Dalpha is involved in fruit development
physiological function
-
PLDalpha1 promotes stomatal closure and reduces water loss. PLDalpha1 and PLDdelta are involved in seedling tolerance to salt stress. PLDalpha3 and PLDepsilon enhance plant growth and hyperosmotic tolerance. The different PLDs regulate the production of phosphatidic acid that is a key class of lipid mediators in plant response to environmental stresses. PLD-produced phosphatidic acids and its molecular targets in hyperosmotic stress responses, overview. PLDdelta plays a role in plant response to reactive oxygen species, dehydration, and salt stresses, while PLDepsilon plays a role in N signalling and plant growth under salt stress and water deficiency, and PLDalpha3 in salt and mild drought responses
physiological function
-
PldB regulates cAMP chemotaxis, overview. Phospholipase D controls Dictyostelium development by regulating G protein signaling, its activity is required for CMF to alter the kinetics of cAMP-induced G protein signaling, overview
physiological function
-
role of a phospholipase D-related signaling pathway in insulin secretion caused by high glucose in the pancreatic beta-cell line MIN6N8
physiological function
-
involvement of the enzyme in the receptor endocytosis and recycling of many G-protein coupled receptors e.g., opioid, formyl or dopamine receptors. The enzyme plays an important function in cell regulation and receptor trafficking. Protein kinases and GTP binding proteins of the ADP-ribosylation and Rho families regulate the two mammalian PLD isoforms 1 and 2. The enzyme and its product phosphatidic acid are implicated in a wide range of physiological processes and diseases including inflammation, diabetes, oncogenesis or neurodegeneration. Analysis of mechanism and regulation of the enzyme in the context of membrane located G-protein coupled receptor function, overview
physiological function
Dictyostelium discoideum AX3
-
PldB regulates cAMP chemotaxis, overview. Phospholipase D controls Dictyostelium development by regulating G protein signaling, its activity is required for CMF to alter the kinetics of cAMP-induced G protein signaling, overview
-
metabolism
Dictyostelium discoideum AX3
-
PldB mediates quorum sensing in the CMF pathway and regulates the dissociation of G protein Galpha2betagamma
-
additional information
-
stimulation of the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor and the angiotensin II receptor, AT1AR, two G-protein-coupled receptors, leads to their sequestration from endosomes to into a Rab11-positive juxtanuclear compartment in a PKC- and PLD-dependent manner, detailed overview. The PKC- and PLD-dependent sequestration of receptors results in co-sequestration of other plasma membrane proteins and receptors, e.g. of epidermal growth factor receptor and protease activated receptor-1
additional information
-
both PLD isozymes associate with membrane receptors including G-protein coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinases or integrins, which all mediate signalling of PLD activation
additional information
-
change of the PLD structure upon phospholipid binding, conformational change of the gate-like structure formed by the two loops around Y126 and G381, residues, W187, Y191 and Y385 are responsible for head group specificity, structure overview
additional information
-
the conserved glycine-glycine (GG) and glycine-serine (GS) motifs, especially the Ser residue, in the Streptoverticillium cinnamoneum enzyme are essential in affecting transphosphatidylation activity. The motifs are located seven residues downstream of the HKD motifs, in a close proximity to the catalytic histidines. The GG/GS motifs are suggested to maintain local conformation of the active site by positioning the catalytic His through the hydrogen bond network
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2R)-3-{[(2-aminoethoxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}-2-({12-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl}oxy)propyl tetradecanoate + H2O
ethanolamine + (2R)-2-({12-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl}oxy)-3-(phosphonooxy)propyl tetradecanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(7R)-4-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-7-({12-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl}oxy)-10-oxo-3,5,9-trioxa-4-phosphatricosan-1-aminium 4-oxide + H2O
choline + (2R)-2-({12-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl}oxy)-3-(phosphonooxy)propyl tetradecanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,2-dibutyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
choline + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q8KRU5
-
-
?
1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glycerol
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
little effect of temperature on stereoselectivity
the proportion of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol (R,R-configuration) to 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol (R,S configuration) is 65-69:31-35 in the temperature range 60C to 10C
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glycerol
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
no effect of temperature on stereoselectivity
almost equimolar mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol (R,R-configuration) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol in the range from 0C to 40C
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glycerol
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
stereoselectivity of the enzyme towards the two primary hydroxyl groups of prochiral glycerol is significantly influenced by reaction temperature
the proportion of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol (R,R-configuration) to 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol (R,S configuration) is 50:50 at 50-60C and 70:30 at 0C
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glycerol
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces halstedii subsp. scabies K6
-
little effect of temperature on stereoselectivity
the proportion of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol (R,R-configuration) to 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol (R,S configuration) is 65-69:31-35 in the temperature range 60C to 10C
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glycerol
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces septatus TH-2
-
stereoselectivity of the enzyme towards the two primary hydroxyl groups of prochiral glycerol is significantly influenced by reaction temperature
the proportion of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol (R,R-configuration) to 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol (R,S configuration) is 50:50 at 50-60C and 70:30 at 0C
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + 2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho-2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)imino]-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol
show the reaction diagram
-
with BisTris as acceptor alcohol two regioisomeric forms of phosphatidyl-BisTris are obtained, product yield: 19.6% (regioisomer I), 3,1% (regioisomer II), purity of product: 98% (regioisomer I), 97% (regioisomer I)
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + diethanolamine
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho-diethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
product yield: 44.1%, purity of product: 97.0%
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + diethanolamine
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho-diethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
product yield: 47.2%, purity of product: 81.5%
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + diethanolamine
choline + bis(1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho)-diethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + H2O
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + serinol
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho-serinol
show the reaction diagram
-
product yield: 39.5%, purity of product: 99.8%
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + serinol
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho-serinol
show the reaction diagram
-
product yield: 45.8%, purity of product: 68%
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + serinol
choline + bis(1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho)-serinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + triethanolamine
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho-triethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
product yield: 22.6%, purity of product: 99.5%
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + triethanolamine
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho-triethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
product yield: 33.7%, purity of product: 65.4%
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + triethanolamine
choline + bis(1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho)-triethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane
choline + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho-tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane
show the reaction diagram
-
product yield: 31.6%, purity of product: 95%
-
-
?
1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine + tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane
choline + bis(1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophospho)-tris(hydroxymethyl)-aminomethane
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecanoyl-2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)aminohexanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
fluorescent substrate
-
-
?
1-O-(6-(p-methyl red)-amino-hexanoyl)-2-O-(12-(p-methyl red)-amino-dodecanoyl)-sn-glyceryl-N-(3-(5-BODIPY-pentanoyl)-amino-propyl)-N,Ndimethyl-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
fluorogenic analogue of phosphatidylcholine, direct substrate for real-time measurement of enzyme activity
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidic acid + choline
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces sp., Streptomyces sp. AA586
-
-
phosphatidic acid is negatively charged
?
2-(13'-hydroperoxy-octadecadienoyl)-1-palmitoylglycero-phosphocholine + N,N,N-triethyl-N-2-hydroxyethylammonium bromide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a synthetic phosphatidyl acceptor and substrate in transphosphatidylation reaction
-
-
?
2-(13'-hydroxy-octadecadienoyl)-1-palmitoylglycero-phosphocholine + N,N,N-triethyl-N-2-hydroxyethylammonium bromide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a synthetic phosphatidyl acceptor and substrate in transphosphatidylation reaction
-
-
?
2-(13'-oxo-octadecadienoyl)-1-palmitoylglycero-phosphocholine + N,N,N-triethyl-N-2-hydroxyethylammonium bromide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a synthetic phosphatidyl acceptor and substrate in transphosphatidylation reaction
-
-
?
2-decanoyl-1-(O-[(11-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-propionyl)amino]-undecyl)-phosphatidylcholine + H2O
2-decanoyl-1-(O-[(11-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-propionyl)amino]-undecyl)-phosphatidic acid + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
BODIPY-fluorophor-phosphatidylcholine as substrate
-
-
?
bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate + H2O
4-nitrophenol + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
cardiolipin + H2O
sn-glycero-1-phosphate + diacylglycerophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cardiolipin + H2O
sn-glycero-1-phosphate + diacylglycerophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dibutyroylphosphatidylcholine + H2O
dibutyroylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine + H2O
diheptanoylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine + H2O
dihexanoylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine + H2O
dihexanoylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + cyclohexane-1,2,3-triol
choline + dioleoyl-phosphatidylcyclohexane-2,3-diol
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
in the cases of 1,2-diols, triols, and myo-inositol mutant W187F/Y191R generates the corresponding transphosphatidylated products more efficiently than wild-type
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + cyclohexane-1,2,5-triol
choline + dioleoyl-phosphatidylcyclohexane-2,5-diol
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
in the cases of 1,2-diols, triols, and myo-inositol mutant W187F/Y191R generates the corresponding transphosphatidylated products more efficiently than wild-type
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + cyclohexane-1,2-diol
choline + dioleoyl-phosphatidylcyclohexane-2-ol
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
in the cases of 1,2-diols, triols, and myo-inositol mutant W187F/Y191R generates the corresponding transphosphatidylated products more efficiently than wild-type
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + cyclohexane-1,3-diol
choline + dioleoyl-phosphatidylcyclohexane-3-ol
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
in the cases of 1,2-diols, triols, and myo-inositol mutant W187F/Y191R generates the corresponding transphosphatidylated products more efficiently than wild-type
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + cyclohexane-1,4-diol
choline + dioleoyl-phosphatidylcyclohexane-4-ol
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
-
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + cyclohexanol
choline + dioleoyl-phosphatidylcyclohexane
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
in the cases of cyclohexanol and of cyclohexane-1,4-diol, the wild-type enzyme generates the corresponding transphosphatidylated products more efficiently than the mutant W187F/Y191R
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + dioleoyl-phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
-
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + myo-inositol
?
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
in the cases of 1,2-diols, triols, and myo-inositol mutant W187F/Y191R generates the corresponding transphosphatidylated products more efficiently than wild-type
-
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + myo-inositol
phosphatidylinositol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
the 187H/191Y/385R mutant generates 1-phosphatidylinositol more than 3-phosphatidylinositol, whereas 187T/191Y/385R generates 1-phosphatidylinositol less than 3-phosphatidylinositol
-
?
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine + myo-inositol
phosphatidylinositol + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
-
the FRY mutant generates 1(3)-phosphatidylinositol and 4(6)-phosphatidylinositol, but not 2-phosphatidylinositol and 5-phosphatidylinositol
-
?
dioleoylphosphatidylcholine + myo-inositol
choline + dioleoylphosphatidylinositol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphatidylation activity of mutant W187D/Y191Y/Y385R enzyme
-
-
?
dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q5WR67
-
-
-
?
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine + H2O
dipalmitoylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine + H2O
dipalmitoylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-dipalmitoylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
Fragaria x ananassa, Fragaria x ananassa Duch
-
-
-
-
?
DNA + H2O
smaller DNA fragments
show the reaction diagram
-
double and single stranded DNA, endonuclease
-
-
?
glycerophospho-(N-palmitoyl)ethanolamine + H2O
N-palmitoylethanolamine + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
1% of the activity with N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine
-
?
glycosylinositol phosphoceramide + H2O
phytoceramide-1-phosphate + glycosylinositol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phytoceramide-1-phosphate with an alpha-hydroxy fatty acid
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
monoacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
monoacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
monoacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
monoacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
monoacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
monoacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
monoacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + lysophosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
about 20 times slower than reaction of phosphatidylcholine
-
?
N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
N-acylethanolamine + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
high specificity for N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines without selectivity for long chain or medium chain N-acyl species
-
-
?
N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
N-acylethanolamine + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-arachidonoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidic acid + N-arachidonoylethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
n-butanol + phosphatidylcholine
phosphatidylbutanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-lauroyl-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidic acid + N-lauroylethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-palmitoyl-lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
N-palmitoylethanolamine + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
4% of the activity with N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine
-
?
N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidic acid + N-palmitoylethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidic acid + N-palmitoylethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidic acid + N-palmitoylethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidic acid + N-palmitoylethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
octadecylphosphocholine + L-serine
octadecylphospho-L-serine + choline
show the reaction diagram
Brassica oleracea, Streptomyces spp.
