Information on EC 3.4.24.69 - bontoxilysin

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Clostridium

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.4.24.69
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
bontoxilysin
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
structure/function relationship
-
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism
-
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
active site structure and structure-function relationship
-
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
enzyme-substrate interaction at the active site, Tyr366 and Arg363 are important for catalysis, the S1' site is formed by Phe194, Thr215, Thr220, Asp370, and Arg363, reaction mechanism, overview
P10845
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin
-
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin, botulinum toxin binds to a receptor on the neuronal surface, e.g. SV2 receptor for BoNT/A, or synaptotagmin I and II for BoNT/B and BoNT/G, and is subsequently internalized through endocytosis, schematic overview
-
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
mechanism of action of botulinum neurotoxin
-
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
Clostridium botulinum BoNT/E
-
-
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of peptide bond
-
-
-
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
antigen E
Clostridium botulinum NCTC 11219
-
-
-
BoNT
-
-
-
-
BoNT E
Q00496
-
BoNT F
P30996
-
BoNT serotype E
-
-
BoNT serotype F
-
-
BoNT/A
D2KCK3
-
BoNT/A
P10844
-
BoNT/A
Q58GH1
-
BoNT/A
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
;
-
BoNT/A
Clostridium botulinum type A
-
-
-
BoNT/A Lc endopeptidase
-
-
BoNT/A5
C7BEA8
-
BoNT/B
-
-
-
-
BoNT/B
P10844
-
BoNT/B light chain protease
-
-
BoNT/C1
-
-
-
-
BoNT/C1-LC
-
-
BoNT/C3
Clostridium botulinum C3
-
-
-
BoNT/CD
Q5DW55
-
BoNT/D
-
-
-
-
BoNT/E
-
-
-
-
BoNT/E
Clostridium botulinum type A
-
-
-
BoNT/F
-
-
-
-
BoNT/F
Q45851
-
BoNT/F
C5IWN7, P30996
-
BoNT/F
Q57236
-
BoNT/F proteolytic F toxin
-
-
BoNT/G
-
-
-
-
BoNTA endopeptidase
-
-
BoNTE
Clostridium botulinum NCTC 11219
-
-
-
Bontoxilysin C1
-
-
-
-
botulinum A neurotoxin light chain
-
-
Botulinum neurotoxin
-
-
-
-
Botulinum neurotoxin
-
-
Botulinum neurotoxin
-
a group of proteins produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum, that are responsible for botulism disease
Botulinum neurotoxin
A2I2R9, Q58GH1
-
Botulinum neurotoxin
Q60393
-
Botulinum neurotoxin
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin A light chain
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin A protease
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin B protease
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin C
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin endopeptidase
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin F
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype A endopeptidase
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype A protease
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype B
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype BA
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype C1
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype C1 light chain protease
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype D
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype E
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype E
Clostridium botulinum NCTC 11219
-
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype F
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype F
Q57236
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype G
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin subtype A3
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin subtype A4
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin type A
A2I2U3
-
botulinum neurotoxin type A
D2KCK3
-
botulinum neurotoxin type A
P10844
-
botulinum neurotoxin type A
P10845
-
botulinum neurotoxin type A
Q58GH1
-
botulinum neurotoxin type A
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin type A light chain
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin type B
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin type B
A2I2W1
-
botulinum neurotoxin type B
P10844
-
botulinum neurotoxin type B
Q08077, Q93G71
-
botulinum neurotoxin type C
P18640
-
botulinum neurotoxin type C
Clostridium botulinum Stockholm
P18640
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin type D
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin type D
P19321
-
botulinum neurotoxin type D
Clostridium botulinum CB16
P19321
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin type E
-
-
botulinum neurotoxin type F
Q45851
-
botulinum neurotoxin type F
C5IWN7
-
botulinum neurotoxin type F
P30996
-
botulinum neurotoxin type G
-
-
Botulinum neurotoxin-A
-
-
botulinum toxin
-
-
botulinum toxin
A5JGM8
-
botulinum toxin
-
-
botulinum toxin C3
-
-
botulinum toxin C3
Clostridium botulinum C3
-
-
-
botulinum toxin serotype E
-
-
botulinum toxin serotype F
-
-
botulinum toxin type A
-
-
botulinum toxin type B
-
-
botulinum toxin type F
-
-
Botulinumtoxin A
-
-
BoTxA
P10845
-
Clostridium botulinum A2 neurotoxin
-
-
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin
-
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin
-
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin A1
-
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin F
P30996
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A
-
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A
P10845
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain
-
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E
-
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E
Q00496
-
Clostridium botulinum serotype D neurotoxin
-
-
CNT endopeptidase
-
-
D-4947 L-TC
-
-
neurotoxin A
-
-
serotype D botulinum neurotoxin
-
-
Tetanus neurotoxin
-
-
type A BoNT
-
-
type A botulinum neurotoxin
-
-
type A botulinum neurotoxin
P10845
-
type A botulinum neurotoxin
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
-
-
type A botulinum neurotoxin light chain
-
-
type A botulinum neurotoxin protease activity
-
-
type F toxin
-
-
HCE
Clostridium botulinum NCTC 11219
-
-
-
additional information
-
botulinum neurotoxins, BoNTs, constitute a family of seven structurally similar but antigenically distinct proteins produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum
additional information
-
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin belongs to the family of binary AB type toxins
additional information
A5JGM8
BoNT from Clostridium botulinum OFD05, isolated from bovine botulism in Japan, is a D/C mosaic-type BoNT
additional information
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
botulinum neurotoxins, BoNTs, constitute a family of seven structurally similar but antigenically distinct proteins produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
107231-12-9
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
gene bont/F; type F strain ATCC 43756, gene bont/F
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serum type F strain ATCC 43756, bont genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
7 serologically different neurotoxin types: BoNT/A-G
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bivalent subtype gene bont/B; botulinum neurotoxin type B strains type B, Ab, and A(B), overview. Five different subtypes of gene bont/B. Plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BoNT serotypes A and E
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BoNT serotypes A-G
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BoNT/A1 complex from Hall strain, BoNT/A2 complex from FRI-honey strain, and BoNT/A3 complex from Loch Maree strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BoNT/A1, BoNT/A2, BoNT/A3, and BoNT/A4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BoNT/B; BoNT/B; BoNT/A1, BoNT/A3, BoNT/B1, and BoNT/B4 from strains ATCC 3502, NCTC 2012, Okra, and Eklund 17B strains, respectively
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BoNT/C, BoNT/D; serotypes BoNT/A, BoNT/B; type G strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
BoNT/E; serotypes BoNT/A, BoNT/B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
botulinum light chains of serotypes A, B, E, F, and G
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
botulinum neurotoxin serotype A, BoNT/A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
botulinum neurotoxin type A, BoNT/A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene bont/A; a spore-forming bacterium, diverse Af strains, overview
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene bont/A; proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains, bivalent strains, including Bf and Af, gene bont/A
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene bont/B; a spore-forming bacterium, diverse Bf strains, overview
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene bont/F; proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains, bivalent strains, including Bf and Af, gene bont/A
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene bont/F; proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains, bivalent strains, including Bf and Af, gene bont/A
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
non-proteolytic subtype gene bont/B; botulinum neurotoxin type B strains type B, Ab, and A(B), overview. Five different subtypes of gene bont/B. Plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
proteolytic strain okra
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serotype A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serotype A BoNT
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serotype BoNT/A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serotype D 4947
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serotype E
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serotypes A to G
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serum type A, B, E and F strains, bont genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
seven antigenically distinct serotypes of neurotoxins
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
seven BoNT serotypes A-G
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
seven BoNT serotypes A-G
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
seven serologically distinct BoNT isoforms A-G
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
seven serotypes A-G of BoNT
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
seven serotypes of BoNTs
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
six type A strains of Clostridium botulinum that contain type B toxin gene sequences
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 4947, BoNT/D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CB16
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCTC 11219
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain OFD05, isolated from bovine botulism, seven botulinum toxin serotypes, BoNTs, designated A-G
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Oslo, strain 202F
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Stockholm
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains 62A (serotype A) or Beluga (serotype E)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains from groups I-IV, seven serotypes BoNT/A to BoNT/G
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subtype gene bont/A; botulinum neurotoxin type B strains type B, Ab, and A(B), overview. Five different subtypes of gene bont/B. Plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related
A2I2U3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subtype gene bont/B2; botulinum neurotoxin type B strains type B, Ab, and A(B), overview. Five different subtypes of gene bont/B. Plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type A; type E
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
types A, B, E and F strains, botulinum neurotoxin complex genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
various strains, seven serotypes BoNT A-G
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
serotype BoNT/A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum BoNT/C BoNT/D
BoNT/C, BoNT/D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum BoNT/E
BoNT/E
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum C3
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum CB16
strain CB16
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum NCTC 11219
strain NCTC 11219
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum Stockholm
strain Stockholm
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum type A
type A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum type G
type G strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serum type E strain ATCC 43755, bont genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type E strains, botulinum neurotoxin complex genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
F; serotypes BoNT/A, B, D, E
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium sp. F
F
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
BoNT/A injection induces local masseter muscle atrophy in Wistar rats, with alterations of craniofacial bone growth and development, overview
malfunction
-
BoNT proteases are blockers of synaptic transmission in host peripheral cholinergic nervous system synapses, they disable host synaptic vesicle exocytosis by cleaving their cytosolic SNARE, i.e. soluble NSF attachment protein receptor, substrates through cleavage by its N-terminal Zn2+-metalloprotease activity, and are the causative agent of botulism and the most poisonous protein known. Presence of BoNT heavy chain in endosomes or the light chain in the cytosol during intoxication may disrupt the host regulatory networks involved in neuronal protein homeostasis and may trigger a stress response comparable to the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response
malfunction
-
the endopeptidase activity of light chain domain of BoNT causes inhibition of the neurotransmitter release and the flaccid paralysis that leads to lethality in botulism in the host
physiological function
-
botulinum neurotoxins cleave components of the SNARE, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, protein complex, inhibiting acetylcholine release into neuromuscular junctions, resulting in flaccid paralysis and eventual death
physiological function
-
after entering its target, the neuronal cell, BoNT/B is responsible for synaptobrevin-2, i.e. VAMP2, cleavage. This results in reduced neurotransmitter acetylcholine release from synaptic vesicles, yielding muscular paralysis
physiological function
Q00496
botulism, the disease caused by BoNT E, sets in faster than any other serotype because of its speedy internalization and translocation, and the present structure offers a credible explanation
physiological function
-
BoNT/A is a metalloprotease that enters peripheral motor nerve terminals and blocks the release of acetylcholine via the specific cleavage of the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa. The C-terminus of the heavy chain. HC binds with extraordinary specificity to nerve terminals. Following receptor-mediated endocytosis and acidification of the endosome, the N-terminal portion of the heavy chain, HN, translocates LC across the vesicular membrane into the cytosol. LC acts as Zn2+-dependent endopeptidase to cleave essential protein components of the neurotransmitter release machinery, the SNARE, i.e. soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, proteins. This results in disruption of Ca2+-triggered fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. Central effects of BoNT/A and mechanism, detailed overview
