Information on EC 2.3.1.15 - glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase

New: Word Map on EC 2.3.1.15
Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.3.1.15
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
reaction proceeds via a compulsory-ordered ternary with acyl-ACP binding before glycerol 3-phosphate
-
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
the active site is composed of homology regions I-IV
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Acyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
Acyl group transfer
-
-
Acyl group transfer
-
-
Acyl group transfer
-
-
Acyl group transfer
-
-
Acyl group transfer
Q7XYH5
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis
-
-
CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I
-
-
CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II
-
-
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
-
Glycerophospholipid metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
oleate biosynthesis III (cyanobacteria)
-
-
stigma estolide biosynthesis
-
-
superpathway of phosphatidate biosynthesis (yeast)
-
-
triacylglycerol biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase
Acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] can also act as acyl donor. The enzyme acts only on derivatives of fatty acids of chain length larger than C10.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3-glycerophosphate acyltransferase
-
-
-
-
ACP:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
-
-
acyl-CoA:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1
-
-
acyltransferase, glycerol phosphate
-
-
-
-
Ad-GPAT1
-
adenoviral GPAT1 construct
AGPAT6
-
-
AGPAT6
-
-
AGPAT6
-
-
AGPAT8
-
-
AGPAT9
-
-
alpha-glycerophosphate acyltransferase
-
-
-
-
chloroplast glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
Q1PA40
-
ER-associated GPAT
-
-
glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
-
-
glycerol phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
-
-
glycerol phosphate transacylase
-
-
-
-
glycerol-3-P acyltransferase 1
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
Q7XYH5
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
P97564
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
Q1PA40
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1
Q61586
four isoenzymes are identified in mammals
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1
P97564
four isoenzymes are identified in mammals
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2
Q14DK4
four isoenzymes are identified in mammals
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2
-
four isoenzymes are identified in mammals
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3
Q53EU6
four isoenzymes are identified in mammals
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 3
Q8C0N2
four isoenzymes are identified in mammals
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4
Q86UL3
four isoenzymes are identified in mammals
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4
Q8K2C8
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4
Q8K2C8
four isoenzymes are identified in mammals
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1
-
-
glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-like protein 1
Q14DK4
-
glycerol-3-phosphate-1 acyltransferase
P97564
-
glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1
-
-
glycerophosphate acyltransferase
-
-
-
-
glycerophosphate acyltransferase
-
-
glycerophosphate transacylase
-
-
-
-
GPAM
-
-
GPAT
Q7XYH5
-
GPAT
-
-
GPAT
-
-
GPAT
-
-
GPAT
P97564
-
GPAT-1
-
-
GPAT1
-
-
GPAT1
Q61586
-
GPAT1
P97564
-
GPAT2
-
-
GPAT2
-
-
GPAT2
Q14DK4
-
GPAT2
D3ZI76
-
GPAT3
-
-
GPAT3
Q53EU6
-
GPAT3
-
-
GPAT3
-
-
GPAT3
Q8C0N2
-
GPAT4
-
-
GPAT4
Q86UL3
-
GPAT4
-
-
GPAT4
-
-
GPAT4
Q8K2C8
-
GPAT8
Q5XF03
-
GPAT9
Q8GWG0
-
LPAAT-theta
-
-
mtGPAT
-
-
mtGPAT
Q61586
-
mtGPAT1
-
-
mtGPAT1
-
-
mtGPAT2
-
-
mtGPAT2
-
-
PlsY
-
uses PslX produced acyl-phosphate as acyl-residue donor
Sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
-
-
sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
-
xGPAT1
-
-
xGPAT1
Q14DK4
-
xGPAT1-v1
Q14DK4
-
xGPAT1-v2
Q14DK4
-
LPAAT-zeta
-
-
additional information
-
enzyme not identical with EC 2.3.1.42
additional information
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
enzyme not identical with EC 2.3.1.42
-
additional information
-
enzyme may be identical with EC 2.3.1.42
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9029-96-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
isoform GPAT6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
turnip rape, var. Bele
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sweet pepper
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
safflower, var. Gila
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hartley strain, female
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cucumber
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Shirogikuza, CmATS1,1 encoding oleate-selective isozyme AT1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Shirogikuza, CmATS1,2 encoding non-selective isoforms AT2 and AT3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
squash, isoenzymes AT1-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
oil palm
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A324 and 205; K-12; K-12 derivative strains 8, wild-type genotype; strain 8 overproducing mutants CV15, lsA-genotype and BB 26-36, plsB-genotype
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B; K-12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
K-12 derivative strains 8, wild-type genotype; overproducing strains VL3/pVL1, contains hybrid plasmid bearing plsB structural gene and VL3/plB3-4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
overproducing strains VL3/pVL1, contains hybrid plasmid bearing plsB structural gene and VL3/plB3-4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ML 308-225, i-z-y+
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli 8
strain 8 overproducing mutants CV15, lsA-genotype and BB 26-36, plsB-genotype
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli ML 308-225
strain ML 308-225, i-z-y+
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. bacillaris, achloroplastic mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
single gene, no isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
precursor
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
avocado, cv. Fuerte
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
kidney bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pea, var. kleine Rheinlnderin
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
petit Provenal
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male wistar rat
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male; Sprague-Dawley strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male; Wistar strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sprague-Dawley strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
Sprague-Dawley strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
Wistar strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
castor bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Gat1/Gpt2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
possesses two GPAT
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2
OC-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
african locust, cv. Forskl, male adult
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Zhongshu 4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
spinach, var. Subito
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Mona Lisa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Vital
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
WH-14, ciliated protozoon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. angulispora
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
Q8C0N2
GPAT1 -/- mice contain reduced amounts of C16:0 and increased C18:0 and C18:1 in liver phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in Gpat1-/- liver also contain 40% more C20:4 at the sn-2 position, suggesting that esterification at the sn-2 position is influenced by fatty acids at the sn-1 position. GPAT1 overexpression in liver of mice leads to increased incorporation of C16:0 fatty acids into lysophosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol
malfunction
-
GPAT1 overexpression in rat primary hepatocytes results in the increased incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into triacylglycerol and phospholipids and reduced rate of beta-oxidation
malfunction
Q8C0N2
GPAT1-deficient mice fed a high-fat/high sucrose diet have reduced hepatic triacylglycerol but increased plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and liver acylcarnitine levels, suggesting enhanced beta-oxidation. In the high-fat-fed GPAT1-deficient mice, elevated beta-oxidation is associated with increased hepatic acyl-CoA content and activation state of AMP-activated protein kinase. These results suggest that enhanced beta-oxidation represents increased energy flow to fatty acid oxidation caused by a blockage of the glycerolipid synthesis pathway. In GPAT1-overexpressing mice, liver fatty acid oxidation measured ex vivo is decreased. Due to the enhanced beta-oxidation in Gpat1-/- mice, liver mitochondria exhibit a greater mitochondrial dysfunction (oxidative stress, increased hepatocyte apoptosis, lower level odf DNA repair genes)
malfunction
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
GPAT3 overexpression in human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells leads to increased incorporation of exogenous oleic acid into triacylglycerol but not into phospholipids. GPAT3 overexpression in HEK-293 cells increases phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase and 4E-binding protein 1 in an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-dependent manner, suggesting the possible involvement of lipid intermediates of TAG synthesis, such as lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid (PA), in the mTOR pathway
malfunction
Q8C0N2
Gpat4-/- mice have severely impaired lactation, a reduced size and number of alveoli, reduced numbers of fat droplets in mammary gland, and reduced triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol content in milk. Gonadal white adipose tissue mass and plasma leptin levels are reduced in Gpat4-/- mice, and subdermal adipose tissue, is nearly absent. The reduced body weight of Gpat4-/- mice is associated with increased energy expenditure
malfunction
-
in Bacillus subtilis growth arrests after repression of either plsY or plsX are overcome by expression of Escherichia coli plsB, encoding an acyl-acylcarrier protein-dependent GPAT
malfunction
-
in GPAT1-overexpressing rats, hepatic acyl-CoA content and plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration are similar to those of control rats
malfunction
-
livers and hearts from mice deficient in GPAT1 (Gpat1 -/-) have a decreased content of glycerolipid intermediates and triacylglycerol, an altered composition of liver phospholipids, and elevated markers of oxidative stress. Compared with control C57BL/6 mice, infection of Gpat1 -/- mice with coxsackievirus B3 results in higher mortality, an 50% increase in heart pathology, a significant increase in liver viral titers, and a 100fold increase in heart viral titers. Heart mRNA levels for proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1B are increased in the Gpat1-/- mice. Loss of Gpat1 also results in dysregulation of specific immune cells
malfunction
-
loss of function of Gat1p and Gat2p is masked by the compensatory effect of their redundant partner. The complete lack of GPAT results in cell death, with multibudded cells containing divided nuclei
malfunction
-
membrane fractions from Bacillus subtilis cells catalyze palmitoylphosphate-dependent acylation of [14C]-labeled glycerol-3-phosphate to synthesize [14C]-labeled lysophosphatidic acid, whereas those cells with deleted plsY do not, simultaneous expression of plsY and plsX (gene product which produces acyl-phosphate as an acyl-donor) suppresses the glycerol requirement of a strict glycerol auxotrophic derivative of the Escherichia coli plsB26 mutant, although either one alone does not
malfunction
-
T-lymphocyte proliferation is inhibited and activation induced apoptosis is increased in GPAT-1 knockout mice. Th-1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) cytokine secretion is reduced, and Th-2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine secretion is increased. An increased arachidonate content and subsequent increased prostaglandin E2 secretion is shown in knockout mice, which may inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation
physiological function
Q8C0N2
a 60% knockdown of Gpat3 mRNA in 3T3-L1 cells with small interfering (si)RNA results in a 55% decrease in fatty acid incorporation into lysophosphatidic acid. Gpat1 mRNA levels also show a large induction during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, suggesting that this isoform also contributes to GPAT activity in adipocytes
physiological function
-
cis-acting promoter sequences for the mouse GPAT1 gene are identified: promoter 1a which includes part of the classical sequence and the downstream promoter 1b. Promoter 1a facilitates transcription of two alternative GPAT1 transcript variants, GPAT1-V1 and V2, while promoter 1b produces a third transcript variant, GPAT1-V3
physiological function
-
GC-1 spermatogonia cells show a marked increase in proliferation after transfection with GPAT4. Cell cycle analysis shows a decrease in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and an increase in the S phase. Thus, GPAT4 might play an important role in spermatogenesis, especially in mid-meiosis
physiological function
Q8C0N2
