Information on EC 2.3.1.15 - glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.3.1.15
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate = CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Acyl group transfer
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis
-
-
CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis I
-
-
CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis II
-
-
diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol biosynthesis
-
-
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
-
Glycerophospholipid metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
oleate biosynthesis III (cyanobacteria)
-
-
stigma estolide biosynthesis
-
-
superpathway of phosphatidate biosynthesis (yeast)
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate 1-O-acyltransferase
Acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] can also act as acyl donor. The enzyme acts only on derivatives of fatty acids of chain length larger than C10.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9029-96-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
turnip rape, var. Bele
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sweet pepper
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
safflower, var. Gila
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cucumber
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 8 overproducing mutants CV15, lsA-genotype and BB 26-36, plsB-genotype
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli ML 308-225
strain ML 308-225, i-z-y+
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. bacillaris, achloroplastic mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
single gene, no isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
kidney bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
Sprague-Dawley strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
castor bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
OC-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
african locust, cv. Forskäl, male adult
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
WH-14, ciliated protozoon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cocoa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. angulispora
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + glycerol-3-phosphate
[acyl-carrier protein] + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
[acyl-carrier protein] + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
arachidonoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
arachidoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-arachidoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cis-vaccenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + cis-vaccenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
cis-vaccenoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-cis-vaccenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
docosahexaenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
eicosapentaenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-eicosapentaenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
erucoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-erucoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
fatty acyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
glycerol 3-phosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
lauroyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-lauroyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lauroyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-lauroyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
linolenoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linolenoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
linoleoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
linoleoyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
linoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-linoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
myristoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
n-decanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-decanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
n-dodecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-dodecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
octanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-n-octanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity
-
?
oleic acid-[acyl-carrier protein] + glycerol-3-phosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
GPAT from chilling-resistant plants prefer 18:1-[acyl-carrier protein], oleic acid, to 16:0-[acyl-carrier protein], palmitic acid, as a substrate
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
palmitoleoyl phosphate + glycerol-3-phosphate
1-palmitoleoyl-2-lyso-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
palmitoleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + glycerol-3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate is palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + glycerol-3-phosphate
[acyl-carrier protein] + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
palmitoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
stearoyl-CoA + glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
stearoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
stearoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
undecanoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-undecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
acyl-carrier protein + 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] is probably the physiological substrate
-
?
oleoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high activity
-
-
?
palmitoyl-CoA + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
CoA + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acyl-CoA
-
activation, above 0.02 mM, in the presence of bovine serum albumin
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
LiCl
-
activation at 200 mM
NaCl
-
activation at 200 mM
NaF
-
activates
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+-)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentyl)acetic acid
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentane carboxylic acid
-
97% inhibition at 40 microg/ml
(+-)-2-hydroxy-3-(octylsulfonamido)-cyclopentanecarboxylic acid
-
3% inhibition at 40 microg/ml
(1S,2R,3R)-2-hydroxy-3-[(octylsulfonyl)amino]cyclopentanecarboxylic acid
-
(1S,2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-[(octylsulfonyl)amino]cyclopentanecarboxylic acid
-
1-monooleoylglycerol
-
mechanism
1-monooleoylglycerol 3-phosphate
-
non-competitive, mitochondrial isozyme
1-Monooleoylglycerol amide
-
mechanism
-
1-Monooleoylglycerol ether
-
mechanism
-
1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
2,3-Butanedione
-
5 mM, 54% and 21% inhibition of microsomal and mitochondrial acyltransferase respectively