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidyl-p-nitrophenol + H2O
phosphatidate + p-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces septatus, Streptomyces septatus TH-2
-
the N-terminal HKD motif contains the catalytic nucleophile, which attacks the phosphatidyl group of the substrate
-
-
?
phosphatidyl-p-nitrophenol + H2O
phosphatidic acid + p-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidyl-p-nitrophenol + H2O
phosphatidic acid + p-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
-
-
-
?
phosphatidyl-p-nitrophenol + H2O
phosphatidic acid + p-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
P55939
-
-
-
?
phosphatidyl-p-nitrophenol + H2O
phosphatidic acid + p-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces septatus TH-2
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + butanol
phosphatidylbutanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + butanol
phosphatidylbutanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + D-arabinose
phosphatidylarabinose + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + D-fructose
phosphatidylfructose + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + D-galactose
phosphatidylgalactose + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + D-glucose
phosphatidylglucose + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + D-mannose
phosphatidylmannose + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + D-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
for L- and D-serine a stereoselectivity of PLD is observed
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + D-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
for L- and D-serine a stereoselectivity of PLD is observed
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + D-xylose
phosphatidylxylose + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + diethyleneglycol
phosphatidyldiethyleneglycol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + diethyleneglycol monomethyl ester
diethyleneglycol dimethyl phosphatidic acid + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanol
phosphatidylethanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanol
phosphatidylethanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanol
phosphatidylethanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanol
phosphatidylethanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanol
phosphatidylethanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanol
phosphatidylethanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme shows also transphosphatidylation activity
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanol
choline + phosphatidylethanol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanol
choline + phosphatidyl ethanol
show the reaction diagram
-
PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using ethanol as phosphatidyl acceptor
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
transferase activity in presence of 4% ethanolamine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-Ser
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-serine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethanolamine
phosphatidylethanolamine + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-serine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethyleneglycol
phosphatidylethyleneglycol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + ethyleneglycol monomethyl ester
ethyleneglycol monomethyl phosphatidic acid + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes the transphosphatidylation of glycerol, but not that of L-serine, myo-inositol or ethanolamine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-Ser
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-serine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-serine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
phosphatidylglycerol + choline
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces sp. CS-57
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
P93400
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
O04865
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
Pimpinella brachycarpa
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolytic and transphosphatylation activity
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are substrates for phospholipase D in UMR-106 osteoblastic cells and can therefore be sources of phospholipid hydrolysis products for downstream signaling in osteoblast
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
ratio in rates of hydrolysis phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol is 1:0.5:0.3:0.1, isoenzyme PLD-A, ratio in rates of hydrolysis phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol is 1:0.5:0.3:0.1, isoenzyme PLD-B
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity to the non-micelle form of phosphatidylcholine in an aequeous solution containing methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, or n-propanol. In absence of alcohol, hydrolytic activity is weak, and no transphosphatidylation activity is detected
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q9T051, Q9T053
presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylethanol is required
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces sp. CS-57
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q09VU3
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q9LRZ5
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
O14939, Q13393
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q54UK0, Q54WR4, Q54Z25
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q7KML4
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
A2BG86
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes both hydrolysis of phosphoric ester and transphosphatidylation
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
from egg yolk
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
Regulation and effectors of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid on the Golgi apparatus, overview
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces racemochromogenes, Streptomyces racemochromogenes 10-3
E0D7I2
egg yolk lecithin
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidic acid + choline
show the reaction diagram
Dictyostelium discoideum, Dictyostelium discoideum AX3
-
a phospholipid transphosphatidylation reaction
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
B0FZD9
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q38882, Q9C888
enzyme shows the highest activity toward phosphatidylcholine and the lowest toward phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol equal to phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylglycerol equal to phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
phosphatidate + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylserine higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
O14939
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
P84147
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
O14939, Q13393
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phosphatidic acid acts as a second messenger in phosphorylation cascades
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phosphatidic acid binds to ABI1, a PP2C, which functions as a negative regulator in abscisic acid signalling in stomata closure. Phosphatidic acid stimulated NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species production in wild-type and PLDalpha1-deficient cells, cellular and physiological effects of phosphatidic acid, overview
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phosphatidic acid has unique bioactive properties and can modify both the physical and signalling properties of lipid bilayers. Perturbation of phosphatidic metabolism can alter membrane dynamics with consequences on cell viability, phosphatidic acid functions, overview
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phosphatidic acid induces upregulation of MMP-2 mediated by protein kinase C, protein kinase A, nuclear factor-kappaB, and Sp1. Phosphatidic acid induces nuclear localization and the transactivation of NF-kappaB in glioma cells.
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
O14939, Q13393
-
phosphatidic acid plays a regulatory role in important cellular processes such as secretion, cellular shape change, and movement
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D leads to the generation of phosphatidic acid, PA, which is itself a source of diacylglycerol. PLD2 emerges as an early player upstream of the Ras-MAPK-IL-2 pathway in T-cells via PA and DAG production
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D leads to the generation of phosphatidic acid, which is itself a source of diacylglycerol. PLD2 emerges as an early player upstream of the Ras-MAPK-IL-2 pathway in T-cells via phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol production
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphatidic acid activates the production of and promotes accumulation of silymarin, overview
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
essential role for catalysis of histidines 167 and 440 and lysines 169 and 442 of the two highly conserved HKD domains. H167 acts as the nucleophile by attacking the phosphorus atom of the phospholipidic substrates, while the conserved histidine of the C-terminal HKD domain, H440, plays a complementary role in the catalytic mechanism
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
the basal activity of PLD1 is lower than that of isozyme PLD2
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + a phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + heptanol
phosphatidylheptanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + hexanol
phosphatidylhexanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + inositol
phosphatidylinositol + choline
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces sp., Streptomyces sp. CS-57
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
for L- and D-serine a stereoselectivity of PLD is observed, preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-serine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
for L- and D-serine a stereoselectivity of PLD is observed, preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-serine
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
preference of acceptor alcohols in transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine: ethanolamine higher than glycerol higher than L-Ser
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphatidylcholine transphosphatidylation
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-serine
phosphatidylserine + choline
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces sp. CS-57
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-serine
phosphatidyl-L-serine + choline
show the reaction diagram
B0FZD9
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + L-sorbose
phosphatidylsorbose + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + methanol
phosphatidylmethanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + methanol
phosphatidylmethanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + myo-inositol
phosphatidylinositol + choline
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
the wild-type enzyme is capable of synthesizing phosphatidylinositol by transphosphatidylation. Increase in phosphatidylinositol yield is possible by providing excess of solvated myo-inositol, which is achievable at high temperatures due to its highly temperature-dependent solubility, especially by enzyme variants with increased thermostability, e.g. mutant W187D/Y191Y/Y385R
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + N,N,N-triethyl-N-2-hydroxyethylammonium bromide
choline + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
a synthetic phosphatidyl acceptor in transphosphatidylation reaction
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + pentanol
phosphatidylpentanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + propanol
phosphatidylpropanol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + triethyleneglycol
phosphatidyltriethyleneglycol + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + triethyleneglycol monomethyl ester
triethyleneglycol trimethyl phosphatidic acid + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
parathyroid hormone stimulates phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolysis by phospholipase D in osteoblastic cells. Both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are substrates for phospholipase D in UMR-106 osteoblastic cells and can therefore be sources of phospholipid hydrolysis products for downstream signaling in osteoblast
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol equal to phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
phosphatidate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylserine higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
sn-glycero-1-phosphate + diacylglycerophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
sn-glycero-1-phosphate + diacylglycerophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + 1,2-diacylglycerophosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
ratio in rates of hydrolysis phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol is 1:0.5:0.3:0.1, isoenzyme PLD-A, ratio in rates of hydrolysis phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol is 1:0.5:0.3:0.1, isoenzyme PLD-B
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
phosphatidate + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
Q38882, Q9C888
enzyme shows the highest activity toward phosphatidylcholine and the lowest toward phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
phosphatidate + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol equal to phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
phosphatidate + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
phosphatidate + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylglycerol equal to phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
phosphatidate + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylserine higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
P84147
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylinositol + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + inositol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylinositol + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + inositol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylinositol + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + inositol
show the reaction diagram
-
ratio in rates of hydrolysis phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol is 1:0.5:0.3:0.1, isoenzyme PLD-A, ratio in rates of hydrolysis phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol is 1:0.5:0.3:0.1, isoenzyme PLD-B
-
-
?
phosphatidylinositol + H2O
phosphatidate + inositol
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol equal to phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylinositol + H2O
phosphatidate + inositol
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylinositol + H2O
phosphatidate + inositol
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylinositol + H2O
phosphatidate + inositol
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylserine higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + serine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + serine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + serine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + serine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
L-serine + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
L-serine + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
ratio in rates of hydrolysis phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol is 1:0.5:0.3:0.1, isoenzyme PLD-A, ratio in rates of hydrolysis phosphatidylcholine:phosphatidylglycerol:phosphatidylserine:phosphatidylinositol is 1:0.5:0.3:0.1, isoenzyme PLD-B
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
phosphatidate + serine
show the reaction diagram
Q38882, Q9C888
enzyme shows the highest activity toward phosphatidylcholine and the lowest toward phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
phosphatidate + serine
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol equal to phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
phosphatidate + serine
show the reaction diagram
O82549, P55939
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylinositol higher than phosphatidylserine
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
phosphatidate + serine
show the reaction diagram
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
the order of substrates in the rates of hydrolysis is: phosphatidylethanolamine higher than phosphatidylglycerol higher than phosphatidylcholine higher than phosphatidylserine higher than phosphatidylinositol
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
serine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
serine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
P84147
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
serine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
serine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
-
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
Q13393
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
P93400
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
O04865
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
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-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
Pimpinella brachycarpa
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
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-
?
sphingomyelin + H2O
N-acylsphingosylphosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
sphingomyelin + H2O
N-acylsphingosylphosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
sphingomyelin + H2O
N-acylsphingosylphosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
sphingomyelin + H2O
N-acylsphingosylphosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
sphingomyelin + H2O
N-acylsphingosylphosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
A4USB4
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?
lysophosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
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?
additional information
?
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does not catalyze transphosphatidylation reaction with primary short-chain alcohols
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?
additional information
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no substrate: phosphatidylethanolamine
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?
additional information
?
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phospholipid acyl composition in wild type and enzyme-suppressed mutants
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?
additional information
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structural requirements of substrates, general molecular aspects
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?
additional information
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involved in wound-induced metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids
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?
additional information
?
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PldA contributes to the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to persist in a chronic pulmonary infection model in rats
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additional information
?
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5-[4-acridin-[9-ylamino]phenyl]-5-methyl-3-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one inhibits the formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-stimulated phospholipase D activity, mainly through the blockade of RhoA activation and degranulation
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additional information
?
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activation of phospholipase D by 8-Br-cAMP occurs through a pathway involving Src, Ras, and ERK in human endometrial stromal cells
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additional information
?
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alpha-adrenoreceptor activation increases phospholipase D activity
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additional information
?
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constitutive cation channel activity in ear artery myocytes is mediated by diacylglycerol which is generated by phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D via phosphatidic acid which represents a novel activation pathway of cation channels in vascular myocytes
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additional information
?
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crosstalk between protein kinase A and C regulates phospholipase D and F-actin formation during sperm capacitation
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additional information
?
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dependency of activation of protein kinase D on phospholipase D, phospholipase D could be a key molecule that links Rho/protein kinase C signaling to diacylglycerol for protein kinase D activation
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additional information
?
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down-regulation of melanogenesis is mediated by phospholipase D2 but not by phospholipase D1 through turbiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of tyrosinase. PLD2 may play an important role in regulating pigmentation in vivo
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additional information
?
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essential role for phospholipase D in activation of protein kinase C and degranulation in mast cells. Production of phosphatidic acid by PLD facilitates activation of protein kinase C and, in turn, degranulation, although additional PLD-dependent processes appear to be critical for antigen-mediated degranulation
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additional information
?
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expression of LePLDbeta1 is increased upon treatment with xylanase. Possible involvement of LePLDbeta1 in plant defense response
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additional information
?
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increase in local membrane monomeric tubulin concentration inhibits PLD2 activity. The PLD2 regulating mechanism via tubulin exists in endogeneous muscarinic receptor possessing cells
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additional information
?
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interaction of the PLD1 PX domain with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and/or phosphatidic acid (or phosphatidylserine) may be an important factor in the spatiotemporal regulation and activation of PLD1
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additional information
?
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lysophosphatidic acid activates protein translation through the action of PLD1-generated phosphatidic acid on mTOR and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway
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additional information
?
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lysophosphatidic acid increases phospholipase D activity in neutrophils
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additional information
?
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mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D-dependent increase in phosphatidic acid
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additional information
?
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Munc-18-1 is a potent negative regulator of basal PLD activity. EGF stimulation abolishes this interaction
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additional information
?
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Q7Y0G7
Peanut PLD may be involved in drought sensitivity and tolerance responses. PLD gene expression is induced faster by drough stress in the drought-sensitive lines than in the drought tolerant lines. Cultivated peanut has multiple copies (3 to 5 copies) of the PLD gene
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additional information
?
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phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces PLD2 activation via the involvement of protein kinase Calpha. PLD2 becomes phosphorylated on both Ser and Thr residues. Interaction rather than phosphorylation underscores the activation of PLD2 by protein kinase Calpha in vivo. Phosphorylation may contribute to the inactivation of the enzyme
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additional information
?
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phospholipase D activity is essential for actin localization and actin-based motility
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additional information
?
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phospholipase D alpha is a key enzyme involved in membrane deterioration that occurs during fruit ripening and senescence
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additional information
?
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phospholipase D elevates the level of MDM2 and suppresses DNA damage-induced increase in p53
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additional information
?
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phospholipase D facilitates phototransduction by maintaining adequate levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and by protecting the visual system from metarhodopsin-induced, low light degeneration
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additional information
?
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phospholipase D plays an important role in the regulation of beta-hexosaminidase release in actively sensitized rat peritoneal mast cells
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additional information
?
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PLD activity is constitutive during pollen tube growth. Hypoosmotic stress stimulates PLD activity, hyperosmotic stress attenuates PLD activity
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additional information
?
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PLD is activated by H2O2. The activation by H2O2 enhances phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice cells
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additional information
?
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PLD is actived by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. PLD2, but not PLD1, contributes to PLD activity mediated by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase/PLD2 pathway contributes to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-mediated oxidant production
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additional information
?
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PLD might be implicated in core protein-induced transformation
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additional information
?
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PLD1 is a signaling node, in which integration of convergent signals occurs within discrete locales of the cellular membrane
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additional information
?
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PLD1 is required for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton and for cell motility. PLD1 is a critical factor in the organization of the actin-based cytoskeleton, with regard to cell adhesion and migration
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additional information
?
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PLD1 plays a role in the induction of gene expression of Cox-2 and IL-8
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additional information
?
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PLD2 may be involved in early developmental processes of some neuronal progenitors
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additional information
?
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priming is a critical regulator of PLD activation
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additional information
?
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prolonged elevation of PLD activity is required for myogenic differentiation
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additional information
?
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O14939
protein casein kinase II stimulates basal phospholipase D (PLD1 and PLD2) activity as well as PMA-induced phospholipase D activation in human U87 astroglioma cells
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additional information
?
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regulation of phospholipase D activity by light and phytohormones. abscisic acid manifests a short-term stimulating effect on phospholipase D activity in the green seedlings and inhibits phospholipase D activity in the etiolated plants. Kinetin inhibits enzyme activity in the etiolated seedlings and does not affect its activity in light. gibberellic acid does not markedly affect phospholipase D activity in the etiolated plant and activates this enzyme in the green seedling
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additional information
?
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sphingosine significantly stimulates phospholipase D activity in mouse C2c12 myoblasts via phosphorylation to sphingosine 1-phosphate
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additional information
?