physiological function
-
BoNTs are extremely potent neuromuscular poisons that act through soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, SNARE, protein cleavage to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Ability of BoNT/A to eliminate localized transmitter and to induce nerve outgrowth.. BoNT/A potently stimulates neuritogenesis at concentrations as low as 0.01 nM in primary cultures enriched with motor neurons isolated from embryonic mouse spinal cord. Presence or absence of SNAP-25 cleavage by BoNT/A is not a determinant factor in BoNT/A-induced neuritogenesis
physiological function
-
protective potential of the synaptic blocker BoNT/E, that prevents vesicle fusion via the cleavage of the SNARE, i.e. soluble NSF-attachment receptor, protein SNAP-25, i.e. synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa. Acute neuroprotection by the synaptic blocker botulinum neurotoxin E in a Sprague-Dawley adult female rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. BoNT/E inhibits ET-1-induced glutamate release in the hippocampus
physiological function
-
analgesic effect of BoNT/A on neuropathic pain, e.g. chronic refractory neck pain, application on human neck and shoulder muslces
physiological function
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin is the causative agent of botulism, a neuroparalytic disease
physiological function
-
Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are effective therapeutics for a variety of neurological disorders, such as strabismus, blepharospam, hemificial spasm, and cervical dystonia, because of the toxin's tropism for neurons and specific cleavage of neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein-attachment protein receptors, SNARE, proteins
physiological function
-
BoNT/A is an extremely potent bacterial protein toxin. The Hc fragment of BoNT/A is non-toxic, antigenic, and capable of eliciting a protective immunity in animals challenged with homologous BoNT
physiological function
-
botulinum neurotoxins elicit flaccid paralysis by cleaving SNARE proteins within peripheral neurons. BoNT/A and BoNT/B utilize synaptic vesicle protein 2, SV2, and synaptotagmin, respectively, as receptors for entry into neurons
physiological function
-
BoNTs inhibit the release of acetylcholine by peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals through a pathway reliant on several distinct stages of action
physiological function
-
the pharmacologic effect of Botulinumtoxin A includes a reversible blockade of acetylcholine, inhibition of other neurotransmitters, e.g. Substance P and ATP, and the downregulation of axonalexpression of purinergic P2X3- and capsaicin TPRV1-receptors at the nerve endings of the suburothelium, all leading to afferent desensibilization
malfunction
-
BoNT acts on the host neuromuscular junction by blocking the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, thereby resulting in flaccid muscle paralysis
additional information
-
the catalytic light chain, LC, of botulinum neurotoxin B is unable to enter target neuronal cells by itself. It is brought into the cell, human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells, in association with the BoNT/B heavy chain, HC, through endocytosis
additional information
-
the toxin persists in neuronal cells for an extended period, it maintaines its ability to cleave VAMP2 in human neuronal cells for weeks
additional information
Q00496
the translocation-competent conformation in BoNT E is a probable reason for its faster toxic rate compared to BoNT A
additional information
-
retrograde transport and transcytosis of catalytically active BoNT/A in cells, mechanisms, overview
additional information
-
uptake of BoNT/A, B, E and G into cells requires a dual interaction with gangliosides and the synaptic vesicle proteins synaptotagmin or SV2. Interaction of SV2A, SV2B and SV2C with botulinum neurotoxin F HC, overview
additional information
-
the short synthetic peptide TD-1 can facilitate effective transdermal delivery of BoNT-A through intact skin. Coadministration of TD-1 and BoNT-A to the hindpaw skin of Sprague-Dawley rats results in a significant reduction in plasma extravasation evoked by electrical stimulation, also but less in plasma extravasation evoked by capsaicin. Subcutaneous administration of BoNT-A also reduces vasodilation caused by saphenous nerve stimulation. BoNT-A does not interfere with substance P- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-induced vasodilation
additional information
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype A causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism that can afflict large, unprotected populations if the toxin is employed in an act of bioterrorism
additional information
-
the presence of neurotoxin associated proteins enhances the oral toxicity of the neurotoxin significantly. The whole neurotoxin complex reacts 60 times better with the complex and 35 times better with Hn-33 and NAPs compared to the purified neurotoxin suggesting stronger immunogenicity of neurotoxin associated proteins over that of purified neurotoxin and a higher potential of BoNT/AC and its associated proteins to induce host immune response. BoNT/A in its purified and complex forms induces equal immunogenic response and a 2.5fold higher immunogenic response compared to BoNT/A light and heavy chains
additional information
-
The BoNT-receptor complex enters neurons by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Synaptic vesicle protein 2, synaptotagmin I, synaptophysin, vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, and the vacuolar ATPase-proton pump are components of the BoNT-synaptic vesicle protein complex
additional information
-
polysialylated ganglioside GT1b can act as a potential receptor for BoNT/A, and synthetic glycoconjugates based on GT1b prevent SNAP25 cleavage in spinal cord cells of rat embryos
additional information
-
A large toxin complex, L-TC, produced by Clostridium botulinum is composed of neurotoxin BoNT, non-toxic non-hemagglutinin, and hemagglutinin subcomponents, HA-70, -33 and -17
additional information
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
the presence of neurotoxin associated proteins enhances the oral toxicity of the neurotoxin significantly. The whole neurotoxin complex reacts 60 times better with the complex and 35 times better with Hn-33 and NAPs compared to the purified neurotoxin suggesting stronger immunogenicity of neurotoxin associated proteins over that of purified neurotoxin and a higher potential of BoNT/AC and its associated proteins to induce host immune response. BoNT/A in its purified and complex forms induces equal immunogenic response and a 2.5fold higher immunogenic response compared to BoNT/A light and heavy chains
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
187SNKTRIDEANQRATKML203 + H2O
187SNKTRIDEANQ + RATKML203
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP-25
-
-
?
50-mer synaptobrevin peptide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
[Pya88]S39-88
-
?
Ac-ERDQKLSELDDRADALQAG-(7-methoxy-4-methylcoumaryl)Lys-SQ-diaminopropionic acid(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-ESSAAKLKRKYWWKNLK-NH2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
development of a FRET peptide substrate, based on the native substrate binding site of human VAMP2 residues 55-94, and evaluation for enzymatic cleavage by the BoNT/B light chain protease, overview. For the synthesis position 74 is mutated to Lys in order to couple 7-methoxycoumarin-4-acetic acid, MCA, to the amine via an amide bond, in part to aid in the flexibility of the MCA to allow free rotation away from the active site and not affect binding and/or cleavage of the peptide. At position 77 the native Phe is replaced with the unnatural amino acid diaminopropionic acid to facilitate coupling of 2,4-dinitrophenyl to the peptide. Thr79 is mutated to a serine increasing kcat 2fold without affecting Km
-
-
?
Ac-IIGNLRH(Nle)ALD(Nle)GNEIDTQNRQIDRI(Nle)EKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2 + H2O
Ac-IIGNLRH(Nle)ALD(Nle)GNEIDTQNRQIDRI(Nle)EKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe) + RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. peptide PL51, a SNAP-25-NH2in which all methionines were replaced by nonoxidizable Nle
-
-
?
Ac-IIGNLRHMALDMGNEIDTQNRQIDRIMEKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2 + H2O
Ac-IIGNLRHMALDMGNEIDTQNRQIDRIMEKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe) + RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. peptide PL50, a SNAP-25-NH2 acetylated at positions 156 to 203 [(pNO2-Phe)197, (1-pyrenylalanine)200, Nle202]
-
-
?
Ac-KSDSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)LGSG-NH2 + H2O
Ac-KSDSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe) + RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)LGSG-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-SNKTIDEANQRATKML-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTIDEANQ + RATKML-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
synaptosomal protein
-
?
Ac-SNKTRIDCANQRATKML-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTRIDCANQ + RATKML-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(1-pyrenylalanine)RA(pNO2-Phe)K(Nle)L-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(1-pyrenylalanine) + RA(pNO2-Phe)K(Nle)L-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe) + RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQRATK(Nle)L-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQ + RATK(Nle)L-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQRATKML-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQ + RATKML-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQRCTKML-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQ + RCTKML-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Ac-SNKTRIDECNQRATKML-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTRIDECNQ + RATKML-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
biotin-KGSNRTRIDQGNQRATRXLGGK-biotin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the catalytic activity resides on the light chains of the toxin molecule
-
-
?
cytosolic SNARE + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
host cytosolic SNARE, i.e. soluble NSF attachment protein receptor, a central helical protein-conducting channel, which chaperones the protease across host endosomes, modelling, overview. Sequence-specific claveage by the endoprotease activity of the BoNT light chains, host cytosolic SNARE, i.e. soluble NSF attachment protein receptor, a central helical protein-conducting channel, which chaperones the protease across host endosomes, modelling, overview. Sequence-specific claveage by the endosprotease activity of the BoNT light chains. Enzyme-substrate complex, overview
-
-
?
fluorescein isothiocyanate-4,4-dimethylamino-azobenzene-4'-carboxylic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAPtide, as recombinant human SNAP25bHA protein expressed in Escherichia coli
-
-
?
LQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQKLSELDD + H2O
LQQTQAQVDEVVDI + MRVNVDKVLERDQK + LSELDD
show the reaction diagram
-
the vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP, sequence-derived peptide is a substrate of BoNT serotype D light chain
-
-
?
LSELDDRADALQAGASQFETSAAKLKRKYWWKNLK + H2O
LSELDDRADALQAGASQ + FETSAAKLKRKYWWKNLK
show the reaction diagram
-
the vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP, sequence-derived peptide is a substrate of BoNT serotype B light chain
-
-
?
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
neurotoxin binds specifically to nerve cells, botulin neurotoxin-receptors are located on the motor neuron plasmalemma at neuromuscular junctions, neurotoxin binds via protein and lipid interaction, after binding it is internalized inside vesicles of unknown nature
-
-
-
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
neurotoxin binds specifically to nerve cells, botulin neurotoxin-receptors are located on the motor neuron plasmalemma at neuromuscular junctions, neurotoxin binds via protein and lipid interaction, after binding it is internalized inside vesicles of unknown nature
-
-
-
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
neurotoxin binds specifically to nerve cells, botulin neurotoxin-receptors are located on the motor neuron plasmalemma at neuromuscular junctions, neurotoxin binds via protein and lipid interaction, after binding it is internalized inside vesicles of unknown nature
-
-
-
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
neurotoxin binds specifically to nerve cells, botulin neurotoxin-receptors are located on the motor neuron plasmalemma at neuromuscular junctions, neurotoxin binds via protein and lipid interaction, after binding it is internalized inside vesicles of unknown nature
-
-
-
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, blocks release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine at neuromuscular junction
-
-
-
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to spastic paralysis caused by EC 3.4.24.68, three functionally distinct domains: domain L blocks neuroexocytosis, domain HN governs cell penetration, domain HC responsible for neurospecific binding
-
-
-
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to spastic paralysis caused by EC 3.4.24.68, three functionally distinct domains: domain L blocks neuroexocytosis, domain HN governs cell penetration, domain HC responsible for neurospecific binding
-
-
-
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to spastic paralysis caused by EC 3.4.24.68, three functionally distinct domains: domain L blocks neuroexocytosis, domain HN governs cell penetration, domain HC responsible for neurospecific binding
-
-
-
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to spastic paralysis caused by EC 3.4.24.68, three functionally distinct domains: domain L blocks neuroexocytosis, domain HN governs cell penetration, domain HC responsible for neurospecific binding
-
-
-
neuronal proteinSNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Proteins of neuroexocytosis apparatus + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Proteins of neuroexocytosis apparatus + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Proteins of neuroexocytosis apparatus + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Proteins of neuroexocytosis apparatus + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Recombinant glutathione S-methyltransferase VAMP-2 fusion protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed recombinant glutathione S-methyltransferase VAMP-2 fusion protein
show the reaction diagram
-
-
2 proteolytic fragments, MW 36000 and MW 6000
-
Sb-Snc2p fusion protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a recombinant chimeric SNARE protein where a portion of neuronal synaptobrevin, Sb, is fused to Snc2p, a Sb ortholog required for protein secretion from yeast cells
-
-
?