Gpat1 mRNA levels increase more than 20fold in mouse liver in an insulin-dependent manner by refeeding of a high-carbohydrate diet after fasting, which is associated with active hepatic lipogenesis, Gpat3 mRNA levels in ob/ob mice are decreased by 70% in white adipose tissue and increased 2fold in liver compared with wild-type animals. Treatment of ob/ob mice with rosiglitazone, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist, increases Gpat3, but not Gpat1, mRNA in white adipose tissue, suggesting that Gpat3 is a PPARgamma target gene
physiological function
-
in contrast to Gpat1, Gpat2 mRNA does not increase in liver of rats refed a high-sucrose diet after fasting, suggesting less contribution of GPAT2 to diet-induced hepatic TAG synthesis
physiological function
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
in contrast to other GPATs, GPAT4 overexpression does not increase incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into triacylglycerol in HEK-293 and COS-7 cells, suggesting that lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid produced from the GPAT4 pathway may consist of a separate pool from that utilized for triacylglycerol synthesis
physiological function
-
overexpression Gat1p in the absence of endogenous GPATs results in elongated cells with a normal cortical edoplasmic reticulum positioned underneath the plasma membrane, while excess Gat2p results in larger and round cells with an irregular layout of membranes, with pronounced invaginations also affecting the plasma membrane morphology
physiological function
Q8C0N2
the mouse Gpat1 gene promoter region contains three sterol regulatory elements responsible for SREBP-1-mediated transactivation. Ectopic expression of SREBP-1c in 3T3-L1 adipocytes or in liver of transgenic mice dramatically increases Gpat1 mRNA
physiological function
-
treatment of primary rat adipocytes with insulin acutely affects the activity of mtGPAT1 by increasing VMAX and KM for the substrates glycerol-3-phosphate and palmitoyl-CoA
physiological function
D3ZI76
isoform GPAT2 overexpression in CHO-K1 cells increased arachidonoyl-CoA esterification and accumulation of triacylglycerols. GPAT2 expression is linked to arachidonoyl-CoA incorporation into triacylglycerols in spermatogenic germ cells
physiological function
-
the knockout mutant causes a massive reduction in seed production. The ablation of enzyme function causes defective tapetum development with reduced endoplasmic reticulum profiles in the tapetum, which largely lead to the abortion of pollen grains and defective pollen wall formation. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are affected in the mutant plants. Isoforms GPAT6 and GPAT1 make joint effects on the release of microspores from tetrads and stamen filament elongation
physiological function
-
upon stable overexpression of isoform Gpat1, lysophosphatidic acid levels in CHO-GPAT1 cells are 6fold higher than in wild-type CHO cells, and the mRNA abundance of CD36, a target of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor PPARgamma, is 2fold higher. PPARgamma activity is higher in the cells that overexpress isoform GPAT1. PPARgamma activity is further enhanced in CHO-GPAT1 cells treated with the PPARgamma ligand troglitazone. Extracellular LPA, phosphatidic acid or a membrane-permeable diacylglycerol have no effect
physiological function
P36148
yeast strains lacking isoform Gat1p are sensitive to oleate and fail to accumulate lipid particles induced by this unsaturated fatty acid
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q1PA40
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q14DK4
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q7XYH5
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
broad specificity
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
chloroplastic enzyme has no strict acyl-CoA specificity
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
dihydroxyacetone phosphate, ethylene glycol phosphate and 1,3-propanediol phosphate can replace glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with hexanoyl-CoA, enzyme prefers saturated fatty acyl-CoAs
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32784, P36148
enzyme has both 3-glycerophosphate acyltransferase and dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preference for saturated fatty acyl-CoAs
-
-
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoAs are substrates
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoAs are substrates
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoAs are substrates
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoAs are substrates
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity with butanoyl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA
-
-
-
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no acyl-donors are hexanoyl-CoA, octanoyl-CoA
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
dihydroxyacetone phosphate is ineffective as acyl-acceptor
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
dihydroxyacetone phosphate is ineffective as acyl-acceptor
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
dihydroxyacetone phosphate is ineffective as acyl-acceptor
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
dihydroxyacetone phosphate is ineffective as acyl-acceptor
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
dihydroxyacetone phosphate is ineffective as acyl-acceptor
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
dihydroxyacetone phosphate is ineffective as acyl-acceptor
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme has both 3-glycerophosphate acyltransferase and dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase activity
-
-
-
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
temperature-dependent specificity of reconstituted enzyme
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
saturated acyl-CoAs preferred
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
saturated acyl-CoAs preferred
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
saturated acyl-CoAs preferred
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
saturated acyl-CoAs preferred
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
pulmonary enzyme acetylates C-1 and C-2-position
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acyl-selectivity
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
initial reaction of cocoa butter biosynthesis
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
initial reaction of glycolipid biosynthesis
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
initial reaction of phosphoglycerol biosynthesis
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
initial step in membrane phospholipid biosynthesis
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step of glycerolipid synthesis with long-chain acyl-CoAs
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
first committed step in biosynthesis of fatty acid biosynthesis, the enzyme is responsible for incorporation of saturated and unsaturated fatty-acyl chains into chloroplast membranes
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first and committed step in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids and TAG from sn-glycerol-3-phosphate
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first and committed step in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerol from sn-glycerol-3-phosphate
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in de novo triacylglycerol synthesis
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate with longchain acyl-CoA
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2
-
broad specificity
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli 8
-
exclusively acylates glycerol 3-phosphate at the C-1-position, saturated acyl-CoAs preferred
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Tetrahymena pyriformis WH-14
-
saturated and unsaturated acyl-CoAs are substrates
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + glycerol-3-phosphate
[acyl-carrier protein] + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
Q1PA40
-
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for glycerol 3-phosphate, ACP-thioesters preferred over CoA-thioester
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] is probably the physiological substrate
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
[acyl-carrier protein] + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q7XYH5
-
-
-
?
arachidonoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
D3ZI76
-
-
-
?
arachidonoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
?
arachidonoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
?
arachidonoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
20% of the reaction rate with palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
arachidoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-arachidoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cis-vaccenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + cis-vaccenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cis-vaccenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + cis-vaccenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
cis-vaccenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + cis-vaccenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cis-vaccenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-cis-vaccenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
cis-vaccenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-cis-vaccenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
docosahexaenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
D3ZI76
-
-
-
?
eicosapentaenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-eicosapentaenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
D3ZI76
-
-
-
?
erucoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-erucoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
erucoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-erucoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
?
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
Q1PA40
-
-
-
?
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
Q14DK4
-
-
-
?
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
long-chain fatty acyl-CoA
-
-
?
glycerol 3-phosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycerol 3-phosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P10349
-
-
-
?
lauroyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-lauroyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lauroyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-lauroyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lauroyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-lauroyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
linolenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linolenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate linoleoyl-CoA (equal to palmitoyl-CoA), and palmitoyl-CoA, best substrates
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
D3ZI76
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
40% of the reaction rate with palmitoyl-CoA, no substrate for DTNB-resistant isozyme
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
2% of activity with palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
-
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
poor substrate
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
20% of activity with oleoyl-CoA
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2
-
i.e. tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
?
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Tetrahymena pyriformis WH-14
-
i.e. tetradecanoyl-CoA
-
?
n-decanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-decanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
n-dodecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-dodecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
n-dodecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-dodecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity
-
?
n-dodecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-dodecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. lauroyl-CoA, poor substrate
-
?
n-dodecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-dodecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. lauroyl-CoA, poor substrate
-
?
octanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-octanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity
-
?
oleic acid-[acyl-carrier protein] + glycerol-3-phosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
Q1PA40
GPAT from chilling-resistant plants prefer 18:1-[acyl-carrier protein], oleic acid, to 16:0-[acyl-carrier protein], palmitic acid, as a substrate
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
moderate activity with oleoyl-CoA
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32784, P36148
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
D3ZI76
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32784, P36148
low activity
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
best acyl-donor
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
slight preference over palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. octadecenoyl-CoA
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
7% of activity with palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
16% of the reaction rate with palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred over palmitoyl-CoA with a ratio of approx. 3:1
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
50% of the reaction rate with palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred over palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred in an equimolar mixture of palmitoyl-CoA, stearoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9FEP9, Q9FEQ0
isoenzyme AT1, preferred over palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
poor substrate
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
poor substrate
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli 8
-
16% of the reaction rate with palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Tetrahymena pyriformis WH-14
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
?