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stimulation of PLD activity and its mRNA expression by lipopolysaccharides might be required for IL-2 R expression and a sustained PKC dependent intracellular pH elevation but not for secretion of IL-2 or IL-4 in T cells
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additional information
?
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survival signals generated by PLD attenuate expression of Egr-1 by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and induction of PTEN by early growth response-1, which confers resistance to apoptosis
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additional information
?
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the Arf-GTPase-activating protein Gsc1p is essential for sporulation and positively regulates the phospholipase D Spo14p
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additional information
?
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the enzyme participates in myogenesis through phosphatidic acid- and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate-dependent actin fiber formation
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additional information
?
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the enzyme plays an essential role in the swelling-induced vesicle cycling and in the activation of volume-sensitive anion channels
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additional information
?
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the PLD gene undergoes qualitative changes in transcription regulation during granulocytic differentiation
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additional information
?
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the PLD2 PX domain enables PLD1 to mediate signal transduction via ERK1/2 by providing a direct binding site for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate and by activating PLD1
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additional information
?
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thyrotrophin-releasing hormone increases phospholipase D activity through stimulation of protein kinase C in GH3 cells
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additional information
?
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vitamin C at pharmacological doses activates PLD in the lung microvascular endothelial cells through oxidative stress and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase
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additional information
?
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white and red light exposure inhibits enzyme activity in etiolated seedlings. Phospholipase D activity is regulated by light with involvement of phytochrome photoreceptor and associated with photosynthesis process
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additional information
?
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effects of biochemical properties of the substrates on phospholipase D activity
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additional information
?
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isoenzyme PLD-A does not catalyze head group exchange and is inactive towards phosphatidylethanolamine, isoenzyme PLD-B is inactive towards phosphatidylethanolamine. Pld-B shows high transphosphorylation potential in the conversion of phosphatidylcholine into phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The enzyme also catalyzes the transesterification of octadecylphosphocholine into octadecylphosphoglycerol or octadecylphosphoethanolamine
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additional information
?
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endocytotic trafficking of my-opioid receptor MOR1, delta-opioid receptor DOR and cannabinoid receptor isoform CB1 are mediated by an isoform PLD2 dependent pathway
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additional information
?
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enzyme augments gonococcus invasion of cervical epithelia by interacting with Akt kinase in a hosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate-independent manner, resulting in subversion of normal cervical cell signaling
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additional information
?
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P0CE83, Q2XQ09
enzyme evokes inflammatory reactions following injections into rabbit skin. Enzyme has a small hemolytic effect
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additional information
?
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P0CE83, Q2XQ09
enzyme evokes inflammatory reactions following injections into rabbit skin. Treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells results in appearance of cytoplasmic vacuolization, altered cellular spreading and cell-cell adhesion. Enzyme causes a high degree of hemolysis
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additional information
?
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enzyme is activated downstream of ERK1/2 kinases upon chemokine receptor CCR5 activation and plays a major role in promoting HIV-1 LTR transactivation and virus replication
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additional information
?
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enzyme is required for cellularization, i.e. A form of cytokinesis in which polarized membrane extension proceeds in part through incorporation of new membrane via fusion of apically-translocated Golgi-derived vesicles. Loss of enzyme activity frequently leads to early embryonic developmental arrest
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additional information
?
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enzyme isoform PLD1 and PLD2 are closely related with Bcl-2 expression together with phospholipase A2, but not with phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, during taxotere-induced apoptosis in SNU 484 cells
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additional information
?
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A4USB4
enzyme shows dermonbecrotic properties. Enzyme causes massive inflammatory response in rabbit skin dermis, evokes platelet aggregation, increases vascular permeability, causes edema and death in mice
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additional information
?
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hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by enzyme isoforms PLDzeta1 and PLDzeta2 during phosphorus starvation contributes to the supply of inorganic phosphorus for cell metabolism and diacylglycerol moieties for galactolipid synthesis
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additional information
?
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Q13393
isoform PLD1 isassociated with cell polarity and directionality concomitantly with adhesion and F-actin polymerization in response to IL-8
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additional information
?
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isoform PLD1 plays a crucial role in collagen type I production through mTOR signaling in dermal fibroblast
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additional information
?
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Q13393
isoform PLD2 is associated with cell polarity and directionality concomitantly with adhesion and F-actin polymerization in response to IL-8
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additional information
?
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Q710M6
isoform PLDbeta1 stimulates abscisic acid signaling by activating SAP kinase, thus repressing GAmyb expression and inhibiting seed germination
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additional information
?
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mechanical stimuli activate signaling by mTOR, i.e. mammalian target of rapamycin, in skeletal muscle through an enzyme-dependent increase in phosphatidic acid
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additional information
?
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phospholipase D functions as a GTPase activating protein through the phox homology domain, which directly activates the GTPase domain of dynamin. Enzyme increases epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis at physiological concentrations of epidermal growth factor
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additional information
?
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up-regulation of beta-defensin-2 by cell wall extract of Fusobacterium nucleatum or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate is mediated by phospholipase D
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additional information
?
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enzyme exhibits a ratio of hydrolytic activity to transphosphatidylation of 2.5
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additional information
?
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G188 and D191 are the key amino acids involved in recognition of phospholipids. A426 and L438 enhance transphosphatidylation activities regardless of the substrate form
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additional information
?
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in presence of glycerol, the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatiylcholine and the rate of phosphytidylglycerol formation are almost identical
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additional information
?
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no substrate: N-palmitoylethanolamine phosphate, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol
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additional information
?
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use of monlayers of pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, equimolar mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholineand n-hexadecanol and of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylglycerol as model substrate systems. Activity of enzyme exhibits different dependencies on surface pressure and is correlated to the phase state of the monlayers. Self-regulating mechanism for the concentration of the second messenger phosphatidic acid within biological membranes
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additional information
?
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incubation of Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspensions with primary alcohols inhibit the induction of two salicylic acid-responsive genes, PR1 and WRKY38, in a dose dependent manner. This inhibitory effect is more pronounced when the primary alcohols are more hydrophobic. Secondary or tertiary alcohols have no inhibitory effect. These results show that PLD activity is upstream of the induction of these genes by salicylic acid. A detailed analysis of the regulation of salicylic acid-responsive genes show that PLD can act both positively and negatively, either on gene induction or gene repression
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additional information
?
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PLD product phosphatidic acid acts as a membrane anchor of Rac1. The C-terminal polybasic motif of Rac1 is responsible for direct interaction with phosphatidic acid. It is shown that phosphatidic acid induces dissociation of Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor from Rac1 and that phosphatidic acid-mediated Rac1 localization is important for integrin-mediated lamellipodia formation, cell spreading, and migration, PLD product phosphatidic acid acts as a membrane anchor of Rac1. The C-terminal polybasic motif of Rac1 is responsible for direct interaction with phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid induces dissociation of Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor from Rac1 and that phosphatidic acid-mediated Rac1 localization is important for integrin-mediated lamellipodia formation, cell spreading, and migration
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additional information
?
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D7P5D9, D7P5E0, D7P5E1
ability of PLD-generated phosphatidic acid to control actin polymerization and the reciprocal ability of actin to specifically modulate PIP2-dependent PLD, PLDbeta, activity through direct interaction
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additional information
?
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effects of active and inactive phospholipase D2 on signal transduction, adhesion, migration, invasion, and metastasis in EL4 lymphoma cells, overview
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additional information
?
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O14939
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2 share aboout 50% homology, but are regulated and localized differently in the cell. In vitro, PLD2 has a higher basal activity than PLD1, but overall cellular activity of PLD is low
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additional information
?
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NF-kappaB and transcription factor Sp1 are essential transcriptional factors linking PLD to MMP-2 upregulation
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additional information
?
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phospholipase D activates native TRPC3 cation channels after stimulation of G-protein-coupled type I glutamate receptors in the cerebellum. Small GTPases might be involved in the activation mechanism of TRPC3 in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells, overview
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additional information
?
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PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using 1-butanol as phosphatidyl acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
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PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using 1-butanol as phosphatidyl acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
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PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using 1-butanol as phosphatidyl acceptor, the transphosphatidylation reaction is an index of PLD activity in intact cells
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additional information
?
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PLD catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids resulting in the generation of phosphatidic acid and the release of the polar head group. The enzyme also catalyzes a transphosphatidylation reaction, in which the aliphatic chain of the primary alcohol is transferred to the phosphatidyl moiety of the phosphatidic acid product
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additional information
?
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O14939, Q13393
PLD isozymes are cleaved by caspase 3, cleavage site determination, isozyme PLD2alpha contains two consensus motifs for caspase 3 cleavage, DXXD or D/E, D/E, X, D, located in the loop region at DDVD545S between the PLD domains, mutational analysis, overview
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additional information
?
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O14939, Q13393
PLD isozymes are cleaved by caspase 3, cleavage site determination, isozymes PLD1beta and PLD2alpha contain each two consensus motifs for caspase 3 cleavage, DXXD or D/E, D/E, X, D, located in the loop region at DDVD545S and DFID631R between the PLD domains, respectively, mutational analysis, overview
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additional information
?
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PLD performs two different reactions: a hydrolytic reaction and a transphosphatidylation reaction, 1-butanol serves as acceptor in the transphosphatidylation reaction, while 2-butanol does not. PLD-catalysed PtdOH formation may be necessary for EGF-induced macropinocytosis
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additional information
?
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P84147
PLD performs two different reactions: a hydrolytic reaction and a transphosphatidylation reaction, the latter with a primary alcohol, both pathway share a common intermediate, mechanism, overview
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-
-
additional information
?
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PLD performs two different reactions: a hydrolytic reaction and a transphosphatidylation reaction, the latter with a primary alcohol, both pathway share a common intermediate, mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD performs two different reactions: a hydrolytic reaction and a transphosphatidylation reaction, the latter with a primary alcohol, both pathway share a common intermediate, mechanism, overview
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additional information
?
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PLD1 mediates the reactive oxygen species-induced increase in diacylglycerol, which facilitates PKD1 localization to the mitochondria and its activation. Diacylglycerol, to which PKD1 is recruited, is formed downstream of phospholipase D1 and is required for PKD1 localization in the mitochondria and well as activation under oxidative stress, overview. Role for PLD1-induced DAG as a competent second messenger at the mitochondria that relays ROS to PKD1-mediated mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling
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additional information
?
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PLD2 is regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation, detailed overview
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-
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additional information
?
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PLDalpha1 interacts with the Galpha1 subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein to inhibit stomatal opening
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-
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additional information
?
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silymarin secretion and its elicitation by methyl jasmonate in cell cultures of Silybum marianum is mediated by phospholipase D-phosphatidic acid, overview
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additional information
?
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the different PLDs exhibit distinguishable reaction conditions, substrate preferences and subcellular localization, overview. PLDalpha1 interacts with Galpha protein, a heterotrimeric Galpha protein to prevent closed stomata from opening
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additional information
?
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analysis of structure of PLD-treated subtrate egg yolk in an oil-in-water emulsion using circular dichroism and scanning electron microscopy, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
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application of the dispersed phantom scatterer technique, which allows qualitatively and quantitatively evaluation of substrate recognition by inactivated PLD-PMF mutants, dissociation constants between different PLD mutants and LPC/C12E5-coated phantom nanoparticles, C12E5 is a commercial surfactant, n-pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, method evaluation, overview
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-
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additional information
?
-
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during PLD stimulation of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis, primary alcohols can replace water in the transphosphatidylation reaction forming phosphatidylbutanol instead of phosphatidic acid
-
-
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additional information
?
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D7P5D9, D7P5E0, D7P5E1
enhanced binding of isozyme PLDbeta1 to actin is mediated by amino acid residues Asn323 and Thr382
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
except for PLD2c, all PLD1 and PLD2 isozymes contain the catalytic core regions comprised of highly conserved domain I-IV. In domains II and IV, the enzymes contain two HxKxxxxD sequences designated HKD motifs, which are essential for enzymatic catalysis
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additional information
?
-
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in presence of primary alcohols, such as 1-butanol or ethanol, PLD also has a unique ability to transfer phosphatidyl group to a primary alcohol to form phosphatidylalcohol at the expense of phosphatidic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
in the presence of n-butanol, PLD specifically catalyses the formation of phosphatidyl-butanol by transferring the phosphatidyl group of its substrate to n-butanol instead of water. Water and n-butanol compete as substrates for PLD
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-
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additional information
?
-
-
isozyme PLDalpha3 hydrolyzes multiple substrates with distinguishable preferences
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using 1-butanol as phosphatidyl acceptor leading to formation of phosphatidylbutan-1-ol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using ethanol as phosphatidyl acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using ethanol as phosphatidyl acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O14939, Q13393
PLD also shows transphosphatidylation activity with 1-butanol resulting in formation of phosphatidylbutanol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD assay on whole haematopoietic cells
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-
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additional information
?
-
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PLD assay on whole hematopoietic cells
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD is also active in a transphosphatidylation assay with substrate 1-butanol resulting in production of phosphatidylbutanol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD performs two different reactions: a hydrolytic reaction and a transphosphatidylation reaction, the latter with a primary alcohol. Development of an transphosphatidylation assay method with a combination of unnatural phosphatidyl acceptor and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for tracing phospholipase D activity, overview
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-
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additional information
?
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PLDepsilon is active under a broad range of reaction conditions
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLDSt cannot catalyze transphosphatidylation of glycerol, L-serine, myo-inositol and ethanolamine, the Streptomyces tendae PLD possesses only hydrolytic activity
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
spectrophotometric determination of phosphatidic acid via iron(III) complexation in presence of salicylate for simply assaying phospholipase D activity, method evaluation and optimization, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the catalytic activity of PLD is not required for PLD-mediated CKII inhibition, possible inhibition mechanism, overview
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-
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additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme also performs transphosphatidylation transferring phosphatidic acid to a primary alcohol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
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interaction of PLDalpha C2 domain with synthetic unilamellar vesicles shows maximum affinity towards phosphatidic acid, and virtually no binding with phosphatidylcholine. Electrostatic, rather than a hydrophobic mode of interaction between C2 domain and the phospholipid vesicles. The binding towards phosphoinositides is reduced with increasing degree of phosphorylation
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-
-
additional information
?