SNAP-23 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a nonneuronal SNARE protein, that mediates vesicle-plasma membrane fusion processes, including secretion of airway mucus, antibody, insulin, gastric acids, and ions. SNAP23 is cleaved by an engineered BoNT/E light chain, LC/E K224D. Molecular modeling of the enzyme-substrate complex using the crystal structure of LC/E, Protein Data Bank ID 3d3x, overview
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
synaptosomal associated protein
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
synaptosomal-associated protein
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
synaptosome associated protein, mammalian synaptosome associated protein
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
BoNT/A-LC is a Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotease that blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAP-25, one of the SNARE proteins required for exocytosis, i.e. synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q00496
serotypes BoNT/A and BoNT/E cleave SNAP-25 at distinct sites, BoNT/E blocks neurotransmission faster and more potently
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the potent botulinum neurotoxin inhibits neurotransmitter release at cholinergic nerve terminals, causing a descending flaccid paralysis characteristic of the disease botulism
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa, all botulinus neurotoxin serotypes cleave the substrate at a unique peptide bond, BoNT/A cleaves SNAP-25 between residues Gln197 and Arg198. Phe194, Ile161, and Asp370 form the S1' subsite responsible for binding the P1' arginine side chain of SNAP-25, overview
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa, human substrate, substrate peptide fragment products, overview
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/C1-LC exhibits dual specificity toward both syntaxin and SNAP-25, in contrast to other serotypes, due to a distinct pocket S1' near the active site likely achieves the correct register for the cleavage site by only allowing Ala as the P1' residue for both SNAP-25 and syntaxin, activity of the serotype C enzyme BoNT/C1-LC with diverse SNAp-25 substrate mutants, overview
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q00496
substrate is a recombinant GFP-SNAP-25-(134206)-His6 fusion protein
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a neuronal SNARE protein
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25 kDa synaptosome-associated protein
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25 kDa synaptosome-associated protein, BoNT/A requires two extended exosites for optimal substrate binding and recognition of its intracellular target SNAP-25
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosomal-associated protein
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosomal-associated protein, substrate of BoNT/A
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, a substrate of BoNT/A light chain
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, BoNT/A
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, is involved in acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, substrate of BoNT/A, /E, and /C
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa, a plasma membrane-associated protein, proteolytically cleaved by BoNT types A, C, and E
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a neuronal SNARE protein, cleaved by an engineered BoNT/E light chain, LC/E K224D
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25 kDa synaptosomal-associated protein, substrate of BoNT serotypes A and E
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25 kDa synaptosome-associated protein, substrate of BoNT/A, /E, and /C
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, design and construction of a lab-on-a-chip for the in vitro detection of BoNT-A activity using an assay that measures cleavage of the fluorescence-labeled peptide substrate specific for BoNT-A by the toxin light chain, detection by Foerster resonance energy transfer, FRET, fluorescence, method development and evaluation, overview. The peptide substrate is labeled with internally labeled with the FRET pair fluorescein-thiocarbamoyl, FITC, and 4-(dimethyla-minoazo)benzene-4-carboxylic acid, DABCYL, or with FITC only for positive control
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, development of a BoNT/A-specific assay method, overview. Usage of BoNT/A cleavage-sensitive antibodies that only interact with full-length SNAP-25, the molecular target of the BoNT/A serotype. These antibodies exhibit high specificity for full-length SNAP-25, allowing the BoNT/A-mediated proteolysis of this protein to be measured in diverse assay formats, e.g. ELISA and immunofluorescent assay methods, detailed overview
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, substrate of light chains of BoNT/A1, BoNT/A2, BoNT/A3, and BoNT/A4
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, the Michaelis complex involves an extensive network of binding interactions ranging from the active site to the opposite surface of the BoNT/A. In the complex, the N-terminal residues of SNAP-25 147-167 form an alpha-helix, imbedded in the rear surface of BoNT/A while the C-terminal residues 201-204 form a distorted beta-strand, and the spanning residues are mostly extended
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, truncated version of SNAP-25
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein. The BoNT/E-truncated C-terminal peptide of SNAP-25 is CDMGNEIDTQNRQIDR
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
17-residue C-terminal peptide corresponding to residue 187-203 of SNAP-25
-
-
?
SNAP-25 peptide (141-206) + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the minimal size of SNAP-25 known to retain full activity as a BoNT/A substrate is the C-terminal 66-mer peptide, residues 141-206, with both exosites
-
-
?
SNAP-25-derived peptide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. HA-tagged SNAP25(141-206) or HA-tagged mutant SNAP25(141-206)-R198A, substrate of light chains of BoNT/A1, BoNT/A2, BoNT/A3, and BoNT/A4
-
-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein 25, the enzyme cleaves SNARE proteins, i.e. SNAP receptor proteins, to elicit flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter-carrying vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane of peripheral neurons, overview
-
-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa
-
-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa, located at the host synaptic membrane, serotype E toxin cleaving SNAP25 prevents assembly of the synaptic fusion complex and therefore the fusion of the acetylcholine-containing vesicle and the synaptic membrane
-
-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
zinc-endopeptidase activity of the N-terminal light chain of BoNT/A on synaptosome-associated protein-25 kDa of the SNARE complex
-
-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein 25, recombinant GST-tagged wild-type and mutant D193A, R198A, R198E, and I171A substrates, full-length and truncated substrate, SNAP25 initially binds along the belt region of BoNT/A, which aligns the P5 residue to the S5 pocket at the periphery of the active site, binding site structures, reaction mechanism, molecular modeling of the LC/A active site domain, overview
-
-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, SNAP25 with varying peptide length, substrate specificity of BoNT/C1, e.g. 17mer peptide corresponding to residues 187-203 of SNAP-25 is a substrate for BoNT/C1 (1-430), importance of remote exosites in BoNT/C1 required for activity, assay optimization, overview
-
-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa, located at the host synaptic membrane
-
-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium botulinum NCTC 11219
-
i.e. synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa, located at the host synaptic membrane, serotype E toxin cleaving SNAP25 prevents assembly of the synaptic fusion complex and therefore the fusion of the acetylcholine-containing vesicle and the synaptic membrane, i.e. synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa, located at the host synaptic membrane
-
-
?
SNAP25(187-203) + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein 25, substrate fragmnent containing residues 87-203
-
-
?
SNARE-protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor
-
?
SNKTRIDEAAQRATKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEAAQ + RATKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANBRATKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEANB + RATKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANNRATKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEANN + RATKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRABKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RABKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRASKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RASKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRATAML + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RATAML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRATK + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RATK
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRATKAL + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RATKAL
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRATKM + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RATKM
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRATKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RATKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRATKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RATKML
show the reaction diagram
-
the SNAP-25 peptide is a BoNT serotype A light chain substrate, a 17-residue synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 187 to 203 of SNAP-25. Serotype C1 cleaves the serotype A substrate at a bond separated by only one residue compared to serotype A
-
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRATKXL + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RATKXL
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEANQRBTKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEANQ + RBTKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRIDEBNQRATKML + H2O
SNKTRIDEBNQ + RATKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNKTRINEAAQRATKML + H2O
SNKTRINEAAQ + RATKML
show the reaction diagram
-
synthetic peptide substrate
-
?
SNRTRIDEANK(Dnp)RA(3-iodoacetamido-4-methyl-7-dimethylaminocoumarin-Cys)RML + H2O
SNRTRIDEANK(Dnp) + RA(3-iodoacetamido-4-methyl-7-dimethylaminocoumarin-Cys)RML
show the reaction diagram
-
a SNAP-25 peptide, residues 187-203, substrate BoNT/A LC FRET-based assay
-
-
?
SNRTRIDEANK(Dnp)RA(3-iodoacetamido-4-methyl-7-dimethylaminocoumarin-Cys)RML + H2O
SNRTRIDEANK(Dnp) + RA(3-iodoacetamido-4-methyl-7-dimethylaminocoumarin-Cys)RML
show the reaction diagram
-
a synthetic fluorogenic peptide substrate of BoTxA/LC, representing amino acid residues 187-203 of SNAP25, a cleavage site of the enzyme
-
-
?
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP, neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, MW 19000, with 2 isoforms in human, chicken, in rat brain: synaptobrevin/VAMP-1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, cleaves at Gln76-Phe77, the same site as botulin neurotoxin B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP, neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, MW 19000, with 2 isoforms in human, chicken, in rat brain: synaptobrevin/VAMP-1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, cleaves at Gln76-Phe77, the same site as botulin neurotoxin B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP, neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, MW 19000, with 2 isoforms in human, chicken, in rat brain: synaptobrevin/VAMP-1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, cleaves at Gln76-Phe77, the same site as botulin neurotoxin B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP, neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, MW 19000, with 2 isoforms in human, chicken, in rat brain: synaptobrevin/VAMP-1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, cleaves at Gln76-Phe77, the same site as botulin neurotoxin B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes BoNT/B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes BoNT/B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes BoNT/B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes BoNT/B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/B: cleavage at -Asp-Gln-+-Lys-Leu-, serotype BoNT/G: cleavage at Ala83-Ala84 (VAMP-1), Ala81-Ala82 (VAMP-2)
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/B: cleavage at Gln76-Phe77
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/B: cleavage at Ser-Ala-+-Ala-Lys
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/B: cleavage at Gln-Lys-+-Leu-Ser
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/F: cleavage at Gln-Lys
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes D, F or G
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes D, F or G
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes D, F or G
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes D, F or G
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, in synaptosomes and in injected Aplysia neurons
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/D: cleavage at Lys61-Leu62
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
no substrate of serotype BoNT/A or E
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
carrying synaptobrevin/VAMP-2
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
carrying synaptobrevin/VAMP-2
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
carrying synaptobrevin/VAMP-2
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
carrying synaptobrevin/VAMP-2
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
both isoforms are cleaved at the same rate
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
both isoforms are cleaved at the same rate
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
carrying Val76 instead of Gln76 is not hydrolyzed by serotype BoNT/B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
carrying Val76 instead of Gln76 is not hydrolyzed by serotype BoNT/B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
carrying Val76 instead of Gln76 is not hydrolyzed by serotype BoNT/B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
carrying Val76 instead of Gln76 is not hydrolyzed by serotype BoNT/B
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific neurotoxins
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific neurotoxins
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific neurotoxins
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific neurotoxins
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/B: cleavage at Ser-Gln-+-Phe-Glu (at the same site as the tetanus neurotoxin)
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium botulinum BoNT/E
-
hydrolyzed by serotypes BoNT/B, serotype BoNT/B: cleavage at Gln76-Phe77, no substrate of serotype BoNT/A or E
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium botulinum BoNT/C BoNT/D
-
i.e. VAMP, neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, MW 19000, with 2 isoforms in human, chicken, in rat brain: synaptobrevin/VAMP-1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, cleaves at Gln76-Phe77, the same site as botulin neurotoxin B, serotype BoNT/B: cleavage at -Asp-Gln-+-Lys-Leu-, serotype BoNT/G: cleavage at Ala83-Ala84 (VAMP-1), Ala81-Ala82 (VAMP-2)
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium botulinum type G
-
i.e. VAMP, neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, MW 19000, with 2 isoforms in human, chicken, in rat brain: synaptobrevin/VAMP-1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, cleaves at Gln76-Phe77, the same site as botulin neurotoxin B, serotype BoNT/B: cleavage at -Asp-Gln-+-Lys-Leu-, serotype BoNT/G: cleavage at Ala83-Ala84 (VAMP-1), Ala81-Ala82 (VAMP-2)
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium sp. F
-
i.e. VAMP, neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, MW 19000, with 2 isoforms in human, chicken, in rat brain: synaptobrevin/VAMP-1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, cleaves at Gln76-Phe77, the same site as botulin neurotoxin B, serotype BoNT/D: cleavage at Lys61-Leu62, carrying synaptobrevin/VAMP-2
-
-
-
Synaptobrevin + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptobrevin
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium sp. F
-
i.e. VAMP, neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, MW 19000, with 2 isoforms in human, chicken, in rat brain: synaptobrevin/VAMP-1 and synaptobrevin/VAMP-2, cleaves at Gln76-Phe77, the same site as botulin neurotoxin B, serotype BoNT/F: cleavage at Gln-Lys, both isoforms are cleaved at the same rate, highly specific neurotoxins
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
VAMP
-
?
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
VAMP2
-
?
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
synaptic vesicle-associated membrane protein, neurotoxin responsible for human and animal botulism
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by BoNT/B, BoNT/D and BoNT/F
-
-
?
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a vesicle-associated membrane protein, also known as VAMP, the most abundant SV entity, proteolytically cleaved by BoNT types B, D, F, and G
-
-
?
synaptobrevin-2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
cleaves in the same location as that cleaved by BoNT/F proteolytic F toxin of Clostridium botulinum
-
-
?
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific neurotoxins
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/A and E
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/A and E
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/A and E
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/A and E
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, in isolated synaptosomes
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, in isolated synaptosomes
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, in isolated synaptosomes
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/A: cleavage at Asn-Gln-+-Arg-Ala
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/E: cleavage at Arg180-Ile181
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
no substrate of serotype BoNT/G
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro and in injected Aplysia neurons
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/A: cleavage at Asp-Arg-+-Ile-Met
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
native and recombinant protein
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
MW 25000
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
Hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/A: cleavage at Gln197-Arg198
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
botulinum neurotoxin type D enables cytosolic delivery of enzymatically active cargo proteins to neurones via unfolded translocation intermediates
-
-
?