2-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(hexadecylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(methylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
2-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
2-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
2-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-(tetradecylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
2-monooleoylglycerol
-
mechanism
2-Monooleoylglycerol amide
-
mechanism
-
2-Monooleoylglycerol ether
-
mechanism
-
3-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
3-(nonylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
3-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
3-(pentylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic acid
-
trivial name CHAPS, complete inhibition
4-(2-phenylethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(4-chlorophenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(nonylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
4-(nonylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(octylsulfonamido)phenylphosphonic acid
-
-
4-(pentylsulfonamido)benzylphosphonic acid
-
-
4-(pentylsulfonamidomethyl)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(phenylmethylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
4-methoxyphenyl palmitoylsulfamate
4-methoxyphenyl undec-10-enoylsulfamate
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitro-benzoate)
5-chloro-2-(nonylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
5-fluoro-2-(octylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
5-hydroxy-2-(octylsulfonamido)benzoic acid
-
-
acetanhydride
-
-
acetone
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme
acyl-CoA
-
strong substrate inhibition
aminophenylboronate
-
; mixed-type inhibition of microsomal and mitochondrial acyltransferase vs. glycerol 3-phosphate
AMP-activated protein kinase
-
AMP-activated protein kinase reciprocally regulates GPAT1
-
Antibodies to cocoa seed enzyme
-
raised in rabbit
-
bovine serum albumin
-
above 6 mg/ml, at 0.01 mg palmitoyl-CoA depending on palmitoyl-CoA and phospholipid concentration
-
Bromelain
-
strong inhibition of microsomal enzyme
-
CaCl2
-
33% inhibition of isozyme mtGPAT1, 70% inhibition of isozyme mtGPAT2
cardiolipin
cholate
cis-9,10-Methylenehexadecanoic acid
-
0.15 mM, 50% inhibition, non-competitive to glycerol 3-phosphate, synergism with oleate, palmitoleate or cis-vaccenate
cis-vaccenate
-
0.45 mM, 50% inhibition, synergism with cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid
cis-Vaccenoyl-CoA
-
-
cyclohexandione
-
50 mM, almost complete inhibition of mitochondrial acyltransferase
deoxycholate
Detergents
-
e.g. Brij 35, Brij 58, Lubrol 17A-10, phospholipids restore activity
diacylglycerophosphate
diethyldicarbonate
-
0.3 mM, approx. 67% inhibition of microsomal acyltransferase, approx. 40% inhibition of mitochondrial acyltransferase, approx. 60% inhibition of recombinant mitochondrial acyltransferase, activity is restored to approx 50% by hydroxylamine
dihydroxyacetone phosphate
dihydroxyacetonephosphate
-
competitive inhibition of isozyme mtGPAT2, no inhibition of isozyme mtGPAT1
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
weak inhibition
dithiothreitol
-
palmitoyl-CoA-specific isozyme
EDTA
-
1 mM, 79% inhibition
iodoacetamide
lysophosphatidic acid
-
product inhibition, all isozymes
MgCl2
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme
Mn2+
-
2 mM, 82% residaul activity; slightly decreases activity, relative activity: 81.5% (2 mM)
Monoacylglycerophosphate
N-ethylmaleimide
NaCl
-
100 mM, 30% inhibition
NEM
-
inactivation of isozyme mtGPAT2 and the microsomal isozyme
oleate
p-chloromercuribenzoate
palmitoleate
-
0.31 mM, 50% inhibition, synergism with cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid
palmitoleoyl-CoA
-
shows substrate inhibition, therfore Km value is not determined
palmitoyl-CoA
papain
-
strong inhibition of microsomal enzyme
-
phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl)sulfamate
Phenylglyoxal
phosphate
-
-
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
1,2-unsaturated species
phosphatidylglycerol
-
above 1.5 mM, activation below
phosphatidylinositol
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme
phosphatidylserine
-
inhibition of microsomal enzyme
Polymyxin B
Pronase
-
strong inhibition of microsomal enzyme
-
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol
-
-
sn-2-monooleoylglycerol amide
-
-
spermidine
-
inhibits slightly in absence of bovine serum albumin
spermine
-
inhibits slightly in absence of bovine serum albumin
Triton X-100
Trypsin
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(3-Morpholino)propanesulfonic acid-NaOH
-
i.e. MOPS-NaOH, activation, up to 30 mM
acetone
asolectin
-
i.e. crude mixture of soybean phospholipids, activation of mitochondrial enzyme
-
ATP
-
activation of acyltransferase in isolated membrane preparations
bovine serum albumin
cardiolipin
-
activation of reconstituted mitochondrial enzyme
dioleoyl phosphatidic acid
-
very strong activation
dioleoyl phosphatidylserine
-
best phospholipid for activation
dithiothreitol
-
1 mM, 82% activation
EDTA
-
10 mM, enhances activity, relative activity: 143%
Insulin
-
Gpat1 is upregulated by insulin
-
KF
-
stimulation of activity in microsomal preparation
Lubrol Px
-
above the critical micellar concentration
Non-site-specific proteases
-
activation, e.g. proteinase K, subtilisin, not chymotrypsin, trypsin, mitochondrial enzyme, degree of inhibition increases with decreasing ionic strength
-
oleate
presence of oleate induces dephosphorylation of isoform Gat1p as well as an increment in its levels. In presence of oleate, Gat1p crescent structures are formed which are connected with the endoplasmic reticulum and are intimately associated with lipid particles
phosphatidylcholine
phosphatidylethanolamine
phosphatidylglycerol
phosphatidylinositol
-
activation of mitochondrial enzyme
phosphatidylserine
-
activation of mitochondrial enzyme
Phospholipids
Polymyxin B
Proteases
-
activation, microsomal enzyme
-
spermidine
-
activates about 3.5fold in presence of 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin
spermine
-
activates about 3fold in presence of 0.1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin
SREBP-1
-
Gpat1 is upregulated by SREBP-1
-
Triton X-100
-
i.e. octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol, slight stimulation at 0.1 mg/ml
Zwittergent 3-14
-
above the critical micellar concentration
additional information
-
not activated by 1,2-diacyl glycerol 3-phosphate
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.003 - 0.07
acyl-ACP
0.025 - 16.4
glycerol 3-phosphate
0.012 - 0.016
myristoyl-CoA
0.0003 - 0.003
oleoyl-ACP
0.005 - 0.1
oleoyl-CoA
0.0032 - 0.015
palmitoyl-ACP
0.002 - 1.5
palmitoyl-CoA
0.03 - 4.2
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
0.0033
stearoyl-ACP
-
-
0.004 - 0.013
stearoyl-CoA
0.025
vaccenoyl-ACP
-
-
additional information
additional information
Ki VALUE [mM]