-
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purified PLDalpha is inactive in vitro on bilamellar substrates. It is fully active on mixed micelles made with phospholipids and a mixture of Triton-X100 and SDS at equal concentrations. Ca2+ interacts with the SDS contained in the mixed micelles thus leading to an aggregated form of the substrate which is more easily hydrolyzed by PLDalpha
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme does not hydrolyze glycosylinositol phosphoceramide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme hydrolyzes glycosylinositol phosphoceramide specifically, but not glycerophospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, or sphingomyelin, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry product identification, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
transphosphatidylation reaction is typically carried out in a bi-phase system consisting of a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., diethylether, ethylacetate) containing phospholipids and an aqueous solution of enzyme and acceptor compounds (e.g., ethanolamine, glycerol, serine)
-
-
-
additional information
?
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P36126
transphosphatidylation reaction is typically carried out in a bi-phase system consisting of a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., diethylether, ethylacetate) containing phospholipids and an aqueous solution of enzyme and acceptor compounds (e.g., ethanolamine, glycerol, serine)
-
-
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additional information
?
-
-
transphosphatidylation reaction is typically carried out in a bi-phase system consisting of a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., diethylether, ethylacetate) containing phospholipids and an aqueous solution of enzyme and acceptor compounds (e.g., ethanolamine, glycerol, serine). Transphosphatidylation with L- and D-serine gives phosphatidyl-L- and D-serine, respectively. Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol by bacterial enzyme is unsuccessful is likely the low affinity of the enzyme toward myo-inositol, a bulky molecule causing steric hindrances in the active site
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additional information
?
-
O82549
transphosphatidylation reaction is typically carried out in a bi-phase system consisting of a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., diethylether, ethylacetate) containing phospholipids and an aqueous solution of enzyme and acceptor compounds (e.g., ethanolamine, glycerol, serine). Transphosphatidylation with L-serine gives phosphatidyl-L-serine, no activity with D-serine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
usage of a microaqueous water-immiscible organic solvent in the bioconversion of L-serine and Glycine max phosphatidylcholine solves the problem of water production and increased hydrolysis rates compared to transphosphatidylation. Using butyl acetate in a biphasic system, the transphosphatidylation rate is 86-88%, while the hydrolysis rate is 0-1%, method evaluation, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Streptomyces sp. CS-57
-
in presence of glycerol, the rate of hydrolysis of phosphatiylcholine and the rate of phosphytidylglycerol formation are almost identical
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Fragaria x ananassa Duch
-
phospholipase D alpha is a key enzyme involved in membrane deterioration that occurs during fruit ripening and senescence
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508
P36126
transphosphatidylation reaction is typically carried out in a bi-phase system consisting of a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., diethylether, ethylacetate) containing phospholipids and an aqueous solution of enzyme and acceptor compounds (e.g., ethanolamine, glycerol, serine)
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Streptomyces septatus TH-2
-
G188 and D191 are the key amino acids involved in recognition of phospholipids. A426 and L438 enhance transphosphatidylation activities regardless of the substrate form
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Actinomadura sp. 362
-
transphosphatidylation reaction is typically carried out in a bi-phase system consisting of a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., diethylether, ethylacetate) containing phospholipids and an aqueous solution of enzyme and acceptor compounds (e.g., ethanolamine, glycerol, serine)
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + choline
show the reaction diagram
-
both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are substrates for phospholipase D in UMR-106 osteoblastic cells and can therefore be sources of phospholipid hydrolysis products for downstream signaling in osteoblast
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
O14939, Q13393
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q53728
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q54UK0, Q54WR4, Q54Z25
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
Q7KML4
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
A2BG86
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidate
show the reaction diagram
-
Regulation and effectors of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid on the Golgi apparatus, overview
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
O14939
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
P84147
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phosphatidic acid acts as a second messenger in phosphorylation cascades
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phosphatidic acid binds to ABI1, a PP2C, which functions as a negative regulator in abscisic acid signalling in stomata closure. Phosphatidic acid stimulated NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species production in wild-type and PLDalpha1-deficient cells, cellular and physiological effects of phosphatidic acid, overview
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phosphatidic acid has unique bioactive properties and can modify both the physical and signalling properties of lipid bilayers. Perturbation of phosphatidic metabolism can alter membrane dynamics with consequences on cell viability, phosphatidic acid functions, overview
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
phosphatidic acid induces upregulation of MMP-2 mediated by protein kinase C, protein kinase A, nuclear factor-kappaB, and Sp1. Phosphatidic acid induces nuclear localization and the transactivation of NF-kappaB in glioma cells.
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
O14939, Q13393
-
phosphatidic acid plays a regulatory role in important cellular processes such as secretion, cellular shape change, and movement
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D leads to the generation of phosphatidic acid, PA, which is itself a source of diacylglycerol. PLD2 emerges as an early player upstream of the Ras-MAPK-IL-2 pathway in T-cells via PA and DAG production
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D leads to the generation of phosphatidic acid, which is itself a source of diacylglycerol. PLD2 emerges as an early player upstream of the Ras-MAPK-IL-2 pathway in T-cells via phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol production
-
-
?
phosphatidylcholine + H2O
choline + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphatidic acid activates the production of and promotes accumulation of silymarin, overview
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
1,2-diacylglycerophosphate + ethanolamine
show the reaction diagram
-
parathyroid hormone stimulates phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolysis by phospholipase D in osteoblastic cells. Both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are substrates for phospholipase D in UMR-106 osteoblastic cells and can therefore be sources of phospholipid hydrolysis products for downstream signaling in osteoblast
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylethanolamine + H2O
ethanolamine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
P84147
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylglycerol + H2O
glycerol + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
serine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
serine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
P84147
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
serine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phosphatidylserine + H2O
serine + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + alcohol
phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
transphosphaditylation
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
Q13393
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
P93400
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
O04865
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
phosphatidic acid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
Pimpinella brachycarpa
-
phosphoric ester hydrolysis
-
-
?
DNA + H2O
smaller DNA fragments
show the reaction diagram
-
endonuclease
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
involved in wound-induced metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
PldA contributes to the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to persist in a chronic pulmonary infection model in rats
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
5-[4-acridin-[9-ylamino]phenyl]-5-methyl-3-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one inhibits the formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-stimulated phospholipase D activity, mainly through the blockade of RhoA activation and degranulation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
activation of phospholipase D by 8-Br-cAMP occurs through a pathway involving Src, Ras, and ERK in human endometrial stromal cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
alpha-adrenoreceptor activation increases phospholipase D activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
constitutive cation channel activity in ear artery myocytes is mediated by diacylglycerol which is generated by phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase D via phosphatidic acid which represents a novel activation pathway of cation channels in vascular myocytes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
crosstalk between protein kinase A and C regulates phospholipase D and F-actin formation during sperm capacitation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
dependency of activation of protein kinase D on phospholipase D, phospholipase D could be a key molecule that links Rho/protein kinase C signaling to diacylglycerol for protein kinase D activation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
down-regulation of melanogenesis is mediated by phospholipase D2 but not by phospholipase D1 through turbiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of tyrosinase. PLD2 may play an important role in regulating pigmentation in vivo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
essential role for phospholipase D in activation of protein kinase C and degranulation in mast cells. Production of phosphatidic acid by PLD facilitates activation of protein kinase C and, in turn, degranulation, although additional PLD-dependent processes appear to be critical for antigen-mediated degranulation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
expression of LePLDbeta1 is increased upon treatment with xylanase. Possible involvement of LePLDbeta1 in plant defense response
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
increase in local membrane monomeric tubulin concentration inhibits PLD2 activity. The PLD2 regulating mechanism via tubulin exists in endogeneous muscarinic receptor possessing cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
interaction of the PLD1 PX domain with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and/or phosphatidic acid (or phosphatidylserine) may be an important factor in the spatiotemporal regulation and activation of PLD1
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
lysophosphatidic acid activates protein translation through the action of PLD1-generated phosphatidic acid on mTOR and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
lysophosphatidic acid increases phospholipase D activity in neutrophils
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
mechanical stimuli activate mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling through a phospholipase D-dependent increase in phosphatidic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Munc-18-1 is a potent negative regulator of basal PLD activity. EGF stimulation abolishes this interaction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q7Y0G7
Peanut PLD may be involved in drought sensitivity and tolerance responses. PLD gene expression is induced faster by drough stress in the drought-sensitive lines than in the drought tolerant lines. Cultivated peanut has multiple copies (3 to 5 copies) of the PLD gene
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces PLD2 activation via the involvement of protein kinase Calpha. PLD2 becomes phosphorylated on both Ser and Thr residues. Interaction rather than phosphorylation underscores the activation of PLD2 by protein kinase Calpha in vivo. Phosphorylation may contribute to the inactivation of the enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phospholipase D activity is essential for actin localization and actin-based motility
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phospholipase D alpha is a key enzyme involved in membrane deterioration that occurs during fruit ripening and senescence
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phospholipase D elevates the level of MDM2 and suppresses DNA damage-induced increase in p53
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phospholipase D facilitates phototransduction by maintaining adequate levels of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and by protecting the visual system from metarhodopsin-induced, low light degeneration
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phospholipase D plays an important role in the regulation of beta-hexosaminidase release in actively sensitized rat peritoneal mast cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD activity is constitutive during pollen tube growth. Hypoosmotic stress stimulates PLD activity, hyperosmotic stress attenuates PLD activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD is activated by H2O2. The activation by H2O2 enhances phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD is actived by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. PLD2, but not PLD1, contributes to PLD activity mediated by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase/PLD2 pathway contributes to N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-mediated oxidant production
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD might be implicated in core protein-induced transformation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD1 is a signaling node, in which integration of convergent signals occurs within discrete locales of the cellular membrane
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD1 is required for normal organization of the actin cytoskeleton and for cell motility. PLD1 is a critical factor in the organization of the actin-based cytoskeleton, with regard to cell adhesion and migration
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD1 plays a role in the induction of gene expression of Cox-2 and IL-8
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD2 may be involved in early developmental processes of some neuronal progenitors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
priming is a critical regulator of PLD activation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
prolonged elevation of PLD activity is required for myogenic differentiation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O14939
protein casein kinase II stimulates basal phospholipase D (PLD1 and PLD2) activity as well as PMA-induced phospholipase D activation in human U87 astroglioma cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation of phospholipase D activity by light and phytohormones. abscisic acid manifests a short-term stimulating effect on phospholipase D activity in the green seedlings and inhibits phospholipase D activity in the etiolated plants. Kinetin inhibits enzyme activity in the etiolated seedlings and does not affect its activity in light. gibberellic acid does not markedly affect phospholipase D activity in the etiolated plant and activates this enzyme in the green seedling
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
sphingosine significantly stimulates phospholipase D activity in mouse C2c12 myoblasts via phosphorylation to sphingosine 1-phosphate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
stimulation of PLD activity and its mRNA expression by lipopolysaccharides might be required for IL-2 R expression and a sustained PKC dependent intracellular pH elevation but not for secretion of IL-2 or IL-4 in T cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