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
?
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] is preferred over palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein]
-
?
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no preference over palmitoyl- acyl-carrier-protein
-
?
palmitoleoyl phosphate + glycerol-3-phosphate
1-palmitoleoyl-2-lyso-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32784, P36148
-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate palmitoyl-CoA (equal to linoleoyl-CoA), and lineoyl-CoA, best substrates
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q14DK4
activity assay
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q61586
-
-
-
-
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P97564
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32784, P36148
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
D3ZI76
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. lysophosphatidic acid
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
20% of activity with oleoyl-CoA
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
4fold better substrate than oleoyl-CoA
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
best acyl donor
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
best acyl donor
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
wild-type acyltransferase uses palmitoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA at comparable rates, recombinant mutant acyltransferase prefers oleoyl-CoA
-
-
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant mitochondrial acyltransferase prefers palmitoyl-CoA over oleoyl-CoA
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
best acyl-donor
-
-
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32784, P36148
preferred acyl-donor
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
stromal acyltransferase, preferred acyl-donor
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
microsomal enzyme, preferred over oleoyl-CoA
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
mitochondrial enzyme, preferred over oleoyl-CoA
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
palmitoyl-CoA is preferred over oleoyl-CoA only in presence of albumin or acyl-CoA binding protein ACBP in young rat livers
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate of isozyme mtGPAT1, not of isozyme mtGPAT2
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli ML 308-225
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate, best acyl donor
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
best acyl donor
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli 8
-
4fold better substrate than oleoyl-CoA, i.e. n-hexadecanoyl-CoA, best substrate
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Tetrahymena pyriformis WH-14
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate is palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + glycerol-3-phosphate
[acyl-carrier protein] + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q1PA40
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32784, P36148
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32784, P36148
low activity
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
20% of activity with oleoyl-CoA
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 20% of activity with palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. n-octadecanoyl-CoA, 30% of the reaction rate with palmitoyl-CoA
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
undecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-undecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Tetrahymena pyriformis WH-14
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
aging and acyl-CoA binding protein alter mitochondrial enzyme activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme important for the synthesis of triacylglycerol but not essential for virulence
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the content of cis-unsaturated fatty acids in the plastidial phosphatidyl glycerol determines the degree of sensitivity to chilling, the higher it is the more tolerant are the plants to chilling, spinach is chilling-insensitive, while squash is chilling-sensitive, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the content of cis-unsaturated fatty acids in the plastidial phosphatidyl glycerol determines the degree of sensitivity to chilling, the higher it is the more tolerant are the plants to chilling, squash is chilling-sensitive, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of the chimeric mutant enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of wild-type and chimeric mutant enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the mitochondrial and microsomal isozymes show different substrate specificity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
mtGPAT1 is essential for normal acyl-CoA metabolism: The absence of hepatic mtGPAT1 results in the partitioning of fatty acids away from triacylglycerol synthesis and toward oxidation and ketogenesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
two-hybrid examinations show that PlsY is associated with PlsX protein which produces acyl-phosphate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
in biochemical studies, saturated fatty acyl-CoAs are preferred approximately 2fold over unsaturated fatty acyl-CoAs as GPAT1 substrates. Esterification occurs at the sn-1 position of glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q1PA40
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q14DK4
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q7XYH5
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
initial reaction of cocoa butter biosynthesis
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
initial reaction of glycolipid biosynthesis
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
initial reaction of phosphoglycerol biosynthesis
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
initial step in membrane phospholipid biosynthesis
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step of glycerolipid synthesis with long-chain acyl-CoAs
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
first committed step in biosynthesis of fatty acid biosynthesis, the enzyme is responsible for incorporation of saturated and unsaturated fatty-acyl chains into chloroplast membranes
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first and committed step in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids and TAG from sn-glycerol-3-phosphate
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first and committed step in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids and triacylglycerol from sn-glycerol-3-phosphate
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in de novo triacylglycerol synthesis
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acylation of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate with longchain acyl-CoA
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] is probably the physiological substrate
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
aging and acyl-CoA binding protein alter mitochondrial enzyme activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme important for the synthesis of triacylglycerol but not essential for virulence
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the content of cis-unsaturated fatty acids in the plastidial phosphatidyl glycerol determines the degree of sensitivity to chilling, the higher it is the more tolerant are the plants to chilling, spinach is chilling-insensitive, while squash is chilling-sensitive, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the content of cis-unsaturated fatty acids in the plastidial phosphatidyl glycerol determines the degree of sensitivity to chilling, the higher it is the more tolerant are the plants to chilling, squash is chilling-sensitive, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
mtGPAT1 is essential for normal acyl-CoA metabolism: The absence of hepatic mtGPAT1 results in the partitioning of fatty acids away from triacylglycerol synthesis and toward oxidation and ketogenesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
two-hybrid examinations show that PlsY is associated with PlsX protein which produces acyl-phosphate
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acyl-CoA
-
activation, above 0.02 mM, in the presence of bovine serum albumin
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
requirement
Ca2+
-
activation of microsomal and mitochondrial enzyme
Ca2+
-
inhibitory in the absence of NaCl
Co2+
-
activation, can replace Ca2+ to some extent
Co2+
-
at high concentrations
KCl
-
activation at 200 mM
LiCl
-
activation at 200 mM
Mg2+
-
inhibitory in the absence of NaCl
Mg2+
-
activation, slightly less than Ca2+
Mg2+
-
1 mM, optimal activity in microsomal fraction
Mg2+
-
best at 4 mM MgCl2
Mg2+
-
activates in presence of polymyxin
Mn2+
-
activation, can replace Ca2+ to some extent
Mn2+
-
less effective than Ca2+
NaCl
-
activation at 200 mM
NaF
-
activates
Mn2+
-
2.5 mM, 53% activation, 10 mM, 100% activation
additional information
-
not activated by divalent ions
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
not activated by EDTA or EGTA up to 10 mM
additional information
-
not activated by divalent ions
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+-)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentyl)acetic acid
P10349
-
-
(+-)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentyl)acetic acid
-
8% inhibition at 40 microg/ml
-
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid
P10349
-
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid
-
36% inhibition at 40 microg/ml
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentane carboxylic acid
-
97% inhibition at 40 microg/ml
-
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid
-
3% inhibition at 40 microg/ml
-
(1S,2R,3R)-2-hydroxy-3-[(octylsulfonyl)amino]cyclopentanecarboxylic acid
P10349
-
(1S,2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-[(octylsulfonyl)amino]cyclopentanecarboxylic acid
P10349
-
1-monooleoylglycerol
-
mechanism
1-monooleoylglycerol 3-phosphate
-
non-competitive, mitochondrial isozyme
1-Monooleoylglycerol amide
-
mechanism
-
1-Monooleoylglycerol ether
-
mechanism
-
1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
2,3-Butanedione
-
5 mM, 54% and 21% inhibition of microsomal and mitochondrial acyltransferase respectively
2-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(hexadecylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(methylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
P10349
-
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
97% inhibition at 40 microg/ml
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
2-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
2-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(tetradecylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-monooleoylglycerol
-
mechanism
2-Monooleoylglycerol amide
-
mechanism
-
2-Monooleoylglycerol ether
-
mechanism
-
3-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
3-(nonylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
3-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
3-(pentylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid
-
trivial name CHAPS, complete inhibition
4-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
4-(nonylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
4-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
4-(pentylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-methoxyphenyl palmitoylsulfamate
-
good antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis
4-methoxyphenyl undec-10-enoylsulfamate
-
broad antimicrobial profile with good activity against multiple species of Gram-positive bacteria
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro-benzoate)
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro-benzoate)
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme, mitochondrial enzyme is not inhibited
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro-benzoate)
-
1 mM, 20-30% inhibition of activity on palmitoyl-CoA, complete inhibition of activity on other acyl-CoAs
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro-benzoate)
-
0.15mM, 90% inhibition in sonicated vesicles
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro-benzoate)
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro-benzoate)
-
1 mM, 77% inhibition
5-chloro-2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
5-fluoro-2-(octylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
5-hydroxy-2-(octylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
acetanhydride
-
-
acetone
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme
acyl-CoA
-
strong substrate inhibition
aminophenylboronate
-
; mixed-type inhibition of microsomal and mitochondrial acyltransferase vs. glycerol 3-phosphate
AMP-activated protein kinase
-
AMP-activated protein kinase reciprocally regulates GPAT1
-
Antibodies to cocoa seed enzyme
-
raised in rabbit
-
Bovine serum albumin
-
above 6 mg/ml, at 0.01 mg palmitoyl-CoA depending on palmitoyl-CoA and phospholipid concentration
-
Bromelain
-
strong inhibition of microsomal enzyme
-
Ca2+
-
higher concentration, small amounts of phospholipids protect
Ca2+
-
in the absence of NaCl
Ca2+
-
5 mM, 70% inhibition
CaCl2
-
33% inhibition of isozyme mtGPAT1, 70% inhibition of isozyme mtGPAT2
cardiolipin
-
inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme
cardiolipin
-
-
cholate
-
phospholipids restore activity
cholate
-
complete inhibition
cis-9,10-Methylenehexadecanoic acid
-
0.15 mM, 50% inhibition, non-competitive to glycerol 3-phosphate, synergism with oleate, palmitoleate or cis-vaccenate
cis-vaccenate
-
0.45 mM, 50% inhibition, synergism with cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid
cis-Vaccenoyl-CoA
-
-
cyclohexandione
-
50 mM, almost complete inhibition of mitochondrial acyltransferase
deoxycholate
-
-
deoxycholate
-
above 0.35 mg/ml
deoxycholate
-
phospholipids restore activity
deoxycholate
-
complete inhibition
Detergents
-
e.g. Brij 35, Brij 58, Lubrol 17A-10, phospholipids restore activity
diacylglycerophosphate
-
i.e. phosphatidic acid, inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme
diacylglycerophosphate
-
-
diethyldicarbonate
-
0.3 mM, approx. 67% inhibition of microsomal acyltransferase, approx. 40% inhibition of mitochondrial acyltransferase, approx. 60% inhibition of recombinant mitochondrial acyltransferase, activity is restored to approx 50% by hydroxylamine
dihydroxyacetone phosphate
-
microsomal isozyme
dihydroxyacetone phosphate
-
palmitoyl-CoA-specific isozyme
dihydroxyacetone phosphate
-
-
dihydroxyacetonephosphate
-
competitive inhibition of isozyme mtGPAT2, no inhibition of isozyme mtGPAT1
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
weak inhibition
dithiothreitol
-
palmitoyl-CoA-specific isozyme
EDTA
-
1 mM, 79% inhibition
iodoacetamide
-
strong inhibition of microsomal enzyme, mitochondrial enzyme is not inhibited
iodoacetamide
-
-
lysophosphatidic acid
-
product inhibition, all isozymes
Mg2+
-
in the absence of NaCl
Mg2+
-
5 mM, 75% inhibition
Mg2+
-
2 mM, 87% residual activity; slightly decreases activity, relative activity: 87.5% (2 mM), 37% (5 mM)
MgCl2
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme
Mn2+
-
2 mM, 82% residaul activity; slightly decreases activity, relative activity: 81.5% (2 mM)
Monoacylglycerophosphate
-
i.e. lysophosphatidic acid, inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme
Monoacylglycerophosphate
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
Euglena sp.