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzed by BoNT/A, BoNT/E and BoNT/CI
-
-
?
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
significant structural changes near the toxin's catalytic pocket upon substrate binding, probably serving to render the protease competent for catalysis
-
-
?
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 + H2O
hydrolyzed synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, in synaptosomes and in injected Aplysia neurons
-
-
-
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no substrate of serotype BoNT/G
-
-
-
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/C
-
-
-
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/C
-
-
-
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/C
-
-
-
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/C
-
-
-
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
serotype BoNT/C1-LC exhibits dual specificity toward both syntaxin and SNAP-25, in contrast to other serotypes, due to a distinct pocket S1' near the active site likely achieves the correct register for the cleavage site by only allowing Ala as the P1' residue for both SNAP-25 and syntaxin
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
proteolytically cleaved by BoNT/C
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate of BoNT/C
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. vesicle associated membrane protein
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. vesicle associated membrane protein or synaptobrevin, BoNT/B, and BoNT/F
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P30996
i.e. vesicle-associated membrane protein/synaptobrevin
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. vesicle-associated membrane protein/synaptobrevin, substrate of BoNT/B, /D, /F, /G, and /C
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, substrate of BoNT/B, /D, /F, and /G
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P30996
i.e. vesicle-associated membrane protein/synaptobrevin, activity with substrate fragments and mechanism of substrate recognition of BoNT F, overview. Arg133 and Arg171, which form part of two separate exosites, are crucial for substrate binding and catalysis. In exosite 2, BoNT F Arg133 has a dominant role in allowing docking of the V1-SNARE motif, by interacting with the main chain of VAMP Val43, the side chain of VAMP Glu41 and with a water that interacts with other main chain residues of VAMP. The VAMP E41A mutant is 470% cleavage resistant, as compared to the native VAMP
-
-
?
VAMP 2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptobrevin-2 or vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, i.e. synaptobrevin-2 or vesicle-associated membrane protein 2, with BoNT/B light chain
-
-
?
VAMP-2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
initial substrate recognition is mediated through sequential binding of VAMP-2 to the B1, B2 and B3 pockets in LC/F (light chain of BoNT serotype F), which directed VAMP-2 to the active site of LC/F and stabilized the active site substrate recognition, where the P2, P1' and P2' sites of VAMP-2 are specifically recognized by the S2, S1' and S2' pockets of LC/F to promote substrate hydrolysis
-
-
?
VAMP2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. intracellular vesicle associated membrane protein 2
-
-
?
VAMP2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptobrevin-2 or vesicle-associated membrane protein 2
-
-
?
VAMP2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
human VAMP2 substrate, i.e. vesicle-associated membrane protein 2
-
-
?
VAMP2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 or synaptobrevin-2, with BoNT/B light chain. BoNT/B HT exhibits little ability to cleave its substrate VAMP-2, when its LC and HC subunits are held together by a disulfide bond
-
-
?
VAMP2 peptide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a synthetic peptide substrate representing amino acid residues 60-94 of the intracellular vesicle associated membrane protein 2, i.e. VAMP2, recombinant GST fusion protein and commercial preparation as substrates with equal activity for BONT/B
-
-
?
VAMPTide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
VAMPTide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a VAMP-2-derived peptide substrate, modified with FRET, with BoNT/B light chain
-
-
?
vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
BoNT F cleaves VAMP between residues Q58 and K59. The minimum substrate is a peptide containing VAMP residues 32-65, which includes only one of the two VAMP structural motifs thought to be required for botulinum substrate recognition. BoNT F exhibits a strict requirement for residues D57 (P2), K59 (P1'), and L60 (P2'), but peptides containing substitutions for R56 (P3), Q58 (P1), and S61 (P3') are cleaved. Therefore, the P2, P1', and P2'?residues of VAMP are of paramount importance for BoNT F substrate recognition near the scissile bond
-
-
?
vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP-2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
membrane-anchored SNARE + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
host membrane-anchored SNARE, proteolytically cleaved by BoNT/C
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
catalytic activity requires reduction of the single interchain disulfide bond of the neurotoxin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no hydrolysis of short peptides spanning the respective cleavage sites of the target proteins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no hydrolysis of short peptides spanning the respective cleavage sites of the target proteins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no hydrolysis of short peptides spanning the respective cleavage sites of the target proteins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no hydrolysis of short peptides spanning the respective cleavage sites of the target proteins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
activating protease activity is localized on light or L-chain of neurotoxin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the botulinum neurotoxins are divided into two groups: the A-E type and the B-D-F-tetanus toxin type
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the clostridial neurotoxins differ from other proteases in the recognition of the tertiary structure of the target rather than the sequence of the peptide bond to be cleaved
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
neuroparalytic activity tested by intravenous injection into Balb/c mice
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (i.e. NSF), alpha/beta-SNAP or gamma-SNAP
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
synaptotagmin, synaptophysin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
buforin I is no substrate
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
able to cleave selectively an essential component of neurotransmitter exocytosis, causing the syndrome of botulism characterized by flaccid paralysis
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
most potent neurotoxin known
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
most potent toxin known
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
only mammalian proteins, SNAP-25 from Drosophila sp. and Torpedo sp. are no substrates
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
undergoes autocatalytic proteolytic processing and fragmentation
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
BoNTs are the most toxic proteins known with mouse LD50 values in the range of 1-5 ng/kg. They are responsible for the pathophysiology of botulism. BoNTs enter peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals, where they cleave one or two of the three core proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus and elicit persistent but reversible inhibition of neurotransmitter release
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
botulinum neurotoxins are a group of proteins produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum, that are responsible for botulism disease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
boutulinum neurotoxin is a potent inhibitor of neuroexocytosis. Organization and regulation of the neurotoxin gene. The botulinum neurotoxin and non-toxic protein genes are organized in two polycistronic operons transcribed in opposite orientation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
BoNTs bind with high specificity at neuromuscular junctions and they impair exocytosis of synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine through specific proteolysis of SNAREs, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery, botulinum neurotoxins cause the neuroparalytic syndrome of botulism, BoNTs are biological hazard to humans and a serious potential bioweapon threat with a lethal dose of 1 ng/kg body weight
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
clostridial neurotoxins are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus blocking neurotransmitter release through specific proteolysis of one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors, SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin leads to a transient denervation of the submandibular gland and this is associated with reduced salivary secretion in Wistar rats, which may be due to glandular denervation induced by the inhibition of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors involved in acetylcholine release at the neuroglandular junction and also specially inhibition of those involved in exocytosis of the granula of the acinar cells. Cell organelles and secretory granula show a clear atrophy of the acini, which is more prominent in glands injected with the combination of BoNT/A and B, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
LC-mediated proteolysis of SNARE proteins and consequent inhibition of synaptic vesicle fusion to the presynaptic membrane of human motor neurons are responsible for flaccid paralysis associated with botulism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the cytopathic effect of C2I-C2IIa toxin, e.g. on human HeLa or colon cancer Caco-2 cells, or Vero cells, is higher for the single components compared to the complex
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme causes neuroparalysis by blocking neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junctions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the neurotoxic enzyme causes the neuroparalytic illness botulism in humans acting as an endopeptidase which cleaves proteins that are necessary for acetylcholine exocytosis, botulinum toxin affets the strength-duration time constant in patients, the toxin acts on the Na+/K+ pump activity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the proteolytically activated 60 kDa C2II binding component is essential for C2I transport into target cells involving especially amino acids Glu399, Asp426, and Phe428, it forms heptameric channels into membranes that are cation-selective and can be blocked by chloroquine and related compounds
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P10845
the seven antigenically distinct serotypes of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins cleave specific SNARE complex proteins and block the release of neurotransmitters causing flaccid paralysis and are considered potential bioweapons, botulinum neurotoxin type A is the most potent among the clostridial neurotoxins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q00496
the seven serotypes A-G potently block neurotransmission by binding to presynaptic receptors, undergoing endocytosis, transferring to the cytosol, and inactivating proteins essential for vesicle fusion, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
toxicity in mice of full-length, single-nicked, and double-nicked enzyme forms, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
development of a rapid assay method to distiguish the enzyme serotypes A, B, E, F, and G, substrate requirements of the different serotypes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Glu224 and Glu262 are structurally essential for activity, structure-function relationship, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
identification of active site and surrounding residues involved in substrate recognition and catalysis of BoNT/A, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
LC-mediated proteolysis of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor, i.e. SNARE, proteins, complex reaction mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the catalytic component of the clostridial neurotoxins is their light chain, a Zn2+ endopeptidase, active site structure of serotype C1, substrate and cleavage site specificity of serotypes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the catalytic component of the clostridial neurotoxins is their light chain, a Zn2+ endopeptidase, cleavage site specificity, overview
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additional information
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the enzyme is a binary toxin, which is composed of two separate proteins, the enzyme component C2I is an ADP-ribosyltransferase which modifies G-actin of eukaryotic cells, while the proteolytically activated binding/translocation component C2IIa forms ring-shaped heptamers, which bind to cell receptors and mediate the transport of C2I into the cytosol of target cells. Receptor-bound C2IIa serves as a docking platform for C2I on the cell surface, following assembly of C2I, the toxin complex is taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and finally, C2IIa facilitates translocation of C2I from acidic endosomes into the cytosol, the preformed C2 toxin complex ADP-ribosylates actin in vitro and induces cell rounding, overview
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additional information
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the neurotoxin serotypes show distinct substrate specificities, overview
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additional information
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the the receptor-binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B binds to the luminal domain of synaptotagmin II, i.e. Syt-II, interaction occurs at both neutral and acidic endosomal pH, residues Glu44 to Lys60 become structured with residues Phe47 to Ile58 forming an alpha-helix, the HCB-Syt-II complex is stabilized by extensive intermolecular interactions involving two pronounced pockets on the HCB surface, structure, overview, high selectivity of BoNT/B among synaptotagmin I and II isoforms
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additional information
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mapping experiment shows that residues 40-87 of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 are sufficient for efficient TeNT cleavage. Mutations in vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 for analysation of binding kinetics to TeNT
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additional information
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Q00496
BoNT E first binds to GT1b on the presynaptic membrane, like all other BoNTs. In BoNT B, the sialic acid of the sialyllactose that partly mimics GT1b binds in a shallow cavity formed by Trp1261 and His1240,12 and interacts with Tyr1262 and His1240, binding mode, overviewThe GT1b binding site in BoNT E is similar to those in other BoNTs and tetanus neurotoxin
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additional information
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BoNT serotypes bind to structure of ganglioside GT1b receptors, structure and binding specificities, modelling, overview
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additional information
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BoNT/A and BoNT/B bind a synaptic vesicle protein complex from synaptic vesicles, interactions of BoNT and host neuronal receptors, overview. Binding and entry of BoNTs at the neuromuscular junction, BoNT/A associates with the presynaptic membrane of alpha-motor neurons through interactions with oligosaccharides such as ganglioside GT1b, structure-function, modelling, overview
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additional information
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BoNT/A binds to peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals, causing their inhibition, rapidly and with high specificity via its receptor binding, heavy chain domain termed HC. BoNT/A interacts specifically with polysialogangliosides and with a luminal loop of the synaptic vesicle protein SV2 via the C-terminal half of HC, while the N-terminal half of it binds to sphingomyelin-enriched membrane microdomains and shows defined interaction with phosphatidylinositol phosphates, that might play a role in the correct positioning of the toxin for the subsequent low pH-driven membrane insertion of translocation domain sHN. Molecular modelling of Hc-N/A membrane binding, overview
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additional information
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Q57236
BoNTs bind motor neurons via ganglioside-protein dual receptors, i.e. two HCR/F binding glycans: ganglioside GD1a and oligosaccharides containing an N-acetyllactosamine core, HCR/F binds synaptic vesicle glycoproteins through the keratan sulfate moiety of SV2, structure-function properties of BoNT/F host receptor interactions, dual receptors for BoNT/F, overview. Deglycosylation of glycoproteins disrupts the interaction with HCR/F, while the binding of HCR/B to its cognate receptor, synaptotagmin I, is unaffected. Mutations within the putative ganglioside binding pocket of HCR/F decrease binding to gangliosides, synaptic vesicle protein complexes, and primary rat hippocampal neurons, overview
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additional information
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BoNTs exert their neurotoxic effect by a multistep mechanism: binding, internalization, membrane translocation, intracellular traffic, and proteolytic degradation of target. The protein receptors are SV2 for BoNT/A, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F, and synaptotagmin I and II for BoNT/B and BoNT/G. BoNTs enter sensitive host cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, detailed overview. The protease is chaperoned across host endosomes, DELTApH of early endosomes is finely tuned to elicit drastic conformational changes, leading to the insertion of BoNT into the membrane, while it is auspiciously set to interrupt further processing in the harsh acidic conditions existent inside lysosomes. HC dictates the target cell specificity and, during cell binding and intracellular traffic, serves to chaperone the light chain and HN, which ensures that partial unfolding of the light chain is concomitant with HN channel formation, thereby promoting productive light chain translocation