survival signals generated by PLD attenuate expression of Egr-1 by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway and induction of PTEN by early growth response-1, which confers resistance to apoptosis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the Arf-GTPase-activating protein Gsc1p is essential for sporulation and positively regulates the phospholipase D Spo14p
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme participates in myogenesis through phosphatidic acid- and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate-dependent actin fiber formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays an essential role in the swelling-induced vesicle cycling and in the activation of volume-sensitive anion channels
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the PLD gene undergoes qualitative changes in transcription regulation during granulocytic differentiation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the PLD2 PX domain enables PLD1 to mediate signal transduction via ERK1/2 by providing a direct binding site for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate and by activating PLD1
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
thyrotrophin-releasing hormone increases phospholipase D activity through stimulation of protein kinase C in GH3 cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
vitamin C at pharmacological doses activates PLD in the lung microvascular endothelial cells through oxidative stress and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
white and red light exposure inhibits enzyme activity in etiolated seedlings. Phospholipase D activity is regulated by light with involvement of phytochrome photoreceptor and associated with photosynthesis process
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
endocytotic trafficking of my-opioid receptor MOR1, delta-opioid receptor DOR and cannabinoid receptor isoform CB1 are mediated by an isoform PLD2 dependent pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme augments gonococcus invasion of cervical epithelia by interacting with Akt kinase in a hosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5)-trisphosphate-independent manner, resulting in subversion of normal cervical cell signaling
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P0CE83, Q2XQ09
enzyme evokes inflammatory reactions following injections into rabbit skin. Enzyme has a small hemolytic effect
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P0CE83, Q2XQ09
enzyme evokes inflammatory reactions following injections into rabbit skin. Treatment of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells results in appearance of cytoplasmic vacuolization, altered cellular spreading and cell-cell adhesion. Enzyme causes a high degree of hemolysis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is activated downstream of ERK1/2 kinases upon chemokine receptor CCR5 activation and plays a major role in promoting HIV-1 LTR transactivation and virus replication
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is required for cellularization, i.e. A form of cytokinesis in which polarized membrane extension proceeds in part through incorporation of new membrane via fusion of apically-translocated Golgi-derived vesicles. Loss of enzyme activity frequently leads to early embryonic developmental arrest
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme isoform PLD1 and PLD2 are closely related with Bcl-2 expression together with phospholipase A2, but not with phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase, during taxotere-induced apoptosis in SNU 484 cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A4USB4
enzyme shows dermonbecrotic properties. Enzyme causes massive inflammatory response in rabbit skin dermis, evokes platelet aggregation, increases vascular permeability, causes edema and death in mice
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by enzyme isoforms PLDzeta1 and PLDzeta2 during phosphorus starvation contributes to the supply of inorganic phosphorus for cell metabolism and diacylglycerol moieties for galactolipid synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q13393
isoform PLD1 isassociated with cell polarity and directionality concomitantly with adhesion and F-actin polymerization in response to IL-8
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoform PLD1 plays a crucial role in collagen type I production through mTOR signaling in dermal fibroblast
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q13393
isoform PLD2 is associated with cell polarity and directionality concomitantly with adhesion and F-actin polymerization in response to IL-8
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q710M6
isoform PLDbeta1 stimulates abscisic acid signaling by activating SAP kinase, thus repressing GAmyb expression and inhibiting seed germination
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
mechanical stimuli activate signaling by mTOR, i.e. mammalian target of rapamycin, in skeletal muscle through an enzyme-dependent increase in phosphatidic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phospholipase D functions as a GTPase activating protein through the phox homology domain, which directly activates the GTPase domain of dynamin. Enzyme increases epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis at physiological concentrations of epidermal growth factor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
up-regulation of beta-defensin-2 by cell wall extract of Fusobacterium nucleatum or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate is mediated by phospholipase D
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
incubation of Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspensions with primary alcohols inhibit the induction of two salicylic acid-responsive genes, PR1 and WRKY38, in a dose dependent manner. This inhibitory effect is more pronounced when the primary alcohols are more hydrophobic. Secondary or tertiary alcohols have no inhibitory effect. These results show that PLD activity is upstream of the induction of these genes by salicylic acid. A detailed analysis of the regulation of salicylic acid-responsive genes show that PLD can act both positively and negatively, either on gene induction or gene repression
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD product phosphatidic acid acts as a membrane anchor of Rac1. The C-terminal polybasic motif of Rac1 is responsible for direct interaction with phosphatidic acid. It is shown that phosphatidic acid induces dissociation of Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor from Rac1 and that phosphatidic acid-mediated Rac1 localization is important for integrin-mediated lamellipodia formation, cell spreading, and migration, PLD product phosphatidic acid acts as a membrane anchor of Rac1. The C-terminal polybasic motif of Rac1 is responsible for direct interaction with phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid induces dissociation of Rho-guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor from Rac1 and that phosphatidic acid-mediated Rac1 localization is important for integrin-mediated lamellipodia formation, cell spreading, and migration
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
D7P5D9, D7P5E0, D7P5E1
ability of PLD-generated phosphatidic acid to control actin polymerization and the reciprocal ability of actin to specifically modulate PIP2-dependent PLD, PLDbeta, activity through direct interaction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
effects of active and inactive phospholipase D2 on signal transduction, adhesion, migration, invasion, and metastasis in EL4 lymphoma cells, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O14939
isozymes PLD1 and PLD2 share aboout 50% homology, but are regulated and localized differently in the cell. In vitro, PLD2 has a higher basal activity than PLD1, but overall cellular activity of PLD is low
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NF-kappaB and transcription factor Sp1 are essential transcriptional factors linking PLD to MMP-2 upregulation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phospholipase D activates native TRPC3 cation channels after stimulation of G-protein-coupled type I glutamate receptors in the cerebellum. Small GTPases might be involved in the activation mechanism of TRPC3 in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using 1-butanol as phosphatidyl acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD also performs transphosphatidylation using 1-butanol as phosphatidyl acceptor, the transphosphatidylation reaction is an index of PLD activity in intact cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids resulting in the generation of phosphatidic acid and the release of the polar head group. The enzyme also catalyzes a transphosphatidylation reaction, in which the aliphatic chain of the primary alcohol is transferred to the phosphatidyl moiety of the phosphatidic acid product
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O14939, Q13393
PLD isozymes are cleaved by caspase 3, cleavage site determination, isozyme PLD2alpha contains two consensus motifs for caspase 3 cleavage, DXXD or D/E, D/E, X, D, located in the loop region at DDVD545S between the PLD domains, mutational analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O14939, Q13393
PLD isozymes are cleaved by caspase 3, cleavage site determination, isozymes PLD1beta and PLD2alpha contain each two consensus motifs for caspase 3 cleavage, DXXD or D/E, D/E, X, D, located in the loop region at DDVD545S and DFID631R between the PLD domains, respectively, mutational analysis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD performs two different reactions: a hydrolytic reaction and a transphosphatidylation reaction, 1-butanol serves as acceptor in the transphosphatidylation reaction, while 2-butanol does not. PLD-catalysed PtdOH formation may be necessary for EGF-induced macropinocytosis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD performs two different reactions: a hydrolytic reaction and a transphosphatidylation reaction, the latter with a primary alcohol, both pathway share a common intermediate, mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD1 mediates the reactive oxygen species-induced increase in diacylglycerol, which facilitates PKD1 localization to the mitochondria and its activation. Diacylglycerol, to which PKD1 is recruited, is formed downstream of phospholipase D1 and is required for PKD1 localization in the mitochondria and well as activation under oxidative stress, overview. Role for PLD1-induced DAG as a competent second messenger at the mitochondria that relays ROS to PKD1-mediated mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLD2 is regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PLDalpha1 interacts with the Galpha1 subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein to inhibit stomatal opening
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
silymarin secretion and its elicitation by methyl jasmonate in cell cultures of Silybum marianum is mediated by phospholipase D-phosphatidic acid, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the different PLDs exhibit distinguishable reaction conditions, substrate preferences and subcellular localization, overview. PLDalpha1 interacts with Galpha protein, a heterotrimeric Galpha protein to prevent closed stomata from opening
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
interaction of PLDalpha C2 domain with synthetic unilamellar vesicles shows maximum affinity towards phosphatidic acid, and virtually no binding with phosphatidylcholine. Electrostatic, rather than a hydrophobic mode of interaction between C2 domain and the phospholipid vesicles. The binding towards phosphoinositides is reduced with increasing degree of phosphorylation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
purified PLDalpha is inactive in vitro on bilamellar substrates. It is fully active on mixed micelles made with phospholipids and a mixture of Triton-X100 and SDS at equal concentrations. Ca2+ interacts with the SDS contained in the mixed micelles thus leading to an aggregated form of the substrate which is more easily hydrolyzed by PLDalpha
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Fragaria x ananassa Duch
-
phospholipase D alpha is a key enzyme involved in membrane deterioration that occurs during fruit ripening and senescence
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Al3+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Al3+
-
activation of transphosphatidylation
Ba2+
-
marked stimulation
Ca2+
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
not required for activity
Ca2+
-
slight stimulation
Ca2+
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
not required for activity
Ca2+
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
micromolar levels for maximal activity
Ca2+
P93400
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
Oryza sativa, Pimpinella brachycarpa, Ricinus communis
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
Ca2+ dependent and independent enzymes
Ca2+
O04865
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
micromolar levels for maximal activity
Ca2+
-
micromolar levels for maximal activity
Ca2+
-
stimulates only transphosphatidylation
Ca2+
-
20-100 mM required for maximal activity in plants
Ca2+
-
10 mM, up to 30-fold activation
Ca2+
-
absolute requirement, optimal at 40 mM
Ca2+
-
absolute requirement for catalysis and for enzyme location at water-lipid interface, activation probably via Ca2+-substrate complex
Ca2+
-
required, leads to aggregation, fusion and precipitation of phospholipid vesicles due to complexes with negatively charged reaction product
Ca2+
Q9C5Y0
required, optimal at 0.1 mM, inhibitory above 1 mM
Ca2+
-
optimal at 30 mM
Ca2+
-
regulates activity
Ca2+
-
inhibits the PLD37/18-catalyzed hydrolysis of dibutyroylphosphatidylcholine at basic pH values, but activates the enzyme more than twofold at pH 5.5. Addition of Ca2+ at pH 8.0 increases the transphosphatidylation activity 2.5- and 3.5fold with 5 and 20 mM Ca2+, respectively. At pH 9.0, Ca2+ inhibits both phosphohydrolase and transferase activities with much less inhibition to the latter
Ca2+
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
recombinant activity strongly increases in presence of Ca2+ in millimolar range; recombinant activity strongly increases in presence of Ca2+ in millimolar range
Ca2+
-
interacts with the catalytic regions of the enzyme. PLDbetacat (PLD with a deleted regulatory C2 domain) exhibits Ca2+-dependent activity, is much less active and requires a higher level of Ca2+ than the full-length enzyme PLDbeta. The interaction of Ca2+ with PLDbetacat (PLD with a deleted regulatory C2 domain) increases the affinity of the protein for the activator phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Ca2+ binding to the C2 domain stimulates phosphatidylcholine binding but inhibits phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
Ca2+
-
enhances microsomal PLD activity at 0.001-0.04 mM levels
Ca2+
Q9T051, Q9T053
required; required, highest activity in presence of micromolar concentrations
Ca2+
-
presence of Ca2+ enhances 1.6fold hydrolytic activiy and 6fold transphosphatidylation
Ca2+
-
about 40% stimulation in presence of at least 2 mM
Ca2+
-
50% activation at 2.3 mM
Ca2+
-
enzyme activity is Ca2+-dependent
Ca2+
-
activity is Ca2+-dependent
Ca2+
-
maximal activity at 70 mM Ca2+ concentration. However, Ca2+ is not mandatory for enzymatic activity
Ca2+
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
;
Ca2+
Q09VU3
maximum activity at 15 mM CaCl2
Ca2+
-
potentiates the activating effect of thrombin but Ca2+ alone does not activate PLD; potentiates the activating effect of thrombin but Ca2+ alone does not activate PLD
Ca2+
-
;
Ca2+
-
stimulates
Ca2+
-
absolutely required, best at 2 mM, cannot be substituted by other metal ions, overview
Ca2+
-
-
Ca2+
-
dependent on
Ca2+
-
recombinant PLDalpha, dependent on
Ca2+
-
recombinant C2 domain shows micromolar affinity towards Ca2+ with a maximum of 2 high affinity binding sites, unique calcium binding pockets with high electro-negativity
Ca2+
-
interacts with the SDS contained in the mixed micelles thus leading to an aggregated form of the substrate which is more easily hydrolyzed by PLDalpha
Ca2+
-
absolutely dependent on, no activity without Ca2+; the enzyme is activated by Ca2+, in absence of Ca2+ it exhibits 70% of maximal activity
Cd2+
-
slight stimulation
Co2+
-
slight stimulation
Co2+
-
marked stimulation
Co2+
-
stimulation of enzyme activity and synthesis of COX-2 protein in time- and dose-dependent manner. Elevated expression of isoforms PLD1 and PLD2 increases hypoxia-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production. PLD1 enhances COX-2 expression by Co2+ via reactive oxygen species, p38 MAK kinase, PKC-delta, and PKA, but not ERK, whereas PLD2 enhances Co2+-induced COX-2 expression via reactive oxygen species and p38 MAP kinase, but not PKC-delta, PKA and ERK
CoSO4
-
2 mM, 106% of initial activity
EDTA
-
2 mM, 139% of initial activity
Fe2+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Fe3+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Mg2+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Mg2+
-
slight stimulation
Mg2+
-
-
Mg2+
-
marked stimulation
Mg2+
-
50% activation at 2.3 mM
Mg2+
-
-
Mn2+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Mn2+
-
slight stimulation
Mn2+
-
substrate specific
Mn2+
-
marked stimulation
NaCl
-