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
strong inhibition of microsomal isozyme, mitochondrial enzyme is not inhibited
N-ethylmaleimide
-
0.5-10 mM, 80-90% inhibition of microsomal acyltransferase, mitochondrial acyltransferase is not inhibited
N-ethylmaleimide
-
0.4 mM, 60% inhibition after 10 min
N-ethylmaleimide
-
10 mM, 65% inhibition in sonicated vesicles, 2 mM, 93% inhibition in vesicles treated with 0.3% toluene
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
4 mM, approx. 50% inhibition of the solubilized acyltransferase, membrane-bound enzyme is not inhibited
N-ethylmaleimide
-
5 mM, 79% inhibition
N-ethylmaleimide
-
only N-ethylmaleimide sensitive isoform
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
NaCl
-
100 mM, 30% inhibition
NEM
-
inactivation of isozyme mtGPAT2 and the microsomal isozyme
oleate
-
not oleoyl-CoA
oleate
-
-
oleate
-
0.31 mM, 50% inhibition, synergism with cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
10 mM, 88% inhibition in sonicated vesicles, 1 mM, 98% inhibition in vesicles treated with 0.3% toluene, 2-mercaptoethanol partially restores activity, not inhibited by p-chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
1 mM, 64% inhibition
palmitoleate
-
0.31 mM, 50% inhibition, synergism with cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid
palmitoleoyl-CoA
-
shows substrate inhibition, therfore Km value is not determined
palmitoyl-CoA
-
bovine serum albumin attenuates
palmitoyl-CoA
-
microsomal enzyme, above 0.1 mM
palmitoyl-CoA
-
0.08 mM
palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
Papain
-
strong inhibition of microsomal enzyme
-
phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl)sulfamate
-
good antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. Compound causes an abrupt cessation of cell growth and inhibits inhibits protein, DNA and RNA synthesis in Bacillus anthracis Sterne
phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl)sulfamate
-
good antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. Staphylococcus aureus cell growth does not immediately cease following addition, but slows down over approximately 2 h before stopping completely. Compound causes a concentration dependent decrease in acetate incorporation into fatty acids and membrane phospholipids
Phenylglyoxal
-
50 mM, approx. 70% inhibition of mitochondrial acyltransferase
Phenylglyoxal
-
1 mM, 88% and 59% inhibition of microsomal and mitochondrial acyltransferase, respectively; 1 mM, 88% and 59% inhibition of microsomal and mitochondrial acyltransferase, respectively
phosphate
-
-
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
1,2-unsaturated species
phosphatidylglycerol
-
above 1.5 mM, activation below
phosphatidylinositol
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme
phosphatidylserine
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme
Polymyxin B
-
0.5 mg/ml, approx. 75% inhibition of microsomal enzyme, slight stimulation of mitochondrial enzyme
Polymyxin B
-
inhibitis isozyme mtGPAT2 and the microsomal isozyme
Polymyxin B
-
in absence of BSA the antibiotic is slightly inhibitory
Pronase
-
strong inhibition of microsomal enzyme
-
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol
-
-
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol amide
-
-
spermidine
-
inhibits slightly in absence of bovine serum albumin
spermine
-
inhibits slightly in absence of bovine serum albumin
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
strong, above 0.15 mg/ml
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
phospholipids restore activity
Trypsin
-
0.04 mg/ml, approx. 80% inhibition of microsomal enzyme within 3 min at 37C, inhibition of the mitochondrial enzyme only in the presence of 0.05% deoxycholate or 0.1% Triton X-100
-
Trypsin
-
0.06 mg/ml, 80% inhibition after 10 min
-
Trypsin
-
-
-
Monoacylglycerophosphate
-
-
additional information
-
liver microsomal enzyme is inhibited by all proteases; liver mitochondrial enzyme, not inhibited by trypsin and chymotrypsin
-
additional information
-
mitochondrial enzyme, not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide
-
additional information
-
mitochondrial enzyme, not inhibited by bromelain, papain, pronase and trypsin
-
additional information
-
microsomal isozyme, not inhibited by sn-1,2-diolein, 1,2-dioleoylglycerol ether, dioleoylphosphatidic acid
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by palmitate, elaidate, trans-vaccenate
-
additional information
-
recombinant mitochondrial acyl transferase, not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by malonyl-CoA, substrate inhibition by acyl-CoAs at concentrations above 0.075 mM
-
additional information
-
antisense LeGPAT is introduced to inhibit the expression of LeGPAT
-
additional information
-
cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl scaffolds may be occluded from the enzyme active site by two protein loops that sterically guard the phosphate binding region
-
additional information
-
data suggest that acylsulfamate inhibitors may have off-target effects on bacterial membrane function
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(3-Morpholino)propanesulfonic acid-NaOH
-
i.e. MOPS-NaOH, activation, up to 30 mM
acetone
-
activation of mitochondrial enzyme, inhibition of microsomal enzyme
acetone
-
activates isozyme mtGPAT1, no activation of isozyme mtGPAT2
asolectin
-
i.e. crude mixture of soybean phospholipids, activation of mitochondrial enzyme
-
ATP
-
activation of acyltransferase in isolated membrane preparations
Bovine serum albumin
-
alleviates detergent effect of palmitoyl-CoA
-
Bovine serum albumin
-
-
-
Bovine serum albumin
-
alleviates detergent effect of palmitoyl-CoA
-
Bovine serum albumin
-
activation at 1 mg/ml
-
Bovine serum albumin
-
alleviates detergent effect of palmitoyl-CoA; alleviates detergent effect of palmitoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA; not necessary with acyl-ACP derivatives or mixed micellar samples
-
cardiolipin
-
activation of reconstituted mitochondrial enzyme
dioleoyl phosphatidic acid
-
very strong activation
dioleoyl phosphatidylserine
-
best phospholipid for activation
dithiothreitol
-
1 mM, 82% activation
EDTA
-
10 mM, enhances activity, relative activity: 143%
Insulin
-
Gpat1 is upregulated by insulin
-
KF
-
stimulation of activity in microsomal preparation
Non-site-specific proteases
-
activation, e.g. proteinase K, subtilisin, not chymotrypsin, trypsin, mitochondrial enzyme, degree of inhibition increases with decreasing ionic strength
-
oleate
P36148
presence of oleate induces dephosphorylation of isoform Gat1p as well as an increment in its levels. In presence of oleate, Gat1p crescent structures are formed which are connected with the endoplasmic reticulum and are intimately associated with lipid particles
phosphatidylcholine
-
-
phosphatidylcholine
-
i.e. lecithin, activation of mitochondrial enzyme
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
activation of microsomal enzyme
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
seems to be required for optimal activity
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
inefficient, pH-dependent
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
activation of reconstituted mitochondrial acyl transferase
phosphatidylglycerol
-
1.5 mM, 30-40fold activation of solubilized enzyme, inhibiton above
phosphatidylglycerol
-
required for activation and stabilization
phosphatidylglycerol
-
-
phosphatidylglycerol
-
highest activation of reconstituted mitochondrial acyltransferase in the presence of Lubrol PX
phosphatidylinositol
-
activation of mitochondrial enzyme
phosphatidylserine
-
activation of mitochondrial enzyme
Phospholipids
-
-
Phospholipids
-
activation, e.g. phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin, i.e. diphosphatidyl glycerol, ratio 2/1, protect against inhibition by palmitoyl-CoA; reconstituted activity of Triton X-100-solubilized enzyme, maximal reconstitution at a phospholipid/Triton X-100 ratio of 20/1
Phospholipids
-
solubilization and reconstitution in phospholipids activates latent glycerol 3-phosphate activity
Phospholipids
-
absolutely required; bilayers required for activity: phosphatidylethanolamine/-glycerol, ratio 4/1, phosphatidylethanolamine/cardiolipin, ratio 4/1