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additional information
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Q60393
botulinum neurotoxin binds host peripheral neurons at the neuromuscular junction through a dual-receptor mechanism that includes interactions with ganglioside and protein receptors. The receptor identities vary depending on BoNT serotype. BoNT/B and BoNT/G bind the luminal domains of synaptotagmin I and II, homologous synaptic vesicle proteins, structure analysis of BoNT/G binding to Syt andGT1b, overview
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additional information
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design of BoNT A or B H-chain peptides for localizing BoNT/A binding regions to mouse brain synaptosomes
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additional information
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ganglioside GT1b is considered as BoNT/A receptor at nerve cells and can bind to the C-terminal end of the heavy chain
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additional information
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sialic acid-dependent binding is required for the transcytosis of serotype D botulinum neurotoxin and toxin complex L-TC in rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6, mechanism, overview. HA-33 molecules play an important role in the effective binding of D-4947 L-TC to Caco-2 cells
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additional information
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the BoNT light chain domain is the Zn-dependent metalloprotease, that cleaves specific proteins that prevent acetylcholine release. BoNT shows endoproteolytic activity on one of the three SNARE proteins, i.e. soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins. The BoNT serotypes all show distinct cleavage sites on the SNARE substrates
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additional information
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the catalytic light chains of BoNTs, BoNT-LC, recognize extended regions of their substrates for cleavage
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additional information
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the heavy chain mediates the binding of the toxin with ganglioside and glycoprotein receptors at the neuronal surface, followed by toxin entry by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis. It mediates the translocation of the light chain into the neuronal cytosol, where it functions as a Zn2+-dependent endoprotease
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additional information
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the toxin light chain, LC, is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase that cleaves soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion proteins, SNARE, located at nerve endings
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additional information
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Q00496
active site structure, Tyr351 is close to both nucleophilic water and catalytic zinc, overview
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additional information
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assay method measuring noradrenaline release in human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells
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additional information
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BoNT/E light chain mutant K224D does not cleave the SNARE proteins SNAP29 or SNAP47
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additional information
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development and evaluation of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo assays for drug discovery and development, especially with regard to the potential for medium- to high-throughput automation and its use in identifying physiologically relevant inhibitors, development of FRET substrates, overview
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additional information
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development of a fluorescence sandwich immunoassay for BoNT activity determination, using serotype BoNT/A, demonstration of its application in both 96-well plate- and bead-based assay formats, both involving a solid substrate, overview
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additional information
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development of an improved ultra-performance liquid chromatography product detection method, overview
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additional information
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development of Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A-G serotypes in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples
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additional information
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development of internally quenched fluorescent substrates containing the fluorophore/repressor pair pyrenylalanine/4-nitrophenylalanine for a sensitive assay method. (pNO2-Phe) and (1-pyrenylalanine) are, respectively, introduced at positions 197 and 200 of the cleavable fragment, amino acids 187 to 203, of SNAP-25, with norleucine at position 202 [Nle202], which is acetylated at its N terminus and amidated at its C-terminus. Sensitivity is increased when the peptide sequence of the previous substrate is lengthened to account for exosite binding to BoNT/A, substrate specificity and assay optimization, overview
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additional information
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enzyme-substrate complex, detailed overview. BoNT/C is unique among the BoNTs, in that it cleaves both SNAP-25 and syntaxin, another plasma membrane-anchored SNARE
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additional information
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F1-40 is a mouse-derived, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds the light chain of BoNT serotype A and is used in a sensitive immunoassay for toxin detection, determination of binding epitopes, overview
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additional information
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feasibility of using the CFP-YFP pair with full-length SNAP-25 as a FRET-based substrate for BoNT/A in a cell-based assay or with the 66-mer peptide as a FRET substrate in an in vitro assay, optimization of FRET efficiency by use of fluorescent protein variants, CsY, CsYY or YsCsY, overview
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additional information
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functional assay of the toxin protease activity using a fluorogenic substrate. Development of a bead-based sandwich immunoassay for botulinum neurotoxin serotype A, BoNT/A, using a recombinant 50 kDa fragment of the BoNT/A heavy chain as a structurally valid simulant. Different anti-BoNT/A antibodies are attached to three different fluorescent, dye encoded flow cytometry beads for multiplexing. The assay is conducted in two formats: a manual microcentrifuge tube format and an automated fluidic system format. Flow cytometry detection is used for both formats, method evaluation, overview
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additional information
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recombinant BoNT/E fragment HC1163-1256 binds synaptotagmin and gangliosides, the expressed and purified HC1163-1256 protein retains a functionally active conformation
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additional information
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regions on BoNT/B that bind to blocking antibodies, synaptotagmin, or gangliosides, recognition pattern, overview
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additional information
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standard assay used to determine potency of clinical samples is the in vivo mouse bioassay, MBA, another possibilty is the primary rat spinal cord cells using RSC assay, that also permits sensitive and quantitative detection of BoNT/A, with usage of Sprague Dawley E15 rat pup spinal cords, Direct comparison of MBA and RSC assays, overview
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additional information
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substrate specificities of the BoNT light chain subtypes, overview. The LC subtypes perform autolytic cleavage. Each LC/A subtype possesses the di-tyrosine autocleavage site, which indicate that residues in addition to the cleavage site are necessary for autocleavage. Control LC, LC/A1 DYM, contains mutations to cleavage site residues, Y250A and Y251A, which abrogates autocatalysis in LC/A1
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additional information
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synaptosome capture assay for the different serotype BoNTs, synaptosome from rat brains, overview
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additional information
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usage of a single molecule assay of BoNT serotypes A and E light chain translocation through the heavy chain channel in neurons, and of BoNT intoxication assays, namely the mouse protection and the primary rat spinal cord cell assays
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additional information
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Clostridium botulinum BoNT/E
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catalytic activity requires reduction of the single interchain disulfide bond of the neurotoxin, activating protease activity is localized on light or L-chain of neurotoxin
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additional information
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Clostridium botulinum BoNT/E
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neuroparalytic activity tested by intravenous injection into Balb/c mice
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additional information
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Clostridium botulinum BoNT/C BoNT/D
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catalytic activity requires reduction of the single interchain disulfide bond of the neurotoxin, the clostridial neurotoxins differ from other proteases in the recognition of the tertiary structure of the target rather than the sequence of the peptide bond to be cleaved, synaptotagmin, synaptophysin
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additional information
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Clostridium botulinum type G
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catalytic activity requires reduction of the single interchain disulfide bond of the neurotoxin, the clostridial neurotoxins differ from other proteases in the recognition of the tertiary structure of the target rather than the sequence of the peptide bond to be cleaved, synaptotagmin, synaptophysin
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additional information
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Clostridium sp. F
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the botulinum neurotoxins are divided into two groups: the A-E type and the B-D-F-tetanus toxin type, N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (i.e. NSF), alpha/beta-SNAP or gamma-SNAP
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP-25
-
-
?
Ac-SNKTIDEANQRATKML-NH2 + H2O
Ac-SNKTIDEANQ + RATKML-NH2
show the reaction diagram
-
synaptosomal protein
-
?
cytosolic SNARE + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
host cytosolic SNARE, i.e. soluble NSF attachment protein receptor, a central helical protein-conducting channel, which chaperones the protease across host endosomes, modelling, overview. Sequence-specific claveage by the endoprotease activity of the BoNT light chains
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-
?
Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
neurotoxin binds specifically to nerve cells, botulin neurotoxin-receptors are located on the motor neuron plasmalemma at neuromuscular junctions, neurotoxin binds via protein and lipid interaction, after binding it is internalized inside vesicles of unknown nature
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Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
neurotoxin binds specifically to nerve cells, botulin neurotoxin-receptors are located on the motor neuron plasmalemma at neuromuscular junctions, neurotoxin binds via protein and lipid interaction, after binding it is internalized inside vesicles of unknown nature
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Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
neurotoxin binds specifically to nerve cells, botulin neurotoxin-receptors are located on the motor neuron plasmalemma at neuromuscular junctions, neurotoxin binds via protein and lipid interaction, after binding it is internalized inside vesicles of unknown nature
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Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
neurotoxin binds specifically to nerve cells, botulin neurotoxin-receptors are located on the motor neuron plasmalemma at neuromuscular junctions, neurotoxin binds via protein and lipid interaction, after binding it is internalized inside vesicles of unknown nature
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Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, blocks release of neurotransmitter acetylcholine at neuromuscular junction
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Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to spastic paralysis caused by EC 3.4.24.68, three functionally distinct domains: domain L blocks neuroexocytosis, domain HN governs cell penetration, domain HC responsible for neurospecific binding
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Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to spastic paralysis caused by EC 3.4.24.68, three functionally distinct domains: domain L blocks neuroexocytosis, domain HN governs cell penetration, domain HC responsible for neurospecific binding
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Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to spastic paralysis caused by EC 3.4.24.68, three functionally distinct domains: domain L blocks neuroexocytosis, domain HN governs cell penetration, domain HC responsible for neurospecific binding
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Neuroexocytosis multi-subunit complex + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to spastic paralysis caused by EC 3.4.24.68, three functionally distinct domains: domain L blocks neuroexocytosis, domain HN governs cell penetration, domain HC responsible for neurospecific binding
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SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
mammalian synaptosome associated protein
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
BoNT/A-LC is a Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotease that blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAP-25, one of the SNARE proteins required for exocytosis
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q00496
serotypes BoNT/A and BoNT/E cleave SNAP-25 at distinct sites, BoNT/E blocks neurotransmission faster and more potently
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the potent botulinum neurotoxin inhibits neurotransmitter release at cholinergic nerve terminals, causing a descending flaccid paralysis characteristic of the disease botulism
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a neuronal SNARE protein
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25 kDa synaptosome-associated protein
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25 kDa synaptosome-associated protein, BoNT/A requires two extended exosites for optimal substrate binding and recognition of its intracellular target SNAP-25
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosomal-associated protein
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosomal-associated protein, substrate of BoNT/A
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein
-
-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, a substrate of BoNT/A light chain
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, BoNT/A
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, is involved in acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 25-kDa synaptosome-associated protein, substrate of BoNT/A, /E, and /C
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-
?
SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa, a plasma membrane-associated protein, proteolytically cleaved by BoNT types A, C, and E
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-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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i.e. soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein 25, the enzyme cleaves SNARE proteins, i.e. SNAP receptor proteins, to elicit flaccid paralysis by inhibiting neurotransmitter-carrying vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane of peripheral neurons, overview
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-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa
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-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa, located at the host synaptic membrane, serotype E toxin cleaving SNAP25 prevents assembly of the synaptic fusion complex and therefore the fusion of the acetylcholine-containing vesicle and the synaptic membrane
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-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
zinc-endopeptidase activity of the N-terminal light chain of BoNT/A on synaptosome-associated protein-25 kDa of the SNARE complex
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-
?
SNAP25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium botulinum NCTC 11219
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i.e. synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa, located at the host synaptic membrane, serotype E toxin cleaving SNAP25 prevents assembly of the synaptic fusion complex and therefore the fusion of the acetylcholine-containing vesicle and the synaptic membrane
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-
?
SNARE-protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor
-
?