when rice suspension-cultured cells are treated with 100 mM NaCl, PLDalpha activity in cell extracts show a transient activation with a threefold increase at 1 h. The amount of OsPLDalpha protein decreases slightly in the cytosolic fractions, whereas it increases significantly in the tonoplast after NaCl treatment. Knockdown of OsPLD-1 prevents the NaCl-induced increase in the transcript level of OsVHA-A, encodes TP H+-ATPase, and OSA2, encodes PM H+-ATPase, as well as OsNHX1, encodes TP Na+/H+ antiporter
Ni2+
-
marked stimulation
Sn2+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Sn2+
-
slight inhibition
Sr2+
-
marked stimulation
Zn2+
-
catalytically active Zn2+
MnSO4
-
2 mM, 116% of initial activity
additional information
-
no requirement for Ca2+
additional information
Q9LRZ5
no requirement for Ca2+ or other divalent cation
additional information
Q8VWE9, Q8W1B2
no ativation of recombinant PLD1 in presemce of Zn2+ (0-50 mM) or Mg2+ (0-100 mM); no ativation of recombinant PLD2 in presemce of Zn2+ (0-50 mM) or Mg2+ (0-100 mM)
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(1S,2S)-N-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
;
(1S,2S)-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(4-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
;
(1S,2S)-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
;
(1S,2S)-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
;
(1S,2S)-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(6-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
;
(1S,2S)-N-[(2S)-1-[4-(5-bromo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]propan-2-yl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
-
(1S,2S)-N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
;
(1S,2S)-N-[2-[4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
;
(1S,2S)-N-[2-[4-(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-2-phenylcyclopropanecarboxamide
-
;
1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl) ester
-
i.e. BAPTA-AM, chelator of intracellular free calcium, application results in reduction of extracellular pH-induced enzyme activity
1-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
1-(3-bromophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
1-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
1-(3-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
1-benzyl-4-carbonoimidoyl-N-(3,4-difluorophenyl)piperidin-4-amine
-
-
1-benzyl-4-carbonoimidoyl-N-(3-chlorophenyl)piperidin-4-amine
-
-
1-benzyl-4-carbonoimidoyl-N-(3-fluorophenyl)piperidin-4-amine
-
-
1-benzyl-4-carbonoimidoyl-N-(4-chlorophenyl)piperidin-4-amine
-
-
1-benzyl-4-carbonoimidoyl-N-(4-fluorophenyl)piperidin-4-amine
-
-
1-benzyl-4-[(3,4-difluorophenyl)amino]piperidine-4-carboxamide
-
-
1-benzyl-4-[(3-bromophenyl)amino]piperidine-4-carboxamide
-
-
1-benzyl-4-[(3-chlorophenyl)amino]piperidine-4-carboxamide
-
-
1-benzyl-4-[(3-fluorophenyl)amino]piperidine-4-carboxamide
-
-
1-benzyl-4-[(4-chlorophenyl)amino]piperidine-4-carboxamide
-
-
1-benzyl-4-[(4-fluorophenyl)amino]piperidine-4-carboxamide
-
-
1-benzyl-N-(4-bromophenyl)-4-carbonoimidoylpiperidin-4-amine
-
-
1-benzylpiperidin-4-one
-
-
1-butanol
-
inhibitor of enzyme. Pretreatment with 1-butanol suppresses Co2+-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 formation
1-butanol
-
selectively inhibits production of phosphatidic acid
1-butanol
-
inhibits the mechanically induced increase in phosphatidic acid in skeletal muscle and mechanical activation of signaling by mTOR, i.e. mammalian target of rapamycin
1-butanol
-
mediates differential effects on cellular organization and seedling growth, in part through the differential modulation of specific isoforms of phospholipase D. 1-Butanol induces more pronounced modifications in cytoskeletal organization, seedling growth, and cell division at concentrations severalfold higher than N-lauroylethanolamine
1-butanol
-
inhibitor of enzyme. Suppression of enzyme activity results in increased phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 on sites that get phosphorylated by the TGFbeta receptor and positively regulate TGFbeta signaling and in suppression of phosphorylation on sites that are phosphorylated by MAP kinase and negatively regulate TGFbeta signaling. Suppression of enzyme activy also leads to increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1
1-butanol
-
inhibition of enzyme, leading to block of beta-defensin-2 up-regulation by cell wall extract of Fusobacterium nucleatum or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
1-butanol
-
1-butanol inhibits PLD2 and is potent in cancelling ERK1/2 activation
1-butanol
-
-
1-butanol
-
-
1-butanol
-
treatment of human neutrophils to butan-1-ol significantly dampenes functional responses such as degranualtion, chemotaxis, and oxidative burst
1-butanol
-
-
1-butanol
-
does not causes direct inhibition of TRPC3 channels, but causes blocking of phospholipase D which interferes with retrograde signaling, overview. Neither voltage-gated Ca2+-channels nor Ca2+-activated Cl channels are affected by 1-butanol
1-butanol
-
inhibits PLD hydrolytic activity
1-butanol
-
-
2'-isopropyl-4'-(trimethylammoniumchloride)-5'-methylphenyl piperidine-1-carboxylate:
-
75% noncompetitive inhibition at 25 mM; choline analog
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
3,4-difluoro-N-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]benzamide
-
;
3,4-difluoro-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(4-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]benzamide
-
;
3,4-difluoro-N-[2-[4-(6-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]benzamide
-
;
3-methyl-N-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]benzamide
-
;
30kDA protein factor from bovine brain cytosol
-
inhibition due to interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate
-
4-amino-3-methoxy-N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]benzamide
-
;
4-chloro-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(4-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]benzamide
-
;
4-chloro-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]benzamide
-
;
4-chloro-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]benzamide
-
;
4-chloro-N-[2-[4-(5-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]benzamide
-
;
4-chloro-N-[2-[4-(6-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]benzamide
-
;
4-fluoro-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(4-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]benzamide
-
;
4-fluoro-N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]benzamide
-
;
4-fluoro-N-[2-[1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]benzamide
-
-
4-fluoro-N-[2-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]benzamide
-
-
4-fluoro-N-[2-[4-(5-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]benzamide
-
;
5,5'-dimethyl-1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid
-
partial
5-fluoro-N-[2-[1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide
-
-
5-fluoro-N-[2-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide
-
-
5-[4-acridin-[9-ylamino]phenyl]-5-methyl-3-methylenedihydrofuran-2-one
-
inhibits the formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-stimulated phospholipase D activity, mainly through the blockade of RhoA activation and degranulation
6-fluoro-N-[2-[4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
8-(2-aminoethyl)-1-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-(2-aminoethyl)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-(2-aminoethyl)-1-(3-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-(2-aminoethyl)-1-(4-bromophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-(2-aminoethyl)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-(2-aminoethyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-benzyl-1-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-benzyl-1-(3-bromophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-benzyl-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-benzyl-1-(3-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-benzyl-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
8-benzyl-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-4-one
-
-
Ag2+
-
in the presence of Triton X-100
Al3+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Al3+
-
20% inhibition
Al3+
-
activation of transphosphatidylation
Al3+
-
2.5 mM, complete loss of both hydrolytic activity and transphosphatidylation
Al3+
-
inhibits the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-dependent isozyme
Albumin
-
-
-
alpha-synuclein
-
-
-
alpha-synuclein
-
binds to PLD and inhibits its activity, it also markedly depressed the dopamine-induced Na+ current response in vivo
-
Ba2+
-
complete inhibition
Ba2+
-
complete inhibition
Ba2+
-
1 mM, 15-25% inhibition
butan-1-ol
-
-
C2 ceramide
-
-
Ca2+
Q9C5Y0
inhibitory above 1 mM
Ca2+
P55939
substantial reduction of stability due to salt-induced aggregation
calphostin C
-
the lower affinity first generation inhibitor does not distinguish between isozymes PLD1 and 2
Cd2+
-
slight stimulation
ceramide
-
inhibits PLD at the catalytic subunit by competing with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. Ceramide levels are increased coincidentally with reduced PLD activity in senescent cells. Treatment of cells with ceramide results in a dose-dependent decrease in PLD activity and diacylglycerol accumulation
Cetylpyridinium chloride
-
-
Cetylpyridinium chloride
-
-
Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide
-
-
Co2+
-
complete inhibition
Co2+
-
slight stimulation
Co2+
-
1 mM, 50-60% inhibition
Co2+
-
2.5 mM, complete loss of both hydrolytic activity and transphosphatidylation
CTAB
-
inhibitory at concentrations at or above that of 1 lysophosphatidylcholine
Cu2+
-
slight inhibition
Cu2+
-
complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
2.5 mM, complete loss of both hydrolytic activity and transphosphatidylation
curcumin
-
the lower affinity first generation inhibitor does not distinguish between isozymes PLD1 and 2
deoxycholic acid
-
0.45%, 26% residual activity
dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
-
EDTA
-
slight inhibition
EDTA
-
50% inhibition
EDTA
-
-
EDTA
-
1.5 mM, 30% loss of activity
EDTA
-
complete inhibition at 2 mM
EDTA
-
complete inhibition
EGTA
-
96% inhibition at 5 mM
EGTA
-
partial
ethanol
-
inhibition of enzyme, leading to block of beta-defensin-2 up-regulation by cell wall extract of Fusobacterium nucleatum or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
ethanol
-
-
ethanol
O14939
inhibits PLD and reduces surface effects, e.g. the increase of PLD mRNA and activity, osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin, and protein kinase C and alkaline phosphatase specific activities, as well as the decrease of cell number
ethanol
-
suppression of PLD-mediated phosphatidic acid formation by alcohol alleviated the growth-promoting effect of PLDepsilon
Fe2+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Fe2+
-
30% inhibition
Fe2+
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
Fe3+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Fe3+
-
complete inhibition at 5 mM
Fe3+
-
30% inhibition
Fe3+
-
2.5 mM, complete loss of both hydrolytic activity and transphosphatidylation
FeSO4
-
2 mM, 78% of initial activity
forskolin
-
inhibits the activating effect of thrombin. Translocation to the plasma membrane of PLD1, but not PLD2, is inhibited
glucose
-
suppression of enzyme activity in etiolated seedling
H2O2
-
exposure of cells to H2O2 leads to transient increase in activity followed by 90% decrease
halopemide
-
-
halopemide
-
the higher affinity second generation inhibitor does not distinguish between isozymes PLD1 and 2
Hg2+
-
in the presence of Triton X-100
Hg2+
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
Inositol
-
at 0.075 mM in culture medium,reduction of enzyme activity by 30-40%
lysophosphatidylcholine
-
-
Mg2+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Mg2+
-
slight stimulation
Mg2+
-
-
Mg2+
-
-
Mg2+
-
2.5 mM, inhibitory to both hydrolytic activity and transphosphatidylation
Mn2+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Mn2+
-
slight stimulation
Mn2+
-
-
Mn2+
-
substrate specific
Mn2+
-
1 mM, 45-55% inhibition
Munc-18-1
-
2 nM is required for 50% inhibition, inhibits phospholipase D activity by direct interaction in an epidermal growth factor-reversible manner
-
Munc-18-1
-
inhibits phospholipase D activity by direct interaction in an epidermal growth factor-reversible manner
-
N-(2-(1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl)ethyl)-2-naphthamide
-
an isoform-selective small molecule phospholipase D2 inhibitor
-
n-butanol
P70496, P70498
n-butanol completely blocks the migration of NBT-II cells on collagen-coated substrates and disturbes the characteristic localization of actin along edge of lamellipodia
n-butanol
-
inhibition of PLD leads to the partial inhibition of the photosynthetic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, C4-PEPC, phosphorylation, overview
n-butanol
-
inhibits phosphatidic acid production by PLD, prevents silymarin elicitation by methyljasmonate or mastoparan, and also impedes its release in non-elicited cultures. Exogenous addition of phosphatidic acid reverses the inhibitory action of nBuOH, both in control and methyljasmonate-treated cultures
n-butanol
-
-
n-butanol
D7P5D9, D7P5E0, D7P5E1
PLD inhibition disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in tobacco pollen tubes; PLD inhibition disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in tobacco pollen tubes; PLD inhibition disrupts the actin cytoskeleton in tobacco pollen tubes
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-lauroylethanolamine
-
mediates differential effects on cellular organization and seedling growth, in part through the differential modulation of specific isoforms of phospholipase D. 1-Butanol induces more pronounced modifications in cytoskeletal organization, seedling growth, and cell division at concentrations severalfold higher than N-lauroylethanolamine
N-laurylsarcosine
-
0.45%, 0% residual activity
N-laurylsarcosine
-
75% inhibition at 1.5%
N-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[(1S)-2-[4-(4-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-bromo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-3,4-difluorobenzamide
-
;
N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-bromo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-4-chlorobenzamide
-
;
N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-bromo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-3,4-difluorobenzamide
-
;
N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-4-fluorobenzamide
-
;
N-[(1S)-2-[4-(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[(1S)-2-[4-(6-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[(2S)-1-[4-(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]propan-2-yl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]-3-phenylprop-2-ynamide
-
;
N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl)ethyl]quinoxaline-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-[1-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-4-fluorobenzamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-5-fluoro-1H-indole-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-4-fluorobenzamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-5-fluoro-1H-indole-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]quinoline-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-4-fluorobenzamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-5-fluoro-1H-indole-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-bromophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-4-fluorobenzamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]-5-fluoro-1H-indole-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]ethyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide
-
-
N-[2-[4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-3,4-dihydronaphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-3-phenylprop-2-ynamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]quinoline-6-carboxamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(4-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-4-fluorobenzamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(5-bromo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-4-chlorobenzamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(5-bromo-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-4-fluorobenzamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(5-chloro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-4-methylbenzamide
-
;
N-[2-[4-(5-fluoro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]naphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
;
neomycin
Q13393
inhibitory in native myocardium, where phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate restores, not inhibitory with partially purified enzyme; inhibits activity in human atrial myocardium, but has no effect on the activity of partially solubilized enzyme
neomycin
-
abolishes activation by GTP or ATP
neomycin
-
inhibits the mechanically induced increase in phosphatidic acid in skeletal muscle
Ni2+
-
2.5 mM, complete loss of both hydrolytic activity and transphosphatidylation
oleic acid
-
-
oleic acid
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
complete inhibition
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