Phospholipids
-
phosphatidylethanolamine/phosphatidylglycerol/cardiolipin, ratio 6/1/1
Phospholipids
-
absolutely required
Phospholipids
-
required for activity
Polymyxin B
-
activation of mitochondrial enzyme, inhibition of microsomal enzyme
Polymyxin B
-
activates isozyme mtGPAT1
Polymyxin B
-
antibiotic, reversible binding, stimulation via enhanced extraction of lysophosphatidic acid, maximal at 60%, the acyl side group does not play a role in stimulation, addition of bovine serum albumin is highly required for stimulation, in absence of bovine serum albumin the antibiotic is slightly inhibitory, addition of Mg2+ enhances the stimulation
Polymyxin B
-
-
Proteases
-
activation, microsomal enzyme
-
spermidine
-
activates about 3.5fold in presence of 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin
spermine
-
activates about 3fold in presence of 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin
SREBP-1
-
Gpat1 is upregulated by SREBP-1
-
Triton X-100
-
i.e. octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol, slight stimulation at 0.1 mg/ml
Zwittergent 3-14
-
above the critical micellar concentration
Lubrol Px
-
above the critical micellar concentration
additional information
-
not activated by 1,2-diacyl glycerol 3-phosphate
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.003 - 0.0034
acyl-ACP
-
recombinant N-terminal truncated acyltransferase
0.07
acyl-ACP
-
-
0.025
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
0.1
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
CHAPS-solubilized acyl transferase
0.11
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
L261F mutant acyltransferase, acyl-donor oleoyl-CoA
0.117 - 0.143
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
acyl donor palmitoyl-CoA
0.12
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
0.12
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
acyl donor oleoyl-CoA
0.143
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
acyl donor palmitoyl-CoA
0.15
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
L261F mutant acyltransferase, acyl-donor palmitoyl-CoA
0.354
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
; pH 7.5, 30C
0.46
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol
0.67
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase
0.82
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in asolectin
0.93
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol
3.9
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
fixed substrate concentration: 0.08 mM palmitoyl-CoA, without addition of insulin, Vmax: 6.1 nmol/min/mg
7.2
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
fixed substrate concentration: 0.02 mM palmitoyl-CoA, with addition of insulin, Vmax: 7.2 nmol/min/mg
0.012
myristoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol
0.016
myristoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol; mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in asolectin
0.0003 - 0.0007
oleoyl-ACP
-
-
0.0028
oleoyl-ACP
-
L261F mutant acyltransferase
0.003
oleoyl-ACP
-
-
0.005
oleoyl-CoA
-
-
0.0084
oleoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol
0.011
oleoyl-CoA
-
-
0.013
oleoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in asolectin
0.014
oleoyl-CoA
Euglena sp.
-
-
0.015
oleoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol
0.015
oleoyl-CoA
-
-
0.02
oleoyl-CoA
-
recombinant mitochondrial acyltransferase
0.0312
oleoyl-CoA
-
Vmax value calculated with oleoyl-CoA as a substrate is 4fold lower than the value obtained with palmitoyl-CoA
0.083
oleoyl-CoA
-
recombinant stromal acyltransferase
0.1
oleoyl-CoA
-
recombinant stromal acyltransferase
0.0032
palmitoyl-ACP
-
-
0.0034
palmitoyl-ACP
-
-
0.0056
palmitoyl-ACP
-
-
0.0092
palmitoyl-ACP
-
L261F mutant acyltransferase
0.015
palmitoyl-ACP
-
-
0.002
palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
0.0031
palmitoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol
0.0032
palmitoyl-CoA
-
R318A mutant mitochondrial acyltransferase
0.0046
palmitoyl-CoA
-
strain 8, reconstituted enzyme
0.0046
palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
0.0046
palmitoyl-CoA
-
R318K mutant mitochondrial acyltransferase
0.0056
palmitoyl-CoA
-
strain 8, membrane-associated enzyme
0.006
palmitoyl-CoA
-
strain VL3/pVL1 bearing plasmid which overproduces glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, membrane-associated enzyme
0.006
palmitoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in asolectin
0.007
palmitoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol
0.007
palmitoyl-CoA
-
value below 0.007 mM, fixed substrate concentration: 0.002 mM glycerol-3-phosphate, without addition of insulin, Vmax: 2.4 nmol/min/mg
0.0078
palmitoyl-CoA
-
strain VL3/pLB3-4 bearing plasmid which overproduces glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, membrane-associated enzyme
0.011
palmitoyl-CoA
-
wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase
0.012
palmitoyl-CoA
-
strain VL3/pVL1 bearing plasmid which overproduces glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, reconstituted enzyme
0.017
palmitoyl-CoA
-
strain VL3/pLB3-4 bearing plasmid which overproduces glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, reconstituted enzyme
0.02
palmitoyl-CoA
-
recombinant mitochondrial acyltransferase
0.021
palmitoyl-CoA
Euglena sp.
-
-
0.0264
palmitoyl-CoA
-
fixed substrate concentration: 0.002 mM glycerol-3-phosphate, with addition of insulin, Vmax: 14.1 nmol/min/mg
0.14
palmitoyl-CoA
-
recombinant stromal acyltransferase
1.5
palmitoyl-CoA
-
recombinant stromal acyltransferase
0.03
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
0.033
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
0.05
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
acyl-CoA
0.1 - 0.2
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
microsomal enzyme
0.1
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
assay with microsomal preparation
0.102
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
strain VL3/pVL1 bearing plasmid which overproduces glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, membrane-associated enzyme
0.105
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
strain 8, membrane-associated enzyme
0.108
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
strain VL3/pLB3-4 bearing plasmid which overproduces glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, membrane-associated enzyme
0.14
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
pH 7.5, 22C, microsomal isozyme
0.15
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
acyl donor palmitoyl-CoA or palmitoyl-ACP
0.156
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
membrane-bound enzyme
0.2
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
0.3 - 0.5
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
assay with microsomal fraction
0.3
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
pH 7.5, 22C, isozyme mtGPAT1-knockout-mice mitochondria
0.4
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
pH 7.5, 22C, wild-type mitochondria
0.5
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
assay with microsomal preparation
0.56
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
strain 8
0.69
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
pH 7.5, 26C, recombinant enzyme in cell extracts of enzyme-deficient yeast mutant cells strain BYL118
0.7
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
isoforms 1 and 2
0.79
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
strain 8, reconstituted enzyme
0.92
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
strain VL3/pVL1 bearing plasmid which overproduces glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, reconstituted enzyme
1
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
mitochondrial enzyme
1.1
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
strain VL3/pLB3-4 bearing plasmid which overproduces glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase, reconstituted enzyme
2.08
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
pH 7.5, 26C, wild-type enzyme in cell extracts of promastigote
2.9
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
Euglena sp.