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. VAMP
-
-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
synaptic vesicle-associated membrane protein, neurotoxin responsible for human and animal botulism
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-
-
synaptobrevin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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a vesicle-associated membrane protein, also known as VAMP, the most abundant SV entity, proteolytically cleaved by BoNT types B, D, F, and G
-
-
?
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
Synaptosome-associated protein + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. SNAP 25, protein of presynaptic membrane
-
-
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
botulinum neurotoxin type D enables cytosolic delivery of enzymatically active cargo proteins to neurones via unfolded translocation intermediates
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Syntaxin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
proteolytically cleaved by BoNT/C
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. vesicle associated membrane protein
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. vesicle associated membrane protein or synaptobrevin, BoNT/B, and BoNT/F
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P30996
i.e. vesicle-associated membrane protein/synaptobrevin
-
-
?
VAMP + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. vesicle-associated membrane protein/synaptobrevin, substrate of BoNT/B, /D, /F, /G, and /C
-
-
?
VAMP 2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptobrevin-2 or vesicle-associated membrane protein 2
-
-
?
VAMP2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. intracellular vesicle associated membrane protein 2
-
-
?
VAMP2 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. synaptobrevin-2 or vesicle-associated membrane protein 2
-
-
?
membrane-anchored SNARE + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
host membrane-anchored SNARE, proteolytically cleaved by BoNT/C
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
able to cleave selectively an essential component of neurotransmitter exocytosis, causing the syndrome of botulism characterized by flaccid paralysis
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
most potent neurotoxin known
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
most potent toxin known
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
only mammalian proteins, SNAP-25 from Drosophila sp. and Torpedo sp. are no substrates
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
undergoes autocatalytic proteolytic processing and fragmentation
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
BoNTs are the most toxic proteins known with mouse LD50 values in the range of 1-5 ng/kg. They are responsible for the pathophysiology of botulism. BoNTs enter peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals, where they cleave one or two of the three core proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus and elicit persistent but reversible inhibition of neurotransmitter release
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
botulinum neurotoxins are a group of proteins produced by different strains of Clostridium botulinum, that are responsible for botulism disease
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
boutulinum neurotoxin is a potent inhibitor of neuroexocytosis. Organization and regulation of the neurotoxin gene. The botulinum neurotoxin and non-toxic protein genes are organized in two polycistronic operons transcribed in opposite orientation
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
BoNTs bind with high specificity at neuromuscular junctions and they impair exocytosis of synaptic vesicles containing acetylcholine through specific proteolysis of SNAREs, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery, botulinum neurotoxins cause the neuroparalytic syndrome of botulism, BoNTs are biological hazard to humans and a serious potential bioweapon threat with a lethal dose of 1 ng/kg body weight
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-
-
additional information
?
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clostridial neurotoxins are the causative agents of the neuroparalytic diseases botulism and tetanus blocking neurotransmitter release through specific proteolysis of one of the three soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptors, SNAP-25, syntaxin, and synaptobrevin, which constitute part of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery
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-
-
additional information
?
-
-
intraglandular injection of botulinum toxin leads to a transient denervation of the submandibular gland and this is associated with reduced salivary secretion in Wistar rats, which may be due to glandular denervation induced by the inhibition of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors involved in acetylcholine release at the neuroglandular junction and also specially inhibition of those involved in exocytosis of the granula of the acinar cells. Cell organelles and secretory granula show a clear atrophy of the acini, which is more prominent in glands injected with the combination of BoNT/A and B, overview
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-
-
additional information
?
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-
LC-mediated proteolysis of SNARE proteins and consequent inhibition of synaptic vesicle fusion to the presynaptic membrane of human motor neurons are responsible for flaccid paralysis associated with botulism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the cytopathic effect of C2I-C2IIa toxin, e.g. on human HeLa or colon cancer Caco-2 cells, or Vero cells, is higher for the single components compared to the complex
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-
-
additional information
?
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-
the enzyme causes neuroparalysis by blocking neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junctions
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-
additional information
?
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the neurotoxic enzyme causes the neuroparalytic illness botulism in humans acting as an endopeptidase which cleaves proteins that are necessary for acetylcholine exocytosis, botulinum toxin affets the strength-duration time constant in patients, the toxin acts on the Na+/K+ pump activity, overview
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additional information
?
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the proteolytically activated 60 kDa C2II binding component is essential for C2I transport into target cells involving especially amino acids Glu399, Asp426, and Phe428, it forms heptameric channels into membranes that are cation-selective and can be blocked by chloroquine and related compounds
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additional information
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P10845
the seven antigenically distinct serotypes of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins cleave specific SNARE complex proteins and block the release of neurotransmitters causing flaccid paralysis and are considered potential bioweapons, botulinum neurotoxin type A is the most potent among the clostridial neurotoxins
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additional information
?
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Q00496
the seven serotypes A-G potently block neurotransmission by binding to presynaptic receptors, undergoing endocytosis, transferring to the cytosol, and inactivating proteins essential for vesicle fusion, overview
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additional information
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toxicity in mice of full-length, single-nicked, and double-nicked enzyme forms, overview
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additional information
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Q00496
BoNT E first binds to GT1b on the presynaptic membrane, like all other BoNTs. In BoNT B, the sialic acid of the sialyllactose that partly mimics GT1b binds in a shallow cavity formed by Trp1261 and His1240,12 and interacts with Tyr1262 and His1240, binding mode, overviewThe GT1b binding site in BoNT E is similar to those in other BoNTs and tetanus neurotoxin
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additional information
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BoNT serotypes bind to structure of ganglioside GT1b receptors, structure and binding specificities, modelling, overview
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additional information
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BoNT/A and BoNT/B bind a synaptic vesicle protein complex from synaptic vesicles, interactions of BoNT and host neuronal receptors, overview. Binding and entry of BoNTs at the neuromuscular junction, BoNT/A associates with the presynaptic membrane of alpha-motor neurons through interactions with oligosaccharides such as ganglioside GT1b, structure-function, modelling, overview
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additional information
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BoNT/A binds to peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals, causing their inhibition, rapidly and with high specificity via its receptor binding, heavy chain domain termed HC. BoNT/A interacts specifically with polysialogangliosides and with a luminal loop of the synaptic vesicle protein SV2 via the C-terminal half of HC, while the N-terminal half of it binds to sphingomyelin-enriched membrane microdomains and shows defined interaction with phosphatidylinositol phosphates, that might play a role in the correct positioning of the toxin for the subsequent low pH-driven membrane insertion of translocation domain sHN. Molecular modelling of Hc-N/A membrane binding, overview
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additional information
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Q57236
BoNTs bind motor neurons via ganglioside-protein dual receptors, i.e. two HCR/F binding glycans: ganglioside GD1a and oligosaccharides containing an N-acetyllactosamine core, HCR/F binds synaptic vesicle glycoproteins through the keratan sulfate moiety of SV2, structure-function properties of BoNT/F host receptor interactions, dual receptors for BoNT/F, overview. Deglycosylation of glycoproteins disrupts the interaction with HCR/F, while the binding of HCR/B to its cognate receptor, synaptotagmin I, is unaffected. Mutations within the putative ganglioside binding pocket of HCR/F decrease binding to gangliosides, synaptic vesicle protein complexes, and primary rat hippocampal neurons, overview
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additional information
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BoNTs exert their neurotoxic effect by a multistep mechanism: binding, internalization, membrane translocation, intracellular traffic, and proteolytic degradation of target. The protein receptors are SV2 for BoNT/A, BoNT/E, and BoNT/F, and synaptotagmin I and II for BoNT/B and BoNT/G. BoNTs enter sensitive host cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis, detailed overview. The protease is chaperoned across host endosomes, DELTApH of early endosomes is finely tuned to elicit drastic conformational changes, leading to the insertion of BoNT into the membrane, while it is auspiciously set to interrupt further processing in the harsh acidic conditions existent inside lysosomes. HC dictates the target cell specificity and, during cell binding and intracellular traffic, serves to chaperone the light chain and HN, which ensures that partial unfolding of the light chain is concomitant with HN channel formation, thereby promoting productive light chain translocation
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additional information
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Q60393
botulinum neurotoxin binds host peripheral neurons at the neuromuscular junction through a dual-receptor mechanism that includes interactions with ganglioside and protein receptors. The receptor identities vary depending on BoNT serotype. BoNT/B and BoNT/G bind the luminal domains of synaptotagmin I and II, homologous synaptic vesicle proteins, structure analysis of BoNT/G binding to Syt andGT1b, overview
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additional information
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design of BoNT A or B H-chain peptides for localizing BoNT/A binding regions to mouse brain synaptosomes
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additional information
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ganglioside GT1b is considered as BoNT/A receptor at nerve cells and can bind to the C-terminal end of the heavy chain
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additional information
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sialic acid-dependent binding is required for the transcytosis of serotype D botulinum neurotoxin and toxin complex L-TC in rat intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6, mechanism, overview. HA-33 molecules play an important role in the effective binding of D-4947 L-TC to Caco-2 cells
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additional information
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the BoNT light chain domain is the Zn-dependent metalloprotease, that cleaves specific proteins that prevent acetylcholine release. BoNT shows endoproteolytic activity on one of the three SNARE proteins, i.e. soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor proteins. The BoNT serotypes all show distinct cleavage sites on the SNARE substrates
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additional information
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the catalytic light chains of BoNTs, BoNT-LC, recognize extended regions of their substrates for cleavage
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additional information
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the heavy chain mediates the binding of the toxin with ganglioside and glycoprotein receptors at the neuronal surface, followed by toxin entry by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis. It mediates the translocation of the light chain into the neuronal cytosol, where it functions as a Zn2+-dependent endoprotease
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additional information
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the toxin light chain, LC, is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase that cleaves soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion proteins, SNARE, located at nerve endings
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Zinc
-
activation requires reduction of interchain disulfide bond; zinc-dependent endopeptidase (serotype BoNT/B)
Zinc
-
1 atom of zinc per molecule botulinum neurotoxin, bound to light chain (i.e. L-chain); atom absorption spectroscopy; contains zinc binding motif of metalloendopeptidases His-Glu-X-X-His
Zinc
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0.8-1 gatom zinc/mol neurotoxin; atom absorption spectroscopy; the L-chain of BoNT/B is a form of zinc-endopeptidase; zinc-dependent endopeptidase (serotype BoNT/B)
Zinc
-
1 atom of zinc per molecule botulinum neurotoxin (MW 150000, of serotypes A, B and E, each in 2-chain form); atom absorption spectroscopy; contains zinc binding motif of metalloendopeptidases His-Glu-X-X-His
Zinc
-
contains zinc binding motif of metalloendopeptidases His223-Glu-Leu-Ile-His-X-X-His230
Zinc
-
zinc-dependent endopeptidase
Zinc
-
zinc-dependent endopeptidase
Zinc
-
1 atom of zinc per molecule botulinum neurotoxin, bound to light chain (i.e. L-chain); atom absorption spectroscopy; zinc-dependent endopeptidase
Zinc
-
activation requires reduction of interchain disulfide bond; contains zinc binding motif of metalloendopeptidases His-Glu-X-X-His; zinc-dependent endopeptidase
Zinc
-
zinc binding motif in the central region of the light chain
Zinc
-
evidence for noncanonical zinc protease activity; noncanonical zinc protease activity
Zn2+
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zinc endopeptidase, contains 1 Zn2+/molecule
Zn2+