complete inhibition
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
complete inhibition
palmitic acid
-
-
phosphatidic acid
-
-
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
-
phosphatidylinositol
-
-
polyoxyethylene-4-lauryl ether
-
0.45%, 21% residual activity
polyoxylethylene-4-laurylether
-
relative activity: 3%
-
propranolol
-
-
prostaglandin E1
-
inhibits the activating effect of thrombin; inhibits the activating effect of thrombin. Translocation to the plasma membrane of PLD1 is inhibited but only at high concentration
protein kinase A
-
inhibits the activating effect of thrombin. Translocation to the plasma membrane of PLD1, but not PLD2, is inhibited
-
Proteinkinase C
-
phosphorylated and inhibited the enzyme in vitro
-
resveratrol
-
a phytoalexin with antiinflammatory activity in C5 anaphylatoxin-stimulated primary neutrophils, blocks PLD activity and membrane recruitment
resveratrol
-
a phytoalexin with antiinflammatory activity in C5 anaphylatoxin-stimulated primary neutrophils and in a mouse model of acute peritonitis, blocks PLD activity and membrane recruitment
SDS
-
inhibitory at concentrations at or above that of 1 lysophosphatidylcholine
SDS
-
relative activity: 41%
SDS
-
complete inhibition at 1.5%
Sn2+
-
stimulates in the absence of Triton X-100
Sn2+
-
complete inhibition
Sn2+
-
slight inhibition
Sodium cholate
-
-
Sodium deoxycholate
-
-
sodium dodecylsulfate
-
0.45%, 3% residual activity
sodium taurocholate
-
-
sphinganine
-
does not alter basal PLD2 activity, but inhibits PLD2 activation induced by [D-Ala2,Me Phe4,Glyol5]enkephalin and beta-endorphin, overview
Sr2+
-
-
stearic acid
-
-
sucrose monolaurate
-
-
Triton CF-54
-
-
Triton CF-54/Tween 80
-
-
-
Triton X-100
-
substrate-dependent inhibition
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
activating up to 0.4%, inhibitory above
Triton X-100
-
inhibitory at concentrations at or above that of 1 lysophosphatidylcholine
Triton X-100
Q9T051, Q9T053
complete loss of activity and prohibition of any stimulation by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
tubulin
-
increase in local membrane monomeric tubulin concentration inhibits PLD2 activity by direct interaction, carbachol increases the association between PLD2 with tubulin
-
Tween 20
-
-
Tween 20
-
0.45%, 3% residual activity
Tween 80
-
-
Tween 80
-
0.45%, 5% residual activity
Zn2+
-
-
Zn2+
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
Zn2+
-
1 mM, 45% inhibition
Zn2+
-
2.5 mM, complete loss of both hydrolytic activity and transphosphatidylation
Mn2+
-
2.5 mM, complete loss of both hydrolytic activity and transphosphatidylation
additional information
-
overview on inhibitory compounds and mechanism
-
additional information
-
no inhibitory effect of metal ions
-
additional information
-
phospholipase D2 immobilized covalently on CNBr-activated Sepharose expresses 10% of the activity of the soluble enzyme, the enzyme immobilized by binding on to anti-PLD2 IgG-Sepharose show 38% of the activity of the soluble enzyme
-
additional information
-
white and red light exposure inhibit enzyme activity in etiolated seedling, far-red light eliminates red-light-induced decrease in activity
-
additional information
-
the silica-induced phospholipase D activity is partially attenuated by the pretreatment with U73122, genistein, PD 98056 and mepacrine
-
additional information
-
enzyme completely loses activity upon dialysis
-
additional information
-
PLD activity is decreased in the presence of components required for the monooxygenase (MMO) activity (reducing system), including 100% phosphatidylcholine membranes, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH. Lysophosphatidylserine recoveres the PLD activity in a concentration-dependent manner
-
additional information
-
the inhibition of PLD-mediated phosphatidic acid production by n-butanol selectively blocks the secretion of von Willebrand factor, but not that of tPA
-
additional information
-
in subsidiary cell mother cells treated with butanol-1, which blocks phosphatidic acid production via PLDs, Actin filament-patch formation laterally to the inducing guard mother cell and the subsequent asymmetric division are inhibited. In these subsidiary cell mother cells, cell division plane determination, as expressed by MT preprophase band formation, is not disturbed. Exogenously applied phosphatidic acid partially relieves the butanol-1 effects on subsidiary cell mother cells. In contrast to subsidiary cell mother cells, butanol-1 does not affect the symmetric guard cell mother cell division
-
additional information
P70496, P70498
n-butanol completely blocks the migration of NBT-II cells on collagen-coated substrates and disturbes the characteristic localization of actin along edge of lamellipodia
-
additional information
-
inhibition of the PLD product formation phosphatidic acid by adding 1-butanol significantly decreases cell spreading; inhibition of the PLD product formation phosphatidic acid by adding 1-butanol significantly decreases cell spreading
-
additional information
-
phosphatidic acid by itself has no effect on PEPC phosphorylation, but when combined with n-butanol, phosphatidic acid reverses the inhibitory effect of this compound
-
additional information
-
inhibition of PLD significantly reduces the cell motility of CCL39 cells
-
additional information
O14939, Q13393
isozyme PLD2alpha contains functional caspase 3 cleavage sites; isozymes PLD1beta and PLD2alpha contain functional caspase 3 cleavage sites and identify the critical aspartate residues within PLD1beta that affect its activation by phorbol esters and attenuate phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis during apoptosis
-
additional information
-
alpha-synuclein, a small cytosolic protein, does not inhibit phospholipase D
-
additional information
-
dominant negative Rac1, N17Rac1, completely inhibits PLD activation by EGF, but not by PDGF. Dominant-negative RalA and Ras also abolish PLD activation by EGF
-
additional information
-
PLD activity is modified by microtubule dynamics
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by 2-butanol
-
additional information
O14939
inhibition of PLD reduces the effects of surface microstructure/energy on protein kinase C, suggesting that PLD mediates the stimulatory effect of microstructured/high-energy surfaces via PKC-dependent signaling
-
additional information
-
inhibition of PLD1 by pharmacological inhibitors blocks PKD1 activation under oxidative stress
-
additional information
-
treatment with iso-, sec- or tert-butanol has no effect on silymarin production
-
additional information
-
downregulation of Arf1 and cytohesin-1 by siRNA leads to reduced PLD transphosphatidylation activity, overview
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by 2-butanol
-
additional information
-
either intracellular injection of alpha-synuclein or extracellular application of 1-butanol, inhibitors of PLD, significantly depress the dopamine-induced Na+ current response in neurons
-
additional information
D7P5D9, D7P5E0, D7P5E1
no inhibition by tert-butanol; no inhibition by tert-butanol; no inhibition by tert-butanol
-
additional information
-
design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of halogenated N-(2-(4-oxo-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4.5]decan-8-yl)ethyl)benzamides as inhibitors of PLD2 or dual PLD1/PLD2 inhibitors, overview
-
additional information
-
no inhibiton by EDTA
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(D-Ala2, methyl-Phe4, Glyol5)enkephalin
-
treatment of cells co-expressing isoform PLD2 and my-opioid receptor MOR1 leads to increase in PLD2 activity and an induction of receptor endocytosis
1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
500fold stimulation is observed upon incorporation of 10 mol 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (POPA) into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) vesicles in the presence of Ca2+ ions. Differential scanning calorimetry shows that the POPA-specific activation correlates with the phase behavior of the POPC/POPA vesicles in the presence of Ca2+ ions
24R,25(OH)2D3
O14939
PLD is activated by 24R,25(OH)2D3 in a surface-dependent manner
3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea
-
inhibitor of electron transport in chloroplast, stimulation of enzyme activity in green seedling
4beta-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate
-
i.e. 4betaPDD, a phorbol ester
abscisic acid
Q710M6
rapid induction of isoform PLDbeta1, enzyme stimulates abscisic acid signaling by activating SAP kinase, thus repressing GAmyb expression and inhibiting seed germination
ADP
-
at 1 mM, 200% of control activity
ADP-ribosylation factor
-
GTP dependent activation; required for activity
-
ADP-ribosylation factor
-
GTP dependent activation
-
ADP-ribosylation factor
-
GTP dependent activation
-
ADP-ribosylation factor 1
-
i.e. Arf1, a small G protein, stimulates PLD hydrolytic activity
-
ADP-ribosylation factor 6
-
i.e. Arf6, a small G protein, stimulates PLD hydrolytic activity
-
amyloid beta peptide
-
residues 1-42, i.e. Abeta1-42, a formyl-peptid-receptor-like 1 agonist, activates 3-4fold in microglia and astrocytes, respectively, at 0.001 mM. Endocytosis of Abeta1-42 in glial cells is PLD-dependent
-
arachidonic acid
-
only in presence of Mg2+
ARF GTPases
-
all ARF proteins 1-6 stimulate PLD1 and PLD2 to a similar extent
-
ARF GTPases
-
all ARF proteins 1-6 stimulate PLD to a similar extent
-
ARF protein
-
ARF family small GTPases, which are composed of six isoforms, ARF1-6 act as PLD activators, they activates PLD1 and PLD2. ARFs are myristoylated at their N-terminal glycine residue and this lipid modification is required to fully activate PLD1 [11,12]. In the ARF-dependent activation of PLD1, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-disphosphate is an essential cofactor. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-disphosphate act as cofactors and bind to the PX domain, which is also responsible for protein-protein interactions. PLD2 directly interacts with the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase
-
ARF protein
-
small G proteins of the Rho and Arf families activate phospholipase D1
-
Arf proteins
-
activate isozyme PLD1 and a truncated form of PLD2
-
Arf-1
-
the catalytic activator stimulates PLD1 by enhancing the catalytic constant kcat. Full-length enzyme and N-terminally truncated enzyme are strongly activated by Arf-1-GTPgammaS
-
Arf1 protein
-
activates PLD, acts synergistically with CtBP1/BARS in activation of PLD, dependent on GTPgammaS or GTP but not on GDP, overview
-
Arf4 protein
-
in 293T cells overexpressing EGFR, Arf4 associates with the cytoplasmic region of EGFR and directly regulates PLD2 activation, but not PLD1 activation
-
ATP
-
at 1 mM, 320% of control activity, 1 mM ATP + 0.1 mM GTP, 720% of control activity, effect is abolished by neomycin
ATP
-
extracellular application of nucleotides stimulates enzyme activity and shows a sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Effects on enzyme and extracellular signal-regulated kinase are not additive and not coupled to DNA synthesis. Best effects are with ATP and UTP at 0.01 mM and above
benzothiadiazole
-
rapid activation of isoforms PLDalpha, PLDbeta/gamma, PLDdelta. Strongest response for PLDbeta/gamma
beta-endorphin
-
opioid receptor-mediated activation
-
butanol
-
transphosphatidylation increases activity
Ca2+
-
required, 1 mM
Ca2+
-
inhibits the PLD37/18-catalyzed hydrolysis of dibutyroylphosphatidylcholine at basic pH values, but activates the enzyme more than twofold at pH 5.5. Addition of Ca2+ at pH 8.0 increases the transphosphatidylation activity 2.5- and 3.5fold with 5 and 20 mM Ca2+, respectively. At pH 9.0, Ca2+ inhibits both phosphohydrolase and transferase activities with much less inhibition to the latter
cAMP
-
at 1 mM, 273% of control activity
Carbachol
-
PLD1 is activated by cholinergic agonists. Atropine inhibits this PLD1 activation
Cdc42
-
stimulation of full-length enzyme and N-terminally truncated enzyme by GTPgammaS-loaded Cdc42
-
Cdc42
-
in addition to interactions with Rac and Rho, PLD1 is regulated by Cdc42
-
CHAPS
-
-
CHAPS
-
relative activity: 195%
CHAPS
-
relative activity: 201
CHAPS
-
activates 1.8fold at 1.5%
cholera toxin
-
stimulation of enzyme
-
cholic acid
-
-
Collagen
-
adhesion of myeloid-macrophage cell lines to fibronectin is accompanied by marked stimulation of enzyme activity
CpG oligodeoxynucleotides
-
induce PLD activation, increase PLD activity, PLD-dependent reactive oxygen intermediate production, PLD-dependent phagolysosome maturation, and PLD-dependent intracellular mycobacterial killing in type II alveolar epithelial cells
-
CtBP1/BARS
-
a short splice variant of the CtBP1 gene and a physiological activator of PLD1 required in agonist-induced macropinocytosis. Stimulation of cells by serum or EGF results in the association of CtBP1/BARS with PLD1, which is specifically blocked by 1-butanol. CtBP1/BARS acts synergistically with ARF1 protein in activation of PLD, dependent on GTPgammaS or GTP but not on GDP, overview
-
Cu2+
-
very rapid induction of enzyme accompanied by accumulation of both phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylbutanol. Highest activity 2 h after copper addition, decrease thereafter. Enhanced enzyme gene expression contributes to the increase in activity
deoxycholic acid
-
relative activity: 273%
deoxycholic acid
-
relative activity: 246%
deoxycholic acid
-
activates 2.2fold at 1.5%
diacylglycerol
-
interaction of phospholipase D with the lipidic activator at the air-water interface
dithiothreitol
-
-
docosahexaenoic acid
-
-
dynamin
-
a large GTPase, can interact with PLD in a GTP dependent manner in vitro
-
EDTA
-
-
ethanol
-
transphosphatidylation increases activity
ethanol
-
-
ethyl ether
-
essential
ethyl ether
-
stimulates
ethyl ether
-
stimulates in the presence of Ca2+
ethyl ether
-
-
Fibronectin
-
adhesion of primary neutrophils and monocyte-derived macrohages as well as myeloid-macrophage cell lines to fibronectin is accompanied by marked stimulation of enzyme activity
-
Fibronectin
-
in OVAR-3 cells fibronectin-mediated integrin activation specifically induces cell spreading which activates PLD; in OVAR-3 cells fibronectin-mediated integrin activation specifically induces cell spreading which activates PLD
-
formylmethionyl-leucyl-proline
-
i.e. fMLF, activates 4fold in microglia and astrocytes, respectively, at 0.001 mM, the activation is inhibited by WRW4, a formyl-peptid-receptor-like 1 antagonist
Fusobacterium nucleatum cell wall extract
-
stimulation
-
GDP
-
at 1 mM, 312% of control activity
Grb2 protein
-
directly interacts with and activates PLD2 through its SH2 domain, which in turn activates ERK1/2, upon EGF stimulation
-
GTP
-
-
GTP
-
at 0.1 mM, 273% of control activity, 1 mM ATP + 0.1 mM GTP, 720% of control activity, effect is abolished by neomycin
GTP-binding proteins
-
the PLD1 isoform can be activated by GTP-binding proteins, PKC, and tyrosine kinases. Synergistic activation of PLD1 with combinations of ARF and Rho, Rho and PKC, and ARF and PKC. Isozyme PLD2 remains unaffected by these activators
-
GTPases
O14939
PLD1 is activated by PKCalpha and GTPases such as RhoA, RacI, Cdc42, and ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF, whereas PLD2 is not
-
GTPgammaS
-
at 0.005 mM, 446% of control activity
GTPgammaS
-
membrane fraction, 5fold increase in activity, membrane plus cytosolic fraction, 8fold increase in activty
guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate
-
GTP analog
guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate
-
GTP analog
H2O2
-
exposure of cells to H2O2 leads to transient increase in activity followed by 90% decrease
H2O2
-
isozyme PLDdelta is activated by H2O2
Hg2+
-
mercury chloride, and methylmercury, activates PLD, the stimulation is regulated by Ca2+ and calmodulin, mechanism, overview. Calcium chelating agents and calcium depletion, e.g. by EGTA, calmodulin inhibitors, e.g. calmidazolium chloride and trifluoperazine, and L-type calcium channel blockers nifedipine, nimodipine, and diltiazem attenuate the stimulation of PLD by mercury, overview
histamine
-
evokes a transient increase in intraendothelial Ca2+-concentration and enhancey PLD activity significantly. A significant fraction of PLD1 translocates to the plasma membrane after 5 min of histamine stimulation of HUVECs
iodoacetic acid
Q710M6
rapid induction of isoform PLDbeta1
ionomycin
-
a Ca2+ ionophore
ionomycin
-
-
L-ascorbic acid
-
activates the lipid signaling enzyme PLD at pharmacological doses, 5 mM, in the bovine lung microvascular endothelial cells, with modulation of PLD activation by phospholipase A2, PLA2. Antioxidants attenuate vitamin C-induced PLA2 , e.g. N-acetylcysteine, propyl gallate, or enzyme catalase activation
light
-
light-dependent increase in PLD activity
-
linoleic acid
-
only in presence of Mg2+
linoleic acid
Q9C5Y0
less than oleic acid
linoleic acid
-
-
linoleic acid
-
;
linolenic acid
Q9C5Y0
less than oleic acid
linolenic acid
-
;
lysophosphatidic acid
-
-
Lysophosphatidylserine
-
stimulates PLD activity in a concentration-dependent manner and approximately 5fold and 8fold increases in CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 activities, respectively, are shown in the presence of 2 mol% of the lysophosphatidylserine when compared to a 100% phosphatidylcholine matrix. LysoPS also accompanies conformational changes in both CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 when assayed by circular dichroism