-
-
3 - 3.2
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
acyl donors: palmitoyl-ACP or stearoyl-ACP
3 - 3.2
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
reconstituted enzyme
3 - 3.2
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
strain BB26-36
3
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
solubilized enzyme in the presence of phosphatidylglycerol
4.2
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
0.0033
stearoyl-ACP
-
-
0.004
stearoyl-CoA
-
-
0.0064
stearoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol
0.011
stearoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in asolectin
0.013
stearoyl-CoA
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase reconstituted in 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol
0.025
vaccenoyl-ACP
-
-
16.4
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
fixed substrate concentration: 0.08 mM palmitoyl-CoA, with addition of insulin, Vmax: 16.6 nmol/min/mg
additional information
additional information
-
kinetic cooperativity towards glycerol 3-phosphate and palmitoyl-CoA
-
additional information
additional information
-
solubilization increases Km of mitochondrial acyltransferase for glycerol 3-phosphate
-
additional information
additional information
-
kinetics, cell extract
-
additional information
additional information
-
insulin treatment of rat primary adipocytes acutely increases the Km and Vmax of GPAT1 for its substrates, which may be mediated through protein phosphorylation
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.06
1-monooleoylglycerol
-
mitochondrial enzyme
0.067
1-monooleoylglycerol
-
microsomal enzyme
0.055
1-monooleoylglycerol 3-phosphate
-
microsomal enzyme
0.095
1-Monooleoylglycerol amide
-
microsomal enzyme
-
0.036
1-Monooleoylglycerol ether
-
microsomal enzyme
-
0.05
1-Monooleoylglycerol ether
-
mitochondrial enzyme
-
2.9
aminophenylboronate
-
microsomal acyltransferase
8.2
aminophenylboronate
-
mitochondrial acyltransferase
10.3
aminophenylboronate
-
recombinant mitochondrial acyltransferase
0.54
dihydroxyacetone phosphate
-
-
0.545
dihydroxyacetonephosphate
-
pH 7.5, 22C, isozyme mtGPAT2
0.063
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol
-
mitochondrial enzyme
0.096
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol
-
microsomal enzyme
0.475
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol amide
-
microsomal enzyme
0.082
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol ether
-
microsomal enzyme
-
0.093
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol ether
-
mitochondrial enzyme
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.295
(+-)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentyl)acetic acid
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.164
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
0.255
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentane carboxylic acid
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.324
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.152
2-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.107
2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0183
2-(hexadecylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.132
2-(methylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0247
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
demonstrates the greatest inhibitory activity
0.0247
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
0.0811
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.0736
2-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.129
2-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.14
2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.146
2-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0174
2-(tetradecylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.164
3-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0757
3-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0739
3-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0628
3-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.0835
3-(nonylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0724
3-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.141
3-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.31
3-(pentylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
0.178
3-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.138
3-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.206
4-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.108
4-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0889
4-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0813
4-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.0665
4-(nonylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
0.129
4-(nonylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0953
4-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.148
4-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
0.217
4-(pentylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
0.252
4-(pentylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
0.221
4-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.151
4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.008
4-methoxyphenyl palmitoylsulfamate
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.027
4-methoxyphenyl undec-10-enoylsulfamate
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0318
5-chloro-2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.089
5-fluoro-2-(octylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.116
5-hydroxy-2-(octylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
0.0945
palmitoyl-CoA
-
with addition of insulin
0.126
palmitoyl-CoA
-
without addition of insulin
0.025
phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl)sulfamate
-
pH 7.4, 37C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.000023
-
specific activity in total homogenate
0.0000342
-
specific activity in microsomes
0.00013
-
in hearts from wild-type mice, N-ethylmaleimide resistant GPAT activity, 27% of the total activity
0.00016
-
contact sites obtained from mitochondria, subfraction of crude mitochondria
0.0002
-
with empty pcDNA3.1 vector transfected COS-7 cells, N-ethylmaleimide resistant
0.00025
-
in hearts from wild-type mice, mitochondrial fraction, N-ethylmaleimide resistant GPAT activity, 43% of the total activity
0.0003
-
activity in rat liver membranes after inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum GPAT with N-ethylmaleimide, rats are treated with Ad-EGFP
0.0003
-
control, untransfected COS-7 cells, N-ethylmaleimide resistant; with pcDNA3.1-GPAT2 transfected COS-7 cells, N-ethylmaleimide resistant
0.000322
-
specific activity in mitochondria
0.00047
-
in hearts from wild-type mice, total activity
0.00057
-
in hearts from wild-type mice, mitochondrial fraction, total activity
0.00065
-
crude mitochondria; inner mitochondrial membrane, subfraction of crude mitochondria
0.00083
-
activity in rat liver membranes after inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum GPAT with N-ethylmaleimide, rats are treated with Ad-GPAT1
0.0009
-
inner mitochondrial membrane, subfraction of pure mitochondria
0.0011
-
pure mitochondria
0.0012
-
HEK293 cells
0.00148
-
pure mitochondria, mitochondrial associated vesicle fraction
0.00149
-
transfected HEK293 cells, 18 h after transfection
0.0016
-
outer mitochondrial membrane, subfraction of crude mitochondria
0.00188
-
transfected HEK293 cells, 36 h after transfection
0.0027
-
about, enzyme in presence of 10 mM MgCl2 and 0.1 mg/ml polymyxin
0.0029
-
contact sites obtained from mitochondria, subfraction of pure mitochondria
0.003
-
with empty pcDNA3.1 vector transfected COS-7 cells, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive
0.0031
-
outer mitochondrial membrane, subfraction of pure mitochondria
0.0032
-
with empty pcDNA3.1 vector transfected COS-7 cells, total
0.0033
-
control, untransfected COS-7 cells, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive
0.0035
-
control, untransfected COS-7 cells, total
0.0042
-
with pcDNA3.1-GPAT2 transfected COS-7 cells, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive
0.0044
-
with pcDNA3.1-GPAT2 transfected COS-7 cells, total
0.0125
-
-
0.0125
-
strain 8
0.015
-
reconstituted enzyme
0.021
-
mitochondrial enzyme
0.037
-
pH 7.5, 30C
0.043
-
mitochondrial acyltransferase reconstituted in asolectin
0.126
-
strain VL3/pVL1
0.19
-
mitochondrial acyltransferase reconstituted in phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylethanolamine mixture
0.192
-
recombinant mitochondrial acyl transferase
0.32
-
strain VL3/plB3-4
1.74 - 3.18
-
-
1.74
-
isoform 1
2.3 - 8
-
-
3 - 4
-
reconstituted enzyme
3.2
-
isoform 2
10
Q9FEP9, Q9FEQ0
isoenzyme AT1, approx. value
additional information
-
activity in young and old livers in absence or presence of bovine serum albumin or acyl-CoA binding protein, overview
additional information
-
-
additional information
Q8C0N2
GPAT2 activity constitutes 60% of GPAT activity in purified mitochondria from wild-type mouse liver
additional information
-
maximum value for GPAT activity identified between 15 and 20 days after flowering
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6 - 8
-
mitochondrial acyl transferase
6.6 - 9
-
both microsomal and mitochondrial enzymes exhibit a broad optimum
6.6
-
2 isoforms
6.6
-
pI: 6.6
7 - 7.5
-
-
7
-
50% of maximal activity at pH 7.4
7.4
-
isoforms 1 and 2
7.4
-
broad optimum
7.4
-
CHAPS-solubilized microsomal acyl transferase
7.4
-
activity assasy
7.4
-
activity assay
7.5
-
assay at
7.5
-
activity assay
7.5
-
activity assay
7.5
-
activity assay
7.5
-
; assay at and optimal pH
8.8
-
assay at
9.2
-
reconstituted enzyme
9.5
-
membrane-associated enzyme
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.6 - 8.6
-
approx. half-maximal activity at pH 6.6 and 8.6
6.6 - 8.9
-
maximal activity at pH 6.6, approx. 30% of maximal activity at pH 8.9
7 - 8.6
-
approx. half-maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 8.6
7.5 - 9.2
-
approx. half-maximal activity at pH 7.5 and 9.2, reconstituted enzyme
8 - 9.5
-
approx. half-maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 9.5, membrane-associated enzyme
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
-
reconstituted enzyme, 2 optima
20
-
activity assay at room temperature
20
-
activity assay at room temperature
20
-
activity assay at room temperature
20
-
activity assay at room temperature
22
-
assay at room temperature
22
-
assay at room temperature
26
-
assay at
30 - 35
-
membrane-associated enzyme
30
-
reconstituted enzyme
30
-
assay at
30
-
assay at
35
-
reconstituted enzyme, 2 optima
37
-
assay at
37
-
activity assay
37
-
activity assasy
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
10 - 50
-
approx. half-maximal activity at 10C and 50C
20 - 40
-
approx. half-maximal activity at 20C and about 70% of maximal activity at 40C
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
pre- and post-adipocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
Gpat3 mRNA increases 60fold during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to mature adipocytes, suggesting a critical role in adipocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mitochondrial acyltransferase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
GPAT3 mRNA is dramatically upregulated during adipocyte differentiation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
epididymal fat, increased activity upon cessation of wheel running. Increase in mtGPAT protein might contribute to the overshoot in triacylglycerol synthesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression detected by RT-PCR
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
highest expression in white adipose tissue, moderate in brown adipose tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
low expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
highest expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
epididymal fat, increased activity upon cessation of wheel running. Increase in mtGPAT protein might contribute to the overshoot in triacylglycerol synthesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
low expression, moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in hepatopancreas mitochondria, a GPAT activity with characteristics similar to those of mammalian GPAT1 is identified
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
low expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mitochondrial acyltransferase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
young and old
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