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zincmetalloprotease
Zn2+
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zinc-dependent endoproteinase
Zn2+
-
zinc endopeptidase, Zn2+ is the natural cofactor of the light chain
Zn2+
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zinc endopeptidase
Zn2+
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the catalytic component of the clostridial neurotoxins is their light chain, a Zn2+ endopeptidase
Zn2+
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BoNT/A-LC is a Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotease, the Zn2+ ion plays a purely catalytic role
Zn2+
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a zinc endopeptidase with a active site zinc binding motif HEXXH containing His223, His227, Glu224, and Glu262, structure, overview, thw zinc ion might play a structural role in addition to its catalytic role, overview
Zn2+
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binding site structure, a long a helix contains the HEXXH Zn(II)-binding motif, modeling, overview
Zn2+
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a zinc endopeptidase
Zn2+
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zinc metalloprotease
Zn2+
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zinc endopeptidase, dependent on, addition of ZnCl2 to the assay mixture reduces the activity of BoNT/A, activity ratio of wild-type and mutant enzymes in presence or absence of ZnCl2, overview, BoNT/A LC undergoes autocatalytic degradation into two major fragments in the presence of exogenous zinc
Zn2+
A5JGM8
zinc-dependent endopeptidase
Zn2+
-
the zinc ion in the active site is purely catalytic, the light chain module is a Zn2+-metalloprotease with a thermolysin-like fold
Zn2+
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a zinc-metallopeptidase
Zn2+
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the N-terminal A domain, i.e. light chain, LC, is a 50 kDa zinc metalloprotease with the characteristic thermolysin-family zinc coordination motif HExxH
Zn2+
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BoNT/B is a zinc endopeptidase
Zn2+
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BoNT/A is a zinc metalloprotease
Zn2+
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zinc-dependent metalloprotease
Zn2+
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a zinc-metalloprotease
Zn2+
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a zinc-dependent endopeptidase
Zn2+
Q00496
the active-site zinc is coordinated by His212, His216, and Glu251, and nucleophilic water, which in turn is hydrogen-bonded to Glu213. Tyr351 is close to both nucleophilic water and catalytic zinc
Zn2+
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Zn-dependent proteinase
Zn2+
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dependent on
additional information
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no involvement of cobalt, copper, iron, manganese or nickel, atomic absorption spectroscopy
additional information
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no involvement of cobalt, copper, iron, manganese or nickel, atomic absorption spectroscopy
additional information
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the C2II channel is cation-selective
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2E)-2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-(3-iodo-4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enenitrile
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(2E)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
a synthetic hydroxamate, D-chicoric acid is synergistic with a competitive inhibitor I2 when used in combination
(2E)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-(2-amino-4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-(2-bromo-4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
a trans-cinnamic hydroxamate
(2E)-3-[4-chloro-2-(iminomethyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-[4-chloro-2-(methylsulfanyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-[4-chloro-2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(2E)-3-[4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
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(3R)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
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(3R)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
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(3S)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
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(3S)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
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([[5-[[1-(4-ammoniobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl]-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl]acetyl]amino)oxidanide
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synthesis and binding structure, overview, multiple molecular dynamics simulations of the endopeptidase in complex with inhibitor 2 using the dummy atom approach, overview
1,10-phenanthroline
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r, Zn2+ restores
1,10-phenanthroline
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1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione
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inhibitor is providing relatively potent BoNT protection in a cellular assay. It inhibits the biological activity of BoNT/A1 in neuronal cells. This inhibitor is about 7 to 10times more potent than 2-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)cyclopent-4-ene-1,3-dione
2,4-dichlorocinnamic acid hydroxamate
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2,4-dichlorocinnamic hydroxamate
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binding site and complex structure, overview
2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-3-(5-(furan-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile
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2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-3-(biphenyl-4-yl)acrylonitrile
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2-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)cyclopent-4-ene-1,3-dione
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inhibits the biological activity of BoNT/A1 in neuronal cells. This inhibitor is about 7 to 10times less potent than 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione
2-(4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenyl)-6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1H-indole
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2-(4-(2-chloro-4-cyanophenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole-6-carbonitrile
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2-(4-(2-chloro-4-cyanophenoxy)phenyl)-6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)indole
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2-(4-(4-(6-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine
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2-(4-(4-(6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole
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2-(4-(4-(6-(5-hydroxy-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indol-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-ol
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2-(4-(4-carbamoylphenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboxamide
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2-(4-(4-cyanophenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboximidamide
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2-(4-(4-cyanophenoxy)phenyl)indole-6-carbonitrile
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2-(4-(6-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine
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2-(4-(6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole
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2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indole-6-carbonitrile
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2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboxamide
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2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboximidamide
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2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboxamide
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2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboximidamide
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2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1H-indole
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2-(5-(4-cyanophenoxy)pyridin-2-yl)-1H-indole-6-carbonitrile
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-
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2-(5-fluoro-2-pyridyl)-6-benzo[b]thiophenecarboxamide
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2-(5-{[1-(4-aminobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl}-2-phenylthiophen-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide
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i.e. 2-(5-[[1-(4-aminobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl]-2-phenylthiophen-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide
2-(9H-fluorene-2-carbonyl)benzoic acid
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-
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2-bromo-4-chlorocinnamic acid hydroxamate
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-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-R
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-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RA
-
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RAAKML
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-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RAT
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-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATAML
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-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATK
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-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATKAL
-
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATKM
-
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATKML
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-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATKMLGSG
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-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RVTKML
-
-
2-methyl-4-chlorocinnamic acid hydroxamate
-
-
2-trifluoromethyl-4-chlorocinnamic acid hydroxamate
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-
2-[1-cyano-2-(3-bromo-5-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]benzimidazole
-
-
2-[1-cyano-2-(3-chloro-5-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]benzimidazole
-
-
2-[5-{[1-(4-aminobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl}-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl]-N-hydroxyacetamide
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i.e. 2-[5-[[1-(4-aminobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl]-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl]-N-hydroxyacetamide, 79% inhibition of BoNTA at 0.02 mM
2-[5-{[1-(4-aminobutyl)-3-fluoro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl}-2-(3-aminophenyl)thiophen-3-yl]-N-hydroxyacetamide
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i.e. 2-(5-(1-(4-aminobutyl)-3-fluoro-2-phenyl-1H-indole-6-carbonyl)-2-(3-aminophenyl)thiophen-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide, 47% inhibition of BoNTA at 0.02 mM. The hydroxamate coordinates the zinc ion embedded in the active site and forms a hydrogen bond to Glu224. The cation shows pi-interaction of the thiophene-substituted phenyl group with Arg363. Occurence of pi-pi interactions of the thiophene-substituted phenyl group with Phe194 and Tyr366, of interaction of the ketone oxygen atom with Asp370 that is bridged by at least one water molecule, and of cation-pi and pi-pi interactions of the indole-substituted phenyl group with Lys66 and Gln162, respectively
2-[5-{[1-(4-aminobutyl)-3-fluoro-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl}-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl]-N-hydroxyacetamide
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i.e. 2-(5-(1-(4-aminobutyl)-3-fluoro-2-phenyl-1H-indole-6-carbonyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide, 82% inhibition of BoNTA at 0.02 mM. The hydroxamate coordinates the zinc ion embedded in the active site and forms a hydrogen bond to Glu224. The cation shows pi-interaction of the thiophene-substituted phenyl group with Arg363. Occurence of pi-pi interactions of the thiophene-substituted phenyl group with Phe194 and Tyr366, of interaction of the ketone oxygen atom with Asp370 that is bridged by at least one water molecule, and of cation-pi and pi-pi interactions of the indole-substituted phenyl group with Lys66 and Gln162, respectively
3-(2,20-bithiophen-5-yl)-2-(1H-benzo-imidazol-2-yl)acrylonitrile
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-
3-(4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenyl)-2-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)acrylonitrile
-
-
3-(4-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-N-hydroxypropanamide
-
-
4-(2-amino-3-sulfanylpropyl)benzamide
-
-
4-(2-amino-3-sulfanylpropyl)benzenesulfonamide
-
-
4-(2-amino-3-sulfanylpropyl)benzenesulfonic acid
-
-
4-amino-7-chloroquinoline
-
12% inhibition at 0.05 mM
4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate
-
-
4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate
-
binding site and complex structure, overview
4-[((2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2R)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)]benzoic acid
-
-
4-[((2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)]benzoic acid
-
-
4-[((2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)]benzoic acid
-
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-ylethylcarbamoyl)-3(S)sulfanylpropyl]benzoic acid
-
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-methylbutylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-ylethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)-sulfanylpropyl]benzoic acid
-
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2R)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl]benzoic acid
-
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl] benzoic acid
-
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-naphthalen-1-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl] benzoic acid
-
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)] benzoic acid
-
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(2S)-2-benzol[beta]thiophen-3-yl-1-benzylcarbamoylethylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3-(S)-sulfanylpropyl] benzoic acid
-
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(2S)-2-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl-1-benzylcarbamoylethylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)-sulfanylpropyl]benzoic acid
-
-
4-{(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2R)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl}benzoic acid
-
-
4-{(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl}-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)}benzoic acid
-
-
4-{(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl}benzoic acid
-
-
4-{(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2R)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl}benzoic acid
-
-
4-{(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl}benzoic acid
-
-
4-{(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl}benzoic acid
-
-
4-{(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-naphthalen-1-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl}benzoic acid
-
-
4-{(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)-sulfanylpropyl)}benzoic acid
-
-
6-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole
-
-
-
6-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole
-
-
-
6-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(4-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-indole
-
-
-
6-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(3,2,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)indole
-
-
-
6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-(4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-indole