Mastoparan
-
G-protein inhibitor, treatment of roots results in accumulation of both phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylbutanol
Mastoparan
-
-
Mastoparan
-
a PLD activity stimulator
methyl jasmonate
-
rapid activation of isoforms PLDalpha, PLDbeta/gamma, PLDdelta
my-opioid receptor variant MOR1D
-
activation of isoform PLD2
-
myristic acid
-
-
okadaic acid
-
-
oleic acid
-
only in presence of Mg2+
oleic acid
Q9C5Y0
best stimulation, optimal at 0.5 mM, stimulates binding to substrate, in presence of Ca2+
phenylephrine
-
increases phosphatidylbutanol formation in CCL39 cells
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
-
phorbol ester stimulation involves proteinkinase C but not ADP-ribosylation factor proteins
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
-
stimulation
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
-
a protein kinase C activator also activates PLD, activation is inhibited by 1-butanol
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
-
activates 13fold at 0.001 mM in microglia and astrocytes
phorbol ester
-
-
Phorbol esters
O14939, Q13393
activate isozyme PLD1beta
phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate
-
induces PLD2 activation
phosphatidic acid
-
only with addition of lecithin and SDS
phosphatidic acid
Q8KRU5
up to 2fold
phosphatidic acid
-
interaction of phospholipase D with the lipidic activator at the air-water interface
phosphatidic acid
-
the Streptomyces chromofuscus PLD seems to be dependent on presence of phosphatidic acid for activity on phospholipids
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
required for maximal activity of the beta and gamma-enzymes
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
activates PLD activity, leading to increased matrix metalloproteinase 9, MMP-9, activity
phosphatidylinositol
-
-
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate
-
-
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate
-
-
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate
-
specifically interacts with the phox homology domain of phospholipase D1 and stimulates activity
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate
Q13393
increases PLD activity
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate
-
increases activity
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate
-
activity of PLD1 and PLD2 is highly dependent on the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate
phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate
-
binds to N-terminal phox consensus sequence of PLD1 and PLD2
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
binding is modulated by Ca2+
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
only in vitro
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
-
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
-
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
essential cofactor
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
Q13393
activates
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
the interaction of Ca2+ with PLDbetacat (PLD with a deleted regulatory C2 domain) increases the affinity of the protein for the activator phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Ca2+ binding to the C2 domain stimulates phosphatidylcholine binding but inhibits phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
stimulation of full-length enzyme and N-terminally truncated enzyme
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
increases activity
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
Q9T051, Q9T053
required; required
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
-
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
activity of PLD1 and PLD2 is highly dependent on the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate or phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
binds to N-terminal pleckstrin homology of PLD1 and PLD2
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
PLDbeta, PLDgamma, PLDdelta, and PLDzeta require PIP2 for activity
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
-
-
phosphatidylinositol phosphate
-
-
phosphatidylinositol phosphate
-
only in vitro
phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
-
effective activator
phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Q13393
with partially purified enzyme, stimulation up to 5fold
phosphatidylinositol-3,4-diphosphate
-
very effective activator
phosphatidylinositol-3,5-diphosphate
-
effective activator
phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate
-
effective activator
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate
-
-
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate
Q13393
in native myocardium, stimulation up to 2fold at 0.1 mM, accompanied by increase in diacylglycerol, with partially purified enzyme, stimulation up to 10fold at 0.1 mM
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate
Q9C5Y0
less than oleic acid, best at 0.03 mM
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate
Q9LRZ5
required
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate
-
an essential cofactor for phospholipase D1 activity
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate
-
required for PLD2 activity
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate
-
very effective activator
phosphatidylserine
-
-
phosphoinositide-4,5-bisphosphate
-
i.e. PIP2, phosphoinositides, particularly PIP2, another key regulator of PLD activation are required by PLDbeta, PLDgamma, PLDdelta, and PLDzeta for activity
polyethylene-4-laurylether
-
relative activity: 125%
-
polyethylene-4-laurylether
-
activates 2.1fold at 1.5%
-
Propanolol
-
only hydrolase activity
prostaglandin E1
-
causes a modest elevation of PLD activity in resting platelets. prostaglandin E1-induced PLD activity is increased by 25% in the presence of Ca2+. Maximal activity at 5 micromol prostaglandin E1; causes a modest elevation of PLD activity in resting platelets. prostaglandin E1-induced PLD activity is increased by 25% in the presence of Ca2+. Maximal activity at 5 micromol prostaglandin E1
Protein kinase C
-
only phorbolester activated proteinkinase C
-
Protein kinase C
-
-
-
Protein kinase C
-
-
-
Protein kinase C
-
activates isozyme PLD1
-
protein kinase Calpha
-
activation of PLD1 involves N- and C-terminal PLD domains
-
R(+)-hydroxy(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide
-
i.e. (+)7-OH DPAT, stimulates D3 receptor-mediated PLD activity
Rac1
-
stimulation of full-length enzyme and N-terminally truncated enzyme by GTPgammaS-loaded Rac1
-
Rac1
-
PLD activation by EGF is dependent on Rac1, and not on PKC, in Rat1 fibroblasts
-
Rheb
-
Rheb binds and activates PLD1 in vitro in a GTP-dependent manner. Overexpression of the small GTPase Rheb activates PLD1 in cells by about 2.5fold in the absence of mitogenic stimulation, and the knockdown of Rheb impairs serum stimulation of PLD activation, overview
-
Rho family G-proteins
-
RhoB or C, but not RhoA, activate PLD. The activation is irreversibly blocked by Clostridium difficile toxin B, an inhibitor for all Rho family G-proteins, or Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme, a specific blocker for RhoA-C, and also by the GAP domain of p50RhoGAP, kinetics, overview
-
Rho GTPases
-
activate isozyme PLD1
-
Rho GTPases
-
PLD1 and PLD2 activity is regulated by the Rho family of small GTPases
-
Rho protein
-
small G proteins of the Rho and Arf families activate phospholipase D1. Small GTPases might be involved in the activation mechanism of TRPC3 in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells. Rho GTPases can activate phospholipase D1 through two mechanisms: direct binding to phospholipase D1 or activation of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-kinase, which triggers phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate production, an essential cofactor for phospholipase D1 activity
-
RhoA
-
only in synergy with ARF1
RhoA
-
small G proteins ARF3 and RhoA in the presence of guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate
RhoA
-
-
RhoA
-
-
RhoA
-
stimulation of full-length enzyme and N-terminally truncated enzyme by GTPgammaS-loaded RhoA
RhoA
-
mediates PDGF-induced PLD activation in Rat1 fibroblasts
RhoA protein
-
recombinant D3 dopamine receptor, D2S receptor, signals to activation of phospholipase D through a complex with RhoA in HEK-293 cells
-
salicylic acid
-
rapid activation of isoforms PLDalpha, PLDbeta/gamma, PLDdelta
salicylic acid
-
activates transphosphatidylation reaction of PLD in a dose-dependent manner
SDS
-
maximal activation at 1 mM
SDS
-
relative activity: 189
serotonin
-
i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT, activates PLD via the 5-HT 2A receptor, leading to the generation of phosphatidic acid that promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation through activations of mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, S6K1 and MAPK but not the Rho or PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways, overview. Activation is completely blocked by ketanserin
Sodium deoxycholate
-
-
Sodium deoxycholate
-
-
Sodium deoxycholate
-
-
Sodium deoxycholate
-
-
sodium dodecylsulfate
-
in molar ratio phosphatidylcholine to SDS 4.32:1
sphingosine
-
only hydrolase activity
taxotere
-
increase in enzyme activity. Overexpression of enzyme isozymes results in inhibition of taxotere-induced apoptotic cell death, accompanied by up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and inhibited taxotere-induced activation of procaspase 3
Thrombin
-
activation in a dose-dependent manner. Thrombin-induced PLD activity is dependent on autocrine stimulation; activation in a dose-dependent manner. Thrombin-induced PLD activity is dependent on autocrine stimulation
-
Thrombin
-
;
-
thyrotropin
-
PLD-1, stimulation up to 2.3fold, accompanied by translocation of ADP-ribosylation factor and RhoA to the membrane fraction
-
TNF-alpha
-
stimulation in a dose-dependent manner
-
Triton X-100
-
substrate-dependent activation
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
up to 0.4%, inhibitory above
Triton X-100
-
optimal at 1.5%
Triton X-100
-
in molar ratio phosphatidylcholine to Triton X-100 2.5:1
Triton X-100
-
0.375%, 75% increase in activity
Triton X-100
Q9T051, Q9T053
greatly stimulating
Triton X-100
-
relative activity: 292%
Triton X-100
-
relative activity: 429%
Triton X-100
-
activates 2.65fold at 1.5%
Tween 80
-
activates 2fold at 1.5%
Tween-20
-
relative activity: 345%
Tween-20
-
relative activity: 257%
Tween-80
-
relative activity: 292%
Tween-80
-
relative activity: 249%
Tween_20
-
activates 2.3fold at 1.5%
-
UDP
-
extracellular application of nucleotides stimulates enzyme activity and shows a sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Effects on enzyme and extracellular signal-regulated kinase are not additive and not coupled to DNA synthesis. Best effects are with ATP and UTP at 0.01 mM and above
UTP
-
extracellular application of nucleotides stimulates enzyme activity and shows a sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Effects on enzyme and extracellular signal-regulated kinase are not additive and not coupled to DNA synthesis. Best effects are with ATP and UTP at 0.01 mM and above
Vasopressin
-
a PLD agonist
vitamin C
-
at pharmacological doses activates PLD in the lung microvascular endothelial cells through oxidative stress and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase
[D-Ala2,Me Phe4,Glyol5]enkephalin
-
opioid receptor-mediated activation
methyl {(1S,2S)-3-oxo-2-[(2Z)-pent-2-en-1-yl]cyclopentyl}acetate
-
increases PLD activity
additional information
-
overview on activating compounds and mechanism
-
additional information
-
no activation by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or GTPgammaS
-
additional information
-
not activating: AMP
-
additional information
Q9C5Y0
no activation by stearic or palmitic acid
-
additional information
Q9LRZ5
no requirement for phosphatidylethanolamine in substrate vesicles, comparison of isozymes
-
additional information
-
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces PLD2 activation via the involvement of protein kinase Calpha. PLD2 becomes phosphorylated on both Ser and Thr residues. Interaction rather than phosphorylation underscores the activation of PLD2 by protein kinase Calpha in vivo. Phosphorylation may contribute to the inactivation of the enzyme
-
additional information
-
interaction of the PLD1 PX domain with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and/or phosphatidic acid (or phosphatidylserine) may be an important factor in the spatiotemporal regulation and activation of PLD1
-
additional information
-
mechanical stimulation of skeletal muscle with intermittent passive stretch ex vivo induces phospholipase D activation, phosphatidic acid accumulation, and signaling by mTOR, i.e. mammalian target of rapamycin
-
additional information
-
acidic extracellular pH induces enzyme activity both via Ca2+ influx and acidic shingomyelinase
-
additional information
-
overexpression of tumor suppressor PTEN results in 30% increase in basal enzyme activity
-
additional information
-
enzyme is independent of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate
-
additional information
-
adhesion of myeloid-macrophage cell lines to fibronectin is accompanied by marked stimulation of enzyme activity
-
additional information
-
no activation of thymocyte enzyme by eicosapentaenoic acid. Negative correlation of enzyme activation and proliferative response of thymocytes to fatty acids
-
additional information
-
PLD2 activity is enhanced by PMA/ionomycin stimulation
-
additional information
-
epidermal growth factor triggers the activation of PLD in various cell types, such as a bovine luteal cell line
-
additional information
-
epidermal growth factor triggers the activation of PLD in various cell types, such as a Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line, CCL39, and a Chinese hamster embryo fibroblast cell line, IIC9
-
additional information
-
epidermal growth factor triggers the activation of PLD in various cell types, such as osteoblastic cells, a human embryonic kidney cell line HEK-293, a human epidermoid carcinoma cell line A-431, a human cervical cancer cell line HeLa, and human dermal fibroblasts
-
additional information
-
epidermal growth factor triggers the activation of PLD in various cell types, such as mouse embryo fibroblasts, MEFs, a mouse myoblast cell line, C2C12, and a mouse embryo fibroblast cell line Swiss 3T3
-
additional information
-
epidermal growth factor triggers the activation of PLD in various cell types, such as immortalized rabbit corneal epithelial cells
-
additional information
-
epidermal growth factor triggers the activation of PLD in various cell types, such as calvarial osteoblastic cells and 3Y1 rat fibroblasts
-
additional information
-
in some physiological settings, the PLD2 activity appears to be regulated by the classical MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. In neutrophilic HL-60 cells and HEK 293T cells stably expressing fMLP receptors, PLD2 is activated through ERK1/2 MAP kinase upon fMLP stimulation
-
additional information
-
in some physiological settings, the PLD2 activity appears to be regulated by the classical MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway
-
additional information
-
PLD activity is modified by microtubule dynamics
-
additional information
-
activation mechanism of PLD in macropinocytosis, overview
-
additional information
-
PLD1 is activated by oxidative stress in various cell lines. Reactive oxygen species-induced PLD1 activation involves PKC and tyrosine kinases in various mammalian cell systems
-
additional information
-
[D-Ala2,Me Phe4,Glyol5]enkephalin and beta-endorphin strongly induce PLD2 activation, whereas the non-endocytotic drugs morphine and buprenorphine do not activate PLD2
-
additional information
-
no inhibition of PLD by WRW4
-
additional information
-
activity of phospholipase D in plants increases under different hyperosmotic stresses, such as dehydration, drought, and salinity, overview
-
additional information
-
PLDepsilon activity and phosphatidic acid content enhance growth under hyperosmotic stres
-
additional information
-
the overexpression of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, TSC2, suppresses PLD1 activation, whereas the knockdown or deletion of TSC2 leads to elevated basal activity of PLD
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.16
1,2-dibutyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
Q8KRU5
pH 7.5, in presence of 5 mM Ca2+
0.6
bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate
-
pH 8.0, 0.065 mM Ca2+
0.2
dibutyroylphosphatidylcholine
-
reaction with PLD37/18
0.23
diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine
-
reaction with PLD37/18
2.64
dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine
-
-
0.0015
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine
-
wild type enzyme, in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.6), at 37C
0.003
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine
-
mutant enzyme 187F/191R/385Y, in sodium acetate buffer (50 mM, pH 5.6), at 37C
1.5
dioleoyl-phosphatidylcholine
-
wild-type, Vmax: 4700 micromol/min/mg