hepatic overexpression of glycerol-sn-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 in rats causes insulin resistance
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q61586
hypothesis: increased hepatic mtGPAT activity associated with obesity and insulin resistance contributes to increased triacylglycerol biosynthesis and inhibition of fatty acid oxidation, responses that would promote hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1 is essential in liver for the metabolism of excess acyl-CoAs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression detected by RT-PCR
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
mRNA expression is induced by insulin
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley, Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression during anther development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
low expression, moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
highest expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
GPAT4 is expressed in around spermatids but not elongated spermatids during later spermiogenesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
low expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
aging reduces glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase activity in activated rat splenic T-lymphocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
decreased mtGPAT activity in aged T-lymphocytes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression during anther development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression detected by RT-PCR: GPAT4 is strongly expressed in testis. First expression is detected in mice at 2 weeks postnatally. Expression is abundant from the third week, plateaus at week 5-6 and then maintains at a high level in the adult
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D3ZI76
expression only in primary spermatocytes. During rat sexual maturation, both the testicular TAG content and the arachidonic acid content in the triacylglycerol fraction peak at 30 days, matching the highest expression of Gpat2 mRNA and protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8C0N2
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
inner medullary collecting duct 3 cell
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
distribution, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
high enzyme activity during the exponential growth phase of the parasite, but low during stationary phase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Q5XF03, Q8GWG0
differential permeabilization experiments indicate that their N- and C-termini are oriented towards the cytosol. GPAT8 possesses a divergent type of dilysine motif -KK-COOH which only functions effectively when additional upstream residues are included to provide the proper protein context
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q5XF03, Q8GWG0
differential permeabilization experiments indicate that their N- and C-termini are oriented towards the cytosol. GPAT9 possesses a hydrophobic pentapeptide motif (-f-X-X-K/R/D/E-f-, where f are large hydrophobic amino acid residues)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
exogenously expressed protein. Isoform GPAT2 protein has two transmembrane segments and the N-terminal and C-terminal regions face the cytoplasm. The enzymatically active motifs I-III of the GPAT2 protein face the cytosol, while motif IV is within the membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
membrane-bound
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
active site of acyl transferase is probably accesible to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum, integral to membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
GPAT is prepared from microsomes
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
subcellular localization of Gat1p and Gat2p are compared using fluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation using equilibrium density gradients. Gat1p and Gat2p overlap mostly in their localization and are microsomal GPATs, localized to both perinuclear and cortical endoplasmic reticula in actively proliferating cells
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley, Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2, Rattus norvegicus Wistar, Tetrahymena pyriformis WH-14
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cytoplasmic side of inner membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
significant acyltransferase activity in inner membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mtGPAT1 has two transmembrane domains (TMDs) (aa 472493 and aa 576592) with both the N- and C-termini facing the cytosol and a loop (aa 494575) facing the intermembrane space
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
N- and C-termini and the active site of acyltransferase face the cytosolic face of the outer mitochondrial membrane, proposed model for orientation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
spans transverse plane of outer membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cytosolic side of outer-membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
intermembrane space
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mitochondrial isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DTNB-resistant isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
2 isozymes in mitochondria, mitochondrial isozymes mtGPAT1 and mtGPAT2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity with palmitoyl-CoA is reduced in mitochondria of aged livers
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isoforms mtGPAT1 and mtGPAT2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
higly active in mitochondria
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
active site on outside surface
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
deeply located in the membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
integral cytoplasmic membrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli ML 308-225
-
deeply located in the membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli 8
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cowpea mesophyll protoplast
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley, Saccharomyces cerevisiae OC-2
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
subcellular distribution
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
subcellular distribution
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30000
-
isoenzyme AT1, gel filtration
486911
40000
-
isoenzymes AT2 and AT3, gel filtration
486911
42000
-
2 soluble chloroplast isoforms, gel filtration
486340
48000
-
determined by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis
687685
48000
-
determined by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis
689673
50000
-
-
688229
50000
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
calculated from cDNA
701623
50000
Q8C0N2
calculated from cDNA
701623
52000
Q53EU6, Q86UL3
calculated from cDNA
701623
52000
Q8C0N2
calculated from cDNA
701623
60000 - 85000
-
mitochondrial enzyme, gel filtration
486348
60100
-
SDS-PAGE
706284
70000
-
SDS-PAGE
705466
88000
-
gel filtration
486359
88800
-
calculated molecular mass
684683
89100
-
estimated molecular mass, verified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis
688948
90000
-
-
688229
92000
-
determined by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis
685343
95000 - 105000
-
mitochondrial acyltransferase, gel filtration
486378
200000
-
gel filtration
486343
additional information
-
amino acid analysis
486357
additional information
-
different molecular masses depending on Triton X-100 concentration
486359
additional information
-
peptide mapping
486361
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 83000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 40500, SDS-PAGE
?
Q9FEP9, Q9FEQ0
x * 40500 + x * 40000 + x * 39500, isoenzyme AT1, SDS-PAGE, immunoblot
?
-
x * 45000, SS-PAGE
?
-
x * 41000, putative mature enzyme, deduced from nucleotide sequence
?
-
x * 75000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
decamer
-
10 * 20000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 80000-85000, mitochondrial enzyme, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 85000, mitochondrial acyltransferase, SDS-PAGE
multimer
-
it is suggested that PlsY exists as a multimer to achieve an effecient lysophosphatidic acid in Bacillus subtilis
monomer
-
1 * 40000, isoenzymes AT2 and AT3, SDS-PAGE, 1 * 30000, isoenzyme AT1, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
monomer or oligomer, depending on Triton X-100 concentration
additional information
-
membranes of overproducing Escherichia coli strain VL3/pLB3-4 contain predominantly the dimeric form
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
lipoprotein
-
-
phosphoprotein
-
direct phosphorylation of mrGPAT1 in yound T-lymphocytes
phosphoprotein
-
phosphorylation may be involved in increased mitochondrial GPAT activity in stimulated T-lymphocytes
phosphoprotein
-
insulin treatment of rat primary adipocytes acutely increases the Km and Vmax of GPAT1 for its substrates, which may be mediated through protein phosphorylation
phosphoprotein
-
proteolytic cleavage of isolated mitochondrial membranes and mass spectrometric peptide sequencing identify in vivo phosphorylation of serine 632 and serine 639 in mtGPAT1. These phosphorylation sites correspond to casein kinase-2 consensus sequences
side-chain modification
-
activity of microsomal enzyme is probably regulated by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation
phosphoprotein
-
-
phosphoprotein
P36148
presence of oleate induces dephosphorylation of isoform Gat1p
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
docking experiments with the soluble squash chloroplast enzyme crystal structure, PDB code 1k30, and inhibitors (1S,2R,3R)-2-hydroxy-3-[(octylsulfonyl)amino]cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, (+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, (1S,2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-[(octylsulfonyl)amino]cyclopentanecarboxylic acid, and (+-)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentyl)acetic acid. Cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl scaffolds of the inhibitors may be occluded from the enzyme active site by two protein loops that sterically guard the phosphate binding region
P10349
hanging-drop vapour diffusion, poly(ethylene glycol) 4000 as precipitant, 1.9 A resolution
-
purified recombinant native and selenomethionine-labeled wild-type and chimeric enzymes, 14 mg/ml protein in 20 mM sodium phosphate, pH 8.0, 4C, hanging drop vapour diffusion method, crystallization solution contains 4-25% PEG 4000, 0.1 M ammonium acetate,10% v/v 2-propanolin 100 mM citrate, pH 5.6, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.55 A resolution
-
recombinant chimeric enzyme, 14 mg/ml protein in 20 mM sodium phosphate, pH 8.0, 4C, hanging drop vapour diffusion method, crystallization solution contains 4-25% PEG 4000, 0.1 M ammonium acetate,10% v/v 2-propanolin 100 mM citrate, pH 5.6, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.55 A resolution
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
40.5
-
half-life of microsomal isozyme is 7 min, loss of 80% activity of isozyme mtGPAT2 after 4 min
662192
additional information
-
isozyme mtGPAT2 is temperature-sensitive
662192
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
400 mM NaCl or KCl, 5 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 5 mM MgCl2, stabilize membrane-bound or reconstituted enzyme
-
column elution during chromatography causes aggregation leading to irreversible inactivation
-
glycerol, 20%, stabilizes
-
ion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, affinity chromatography, gel filtration and isoelectric focusing inactivate enzyme
-
phosphatidylglycerol stabilizes
-
phospholipids reconstitute Triton X-100-solubilized enzyme
-
phospholipids stabilize
-
since enzyme is unstable after long freezing periods, all experiments are performed within two weeks of fractionation
-
1 mM dithiothreitol stabilizes solubilized enzyme
-
asolectin stabilizes cholate-containing preparations
-
bovine serum albumin stabilizes
-
cholate inactivates during storage
-
phospholipids stabilize
-
repeated freezing and thawing inactivates
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, at least 6 months
-
-20C, at least a few weeks
-
-40C, solubilized enzyme, at least 1 year, no loss of activity
-
-70C, solubilized, indefinitely stable
-
-80C, at least 10 months
-
-20C, 50% glycerol, at least 3 weeks, no loss of activity
-
-20C, 50% v/v glycerol, soluble enzyme at least 2 weeks
-
-20C, 50% w/v glycerol, 3 years, no loss of activity
-
4C, 3 weeks, complete loss of activity
-
-70C, 2 months after the removal of cholate
-
-70C, 35% loss of activity after 2 days
-
4-6C, microsomal enzyme, t1/2: 4 h
-
4-6C, mitochondrial enzyme, 4 h, no loss of activity
-
4C, unstable, microsomal enzyme
-
-15C, 3-5 mg/ml protein, membrane preparation, at least 2 months
-
-20C, 50% v/v glycerol, soluble enzyme at least 2 weeks
-
-20C, 50% glycerol, at least 6 months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant acyltransferase, Mono Q
-
isoenzyme AT1, DEAE-Toyopearl, [acyl-carrier protein]-affinity chromatography, MonoP
Q9FEP9, Q9FEQ0
isoenzyme AT1, [acyl-carrier protein]-affinity chromatography, anion-exchange column, isoenzymes AT2 and AT3, [acyl-carrier protein]-affinity chromatography, hydroxylapatite
-
recombinant acyltransferase, Mono Q
-
recombinant native and selenomethionine-labeled wild-type and chimeric mature enzymes by anio exchange chromatography
-
recombinant acyltransferase, Mono Q
-
affinity chromatography on 6-phosphogluconic acid-Sepharose 4B
-
Matrex Gel Red A, octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, hydroxylapatite; solubilized, by non-ionic detergents; solubilized, by non-ionic detergents and reconstituted in unilamellar phospholipid vesicles
-
Matrex Gel Red A, octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, hydroxylapatite; Triton X-100-solubilized
-
solubilized
-
solubilized; solubilized, by non-ionic detergents and reconstituted in unilamellar phospholipid vesicles
-
Triton X-100-solubilized
-
Triton X-100-solubilized
-
high solubilisation is achieved using 0.75% Tween80 and the solubilised GPAT is partially purified by ion-exchange chromatography using a Hi-Trap DEAE FF column, followed by gel filtration chromatography using a Superose 12 HR column; partial
-
by anti-FLAG M2 affinity chromatography
-
enzyme is isolated using subcellular fractions
-
GPAT1 from rat is purified to homogeneity
Q8C0N2
isozymes partially by preparation of subcellular fractions
-
liver mitochondria are prepared
-
recombinant His-tagged acyl transferase, Ni2+-affinity column
-
to determine the translated size of GPAT2, in vitro transcription and translation is performed
-
partial purification of microsomal acyl transferase on glycerophosphorylethanolamine affinity column
-
2 isoforms of different pI-values
-
ammonium sulfate, Sephadex G-100, DEAE-Trisacryl, Mono Q
-
partial, Tween-80/NaCl-solubilized
-
recombinant acyltransferase, Mono Q
-
GPAT1 from rat is purified to homogeneity
-
microsomal enzyme, Sepharose 2B, sucrose gradient, partial purification; mitochondrial enzyme, Sepharose Q, BioGel HAT, octyl-Sepharose CL-4B, partial purification
-
mitochondria and submitochondrial fractions are purified by gradient centrifugation, radiolabeled GPAT1 is synthesized by an in vitro transcription-translation system
-
mitochondria are isolated from rat liver by differential centrifugation
-
mitochondrial acyltransferase, Bio-Gel HAT, Rotofor, Sephacryl S-300
-
mitochondrial enzyme, cholate, ammonium sulfate, partial purification
-
using a nickel gelose gel FF column
-
partial, Tween-80/NaCl-solubilized
-
recombinant acyltransferase, Mono Q
-
recombinant chimeric mature enzyme
-
ammonium sulfate, DEAE-cellulose, Sephacryl S-300
-
heparin-Sepharose, Yellow 86-Sepharose, Superdex 200, hydroxylapatite
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
chloroplast acyltransferase
-
expressed as a myc-epitope-tagged fusion protein in Tobacco suspension cultured cells; expressed as a myc-epitope-tagged fusion protein in Tobacco suspension cultured cells
Q5XF03, Q8GWG0
expression in Escherichia coli
-
overexpression in tobacco
-
a full length cDNA of the GPAT gene is subcloned into the expression vector pBI121, the gene is introduced into the tobacco, NC89, by Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disk transformation
Q7XYH5
chloroplast acyltransferase
-
expression of N-terminal truncated enzyme in Escherichia coli, overexpression of wild-type acyltransferase in tobacco
-
expression of native and selenomethionine-labeled wild-type and chimeric mature enzymes, the latter contains residues 128-187 from Spinacia oleracea and residues 1-127 from Cucurbita moscata, in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and a nonauxotrophic strain
-
expression of stromal acyltransferase in Escherichia coli
-
expression of wild-type and PCR-mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
plsB structural gene encoding glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase
-
GPAT3 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum when overexpressed in COS-7 cells
-
into the mammalian expression vector p3xFLAG-CMV-14 for transfection of HEK-293 cells
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, full functional complementation by expression of His6-tagged enzyme in an enzyme-deficient yeast mutant strain BYL118, the recombinant enzyme shows a slightly altered substrate specificity, overview
-
cloning of cDNA
-
elimination of isozyme mtGPAT1 in knockout mice
-
expression in HEK-293 cell
-
expression of mitochondrial acyl transferase in Sf9 insect cells
-
expression of mitochondrial enzyme in CHO cells
-
GPAT3 is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum when overexpressed in COS-7 cells
-
mice are transduced with adenoviruses expressing either murine mtGPAT or a catalytically inactive variant of the enzyme. Overexpressing mtGPAT results in massive 12- and 7-fold accumulation of liver triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol
Q61586
PCR amplified mouse testis cDNA is cloned into the TOPO vector and subsequently subcloned into pcDNA3.1 for transient transfection of COS-7 and HEK293 cells
-
the PCR product is subcloned with the TOPO TA Cloning Kit and sequenced, the vectors pCR2.1-TOPO and pcDNA3.1/Myc-His+ are used, the xGPAT-myc construct is used for transfection of CHO-K1 cells
-
chloroplast acyltransferase
-
cloning of cDNA
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in CHO-K1 cell
D3ZI76
expression of mitochondrial acyltransferase in Sf21 insect cells
-
hepatic overexpression of the enzyme with an adenoviral construct; recombinant GPAT1-FLAG adenovirus and Ad-EGFP are constructed
-
into the pGEM12zf+ vector
-
mutant enzymes expressed in CHO cells
-
overexpression of FLAG-tagged mitochondrial isozymes in HEK293 cells and in primary hepatocytes from fasted rats via adenovirus transfection system, leading to increased enzyme activity and incorporation of added oleate into triacylglycerol, the triacylgycerol is secreted from the recombinant hepatocytes if higher concentrated, phospholipid composition in hepatocytes, overview
-
the promotor regions, distal and proximal, are cloned into the promotorless mammalian expression vector pGL3-basic that contains firefly luciferase as the reporter gene
-
transient expression of epitope-tagged acyltransferase in CHO K1 cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli; expression in Escherichia coli
P32784, P36148
into the pBI121 vector for introducing the construct into Agrobacterium tumefaciens for subsequent transformation of tomato plants
Q1PA40
into the pMD-18T vector for sequencing and subcloned into the pBI121 vector for introducing the construct into Agrobacterium tumefaciens for subsequent transformation of tomato plants
-
into the pMD-18T vector for sequencing, into the p35S-GFP vector for intracellular targeting, into the pET30a+ vector for expression in Escherichia coli BL21 cells, into the pBI121 vector for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tomato plants
-
chloroplast acyltransferase
-
expression of chimeric mature enzyme containing residues 128-187 from Spinacia oleracea and residues 1-127 from Cucurbita moscata, in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
expression of stromal acyltransferase in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
presence of oleate induces dephosphorylation of isoform Gat1p as well as an increment in its levels
P36148
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
E142A
-
no activity
H194S
-
79% of wild-type activity
K193S
-
no activity
L261F
-
90% of wild-type activity, change from a non-selective acyltransferase to an oleate-selective acyltransferase
R235S
-
no activity
R237S
-
no activity
S331P
-
no change in acyl-donor selectivity, 94% of wild-type activity
T141S
-
106% of wild-type activity
E315A
-
28% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
E315Q
-
47% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
F313A
-
17% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
R278H
-
10% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
R278K
-
76% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
R279A
-
101% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
R279H
-
95% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
R279K
-
101% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
R318H
-
2.6% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
L352F
-
change from a non-selective acyltransferase to an oleate-selective acyltransferase, 117% of wild-type activity
additional information
-
construction of an enzyme deletion mutant, which is inactive in enzyme activity and highly reduced in triacylglycerol synthesis, but not in other lipid or virulence factor synthesis, overview
F313Y
-
88% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
additional information
-
construction of isozyme mtGPAT1-knockout mice
R318K
-
11% of wild-type mitochondrial acyltransferase activity
additional information
-
truncation of the C-terminal domain and characterization of the properties of the resulting mutants expressed in CHO cells. Although the mutants are overexpressed, none of them confers GPAT activity. The loss of activity is not due to the miss-targeting of the proteins. The C-terminal domain is necessary for mtGPAT1 activity, and probably contributes to catalysis or substrate binding
Renatured/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
reconstituted at a phospholipid-detergent ratio of 20:1; reconstitution in vesicles
-
reconstituted in phospholipid vesicles containing phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglecerol in the approx. molar ratio of 6:1:1; reconstitution in cardiolipin/C12E8, i.e. non-ionic detergent, ratio 2:1 mixed micelles; reconstitution in vesicles
-
reconstitution in cardiolipin vesicles; reconstitution in vesicles
-
reconstitution in dispersed E. coli phospholipids
-
reconstitution in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol, ratio 4:1, vesicles, 90% of active site of the reconstituted enzyme are located at the outside surface
-
reconstitution in phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol, ratio 4:1, vesicles, 90% of active site of the reconstituted enzyme are located at the outside surface; reconstitution in vesicles
-
reconstitution in phospholipid bilayers
-
reconstitution effectiveness of phospholipids in descending order: crude soybean phosphatidylcholin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, cardiolipin
-
reconstitution in asolection or phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylethanolamine mixture
-
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
medicine
-
GPAT3 may be useful as a target for the treatment of obesity
medicine
-
elucidation of the metabolic pathways of triacylglycerol is critical to the understanding of chronic metabolic disorders such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes
medicine
-
GPAT1 is not an essential enzyme in hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis and GPAT1-deficiency does not protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity or glucose intolerance and does not increase whole body energy expenditure
medicine
-
Gpat1-/- mouse may be a useful model in which to study novel relationships between hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, proliferation, and cancer susceptibility
medicine
-
lack of GPAT1 activity affects both innate and adaptive immune mechanisms
medicine
-
it has been implicated as one of the enzymes that can play a role in obesity and diabetes
medicine
-
major finding of the study is that overexpressing GPAT in liver causes hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance in the absence of obesity or high-fat feeding