-
-
-
6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole
-
-
-
6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole
-
-
-
6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indole
-
-
-
6-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl)-2-(5-(4-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)pyridine-2-yl)indole
-
-
-
6-bromo-N-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
6-chloro-2-(4-(4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)-phenyl)-1H-indole
-
-
-
6-chloro-N-hydroxy-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide
-
-
6-chloro-N-hydroxy-1-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide
-
-
6-chloro-N-hydroxy-1H-indene-2-carboxamide
-
-
6-chloro-N-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
7-((4-nitroanilino)(phenyl)methyl)-8-quinolinol
-
NSC 1010
-
7-N-phenylcarbamoylamino-4-chloro-3-propyloxyisocoumarin
-
ICD 1578
Ac-SNKTRIDEACQRATKML-NH2
-
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(D)CRATKML-NH2
-
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(D)QCRATKML-NH2
-
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEANCRATKML-NH2
-
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQCATKML-NH2
-
-
Ala-Ser-Gln-Phe-Glu-Thr-Ser
-
synthetic peptide containing cleavage site of synaptobrevin, inhibits toxin action on buccal ganglion of Aplysia californica, serotype BoNT/B, not A or E
ammonium chloride
-
affects the acidification step, acts to inhibit by neutralizing the endosomal pH and show antagonism against BoNT-induced paralysis
amodiaquine
-
antimalarial drug, 30% inhibition
antibody F1-40
-
F1-40 binds a peptide fragment of the BoNT/A light chain, designated L1-3, which spans from T125 to L200, with recognition motif QPDRS. No binding to BoNT/A mutant Q138G/P139G/D140G. Wild-type residues Q138, P139 and D140 form a loop on the external surface of BoNT/A, exposed to solvent
-
AQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
residues 37-58 of vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP. Inhibitor exhibits a high degree of specificity for BoNT F, compared to other BoNT serotypes
bafilomycin A1
-
inhibits all BoNT serotypes. The ATPase inhibitor also functions as antagonist of the acidification process
bisquinoline Q2-15
-
60% inhibition
-
bisquinoline Q2-61
-
50% inhibition
-
buforin I
-
natural peptide, isolated from the stomach of the Asian toad Bufo bufo gargarizans
-
caftaric acid
-
-
-
Captopril
-
serotype BoNT/B
CB 7969312
-
the quinolinol-based analogue effectively neutralizes BoNT/A toxicity, ex vivo protection at 500 nM
-
chlorogenic acid
-
-
Chloroquine
-
antimalarial drug, 20% inhibition
Chloroquine
-
the C2II channel can be blocked by chloroquine and related compounds
cinnamic acid hydroxamate
-
-
-
concanamycin A
-
the ATPase inhibitor also functions as antagonist of the acidification process
CpA
-
i.e. [5-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-2-phenylthiophen-3-yl]acetic acid, 15% inhibition of BoNTA at 0.1 mM
CRATKML
-
competitive peptide inhibitor
D-chicoric acid
-
mechanism of inhibition, overview. The inhibitor binds to an exosite, displays noncompetitive partial inhibition, and is synergistic with a competitive inhibitor I2 when used in combination
-
dipicolinic acid
-
-
EDTA
-
serotype BoNT/B
EDTA
-
r, Zn2+ restores
EDTA
-
r, Zn2+ restores
expoxomicin
-
increases ubiquitination of BoNT/B light chain in neuronal cells. Ubiquitination in vitro and in cells decreases the biological activity of BoNT/B light chain
-
ganglioside GT1b glycoconjugate
-
the synthetic glycoconjugates based on GT1b prevents SNAP-25 cleavage in spinal cord cells of rat embryos
ganglioside GT1b glycoconjugate
-
the synthetic glycoconjugates based on GT1b prevents SNAP25 cleavage in spinal cord cells of rat embryos
GGPPAPPPNLTSNRRLQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
residues 17-58 of vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP
-
Gln-Phe-Glu-Thr
-
synthetic peptide containing cleavage site of synaptobrevin, inhibits toxin action on buccal ganglion of Aplysia californica, serotype BoNT/B, not A or E
GRKKRRQRRRPPQC
-
90% inhibition
-
indole bis-amidine
-
NSC 240898, a potent BoNT/A LC endopeptidase inhibitor, 75% inhibition at 0.02 mM, no cytotoxicity
-
L-Arginine hydroxamate
-
binding site and complex structure, overview
L-Arginine hydroxamate
-
-
L-chicoric acid
-
-
-
LQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
residues 32-58 of vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP. Inhibitor exhibits a high degree of specificity for BoNT F, compared to other BoNT serotypes
-
methyl 3alpha-(N-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]ethyl)amino,7alpha,12alpha-diacetoxy-5beta-cholan-24-oate
-
-
methyl 3alpha-(N-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]ethyl)oxy,7alpha,12alpha-diacetoxy-5beta-cholan-24-oate
-
9% inhibition at 0.05 mM
methyl 3alpha-amino-7alpha,12alpha-diacetoxycholan-24-oate
-
13% inhibition at 0.05 mM
methyl 3beta-(N-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]ethyl)amino,7alpha,12alpha-diacetoxy-5beta-cholan-24-oate
-
-
N'-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-2-(4-(4-(N'-2-(dimethylaminoethyl)carbamimidoyl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboximidamide
-
-
-
N,N-bis(7-aminoheptyl)-1-benzyl-4-[3-(hydroxyamino)-3-oxopropyl]-5-(3-hydroxy-3,3-diphenylpropyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxamide
-
a tetrasubstituted pyrrole inhibitor
N-(3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triacetoxy-5beta-cholan-24-yl)-N'-(7'-chloroquinolin-4'-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamine
-
-
N-(methyl 7alpha,12alpha-diacetoxy-5beta-cholan-24-oate,3alpha-yloxy)-ethyl-N'-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamine
-
62% inhibition at 0.05 mM
N-Ac-CRATKML
-
an inhibitory peptide, structure of the serotype A toxin light chain with an inhibitory peptide bound at the catalytic Zn(II) ion, the peptide is bound with the Cys Sgamma atom coordinating the metal ion, overview
N-acetyl neuraminic acid
-
both binding and permeation of toxins are potently inhibited by N-acetyl neuraminic acid in the cell culture mediumor by treatment of the cells with neuraminidase, but neither galactose, lactose nor N-acetyl galactosamine inhibit binding or permeation of toxins
N-acetyl-CRATKML-amide
-
-
N-hydroxy-4-pentylbenzamide
-
-
N-hydroxyacetamidoadamantan
-
a synthetic hydroxamate
-
N1-(6-(6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-pyridine-3-yl)ethane-1,2-diamine
-
-
-
N1-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamine
-
33% inhibition at 0.05 mM
N1-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)-propane-1,3-diamine
-
22% inhibition at 0.05 mM
NSC 119889
-
56% inhibition
NSC 130796
-
48% inhibition
NSC 357756
-
57% inhibition
NSC 402959
-
40% inhibition
NSC 625324 (silver sulfadiazine)
-
100% inhibition
NSC 661755 (michellamine B)
-
62% inhibition
NSC 86372
-
51% inhibition
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
-
increases ubiquitination of BoNT/B light chain in neuronal cells. Ubiquitination in vitro and in cells decreases the biological activity of BoNT/B light chain
PPPNLTSNRRLQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
residues 22-58 of vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP. Inhibitor exhibits a high degree of specificity for BoNT F, compared to other BoNT serotypes
-
PTEN
-
a zinc-chelating agent
-
Quinacrine
-
antimalarial drug, 30% inhibition
RRGC
P10845
an inhibitory substrate analogue tetrapeptide, binding structure, overview
RRGC
-
0.02 mM, 95% inhibition, most potent inhibitor. When assayed in the presence of dithiothreitol, the inhibitory effect is drastically reduced
RRGF
-
0.02 mM, 95% inhibition
-
RRGI
P10845
an inhibitory substrate analogue tetrapeptide, binding structure, overview
RRGI
-
0.02 mM, 90% inhibition
RRGL
P10845
an inhibitory substrate analogue tetrapeptide, binding structure, overview
RRGL
-
0.02 mM, 95% inhibition
RRGM
P10845
an inhibitory substrate analogue tetrapeptide, binding structure, overview
RRGM
-
0.02 mM, 90% inhibition
S132B-C11
-
a RNA aptamer that inhibits the enzyme's endopeptidase activity in a non-competitive manner. The core sequence is GACAGCGUGCCUAGAAGUCCAAGCUUAAAUAACCACGCUCGACAAGC, structure, overview
-
S132B-C12
-
a RNA aptamer that inhibits the enzyme's endopeptidase activity in a non-competitive manner. The core sequence is ACAACCCGGAACAACGUCUAACAGUGUACCAUAACCCGGCAUUCA, structure, overview
-
S132B-C22
-
a RNA aptamer that inhibits the enzyme's endopeptidase activity in a non-competitive manner. The core sequence is AUUCGGGCCCAGGAACCAACUAUAUAAAUGUCCCGAAUGCUUCGACG, structure, overview
-
single-domain llama antibody Aa1
-
most potent antibody isolated from a single domain VHH, i.e. camelid heavy-chain variable region derived from heavy-chain-only antibody, antibodies, it is resistant to heat denaturation and reducing conditions. The Aa1 paratope coincides with an alpha-helical portion of the SNAP25 substrate. Structure of BoNT/A Lc-Aa1 VHH complex and inhibition mechanism, overview
-
synaptotagmin
-
-
-
synaptotagmin II luminal domain
-
the luminal domain of syt II, syt II-LD, inhibits the toxicity of BoNT/B by interfering with the toxin-receptor interaction. It contains toxin-binding sites that have a high affinity for BoNT/B heavy chain. Recombinant syt II-LD in vivo provides protection against BoNT/B intoxication in mice models to about 30% survivals at 0.27 mg/ml of sytII-LD, the neutralization effect is improved by using gangliosides to 60% survivals. Syt II-LD specifically binds to BoNT/B compared to other BoNT serotypes, overview
-
THF-toosendanin
-
tetrahydrofuran analogue of toosendanin, selectively arrests the light chain translocation step of intoxication with subnanomolar potency, and increases the unoccluded heavy chain channel propensity to open with micromolar efficacy, inhibitory profile on light chain translocation, overview. The bimodal modulation by toosendanin depends on the dynamic interactions between channel and cargo, highlighting their tight interplay during the progression of LC transit across endosomes
toosendanin
-
i.e. TSDN, selectively arrests the light chain translocation step of intoxication with subnanomolar potency, and increases the unoccluded heavy chain channel propensity to open with micromolar efficacy, inhibitory profile on light chain translocation, overview. The bimodal modulation by toosendanin depends on the dynamic interactions between channel and cargo, highlighting their tight interplay during the progression of LC transit across endosomes. Toosendanin modulates both cargo-dependent and cargo-free activities of the BoNT/E protein-conducting channel
tris-(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine hydrochloride
-
i.e. TCEP, a non-odorous, oxygen-insensitive, non-toxic sulfhydryl reducing compound, reduces proteolytic activity of BoNT/B in human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells at higher concentrations above 4 mM, protects against BoNT/B inhibition of noradrenaline release, achieving 72% of the release from un-intoxicated controls. TCEP significantly changes the conformation of BoNT/B holotoxin. But TCEP does not fragment un-nicked BoNT/B holotoxin
tris[3-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)aminopropyl]amine
-
-
Triticum vulgaris lectin
-
a known competitive antagonist of BoNT, inhibits the activation of neurit outgrowth by BoNT/A
-
TSNRRLQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
residues 27-58 of vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP. Inhibitor exhibits a high degree of specificity for BoNT F, compared to other BoNT serotypes
-
VAMP 22-58/Gln58D-cysteine
P30996
a substrate-based inhibitor, that binds to BoNT F in the canonical direction but is positioned specifically via three major exosites away from the active site
-
VAMP 27-58/Gln58D-cysteine
P30996
a substrate-based inhibitor, that binds to BoNT F in the canonical direction but is positioned specifically via three major exosites away from the active site. The cysteine sulfur of the inhibitors interacts with the zinc and exists as sulfinic acid
-
VVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
residues 42-58 of vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP. Inhibitor exhibits a high degree of specificity for BoNT F, compared to other BoNT serotypes
Zn2+
-
addition of exogenous ZnCl2 to the assay mixture reduces the activity of BoNT/Am activity ratio of wild-type and mutant enzymes in presence or absence of ZnCl2, overview
[[(5-[[1-(4-ammoniobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl]-2-phenylthiophen-3-yl)acetyl]amino]oxidanide
-
synthesis and binding structure, overview, multiple molecular dynamics simulations of the endopeptidase in complex with inhibitor 1 using the dummy atom approach, overview
methylamine hydrochloride
-
affects the acidification step, acts to inhibit by neutralizing the endosomal pH and show antagonism against BoNT-induced paralysis
additional information
-
less than 10% inhibition with captopril
-
additional information
-
inhibitory potency and activity-structure relationship of 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline substructure-based compounds, molecular modeling, overview, no inhibition by methyl cholate triacetate
-
additional information
-
inhibitor virtual screening performed by computationally docking compounds of the NCI database into the active site of BoNT/A light chain, inhibition studies in neuroblastoma N2a cell-based and tissue-based mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assays, overview. Five quinolinol-based analogues effectively neutralize BoNT/A toxicity, with CB 7969312 exhibiting ex vivo protection at 500 nM
-
additional information
-
identification of three RNA aptamers from a ssDNA random library through SELEX-process, which bind strongly to the light chain of type A BoNT and inhibit the endopeptidase activity, with IC50 in low nM range. Inhibition kinetic studies reveal low nM KI and non-competitive nature of their inhibition, enzyme docking study, and inhibition kinetics, overview
-
additional information
-
monoclonal antibodies F1-2 and F1-40 do not inhibit the catalytic activity of BoNT/A, but inhibit the entry of the toxin into host neuronal cells, leading to reduced toxicity to mice, and block intracellular SNAP25 cleavage, overview
-
additional information
-
analysis of Echinacea components in inhibition of BoNT/A protease, overview
-
additional information
-
construction of type A-specific monoclonal antibodies using antigene heavy chain antibody fragment VH/VHH from a nonimmune camel, primers specific to human VH gene segments, and recombinant expression in phagemid-transformed Escherichia coli. The selected antibodies inhibiting the endopeptidase activity of BoTxA light chain and of botulism in hosts in vivo. Molecular docking and interface binding of BoTxA/LC and antibody VHH17
-
additional information
-
BoNT/B LC is processed for removal via the proteasome-dependent degradation pathway after ubiquitination in neuronal cells
-
additional information
-
development of specific potent inhibitors of BoNT/A light chain, structure-activity relationship studies, overview
-
additional information
-
construction of a non-immune llama single-domain library for display on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of a single-domain llama antibody that potently inhibits the enzymatic activity of BoNT/A light chain by binding to the non-catalytic alpha-exosite binding region, overview
-
additional information
-
the toxicity of the enzyme is reduced in absence of gangliosides
-
additional information
-
capsaicin interacts with TRPV1 receptors, transient receptor potential proteins of the vanilloid subfamily, on motor nerve endings to reduce BoNT/A uptake into Neuro 2a cells via a Ca2+-dependent mechanism, but capsaicin fails to protect against the neuroparalytic effects of BoNT/A. Capsaicin protects muscle functions and electromygraphic activity from the incapacitating effects of BoNT/A. Capsazepine pretreatment antagonizes the protective effect of capsaicin on acetylcholine release at high frequencies
-
additional information
-
inhibitor synthesis, overview
-
additional information
-
inhibition of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/A antibodies
-
additional information
-
development and synthesis of small molecule inhibitors of BoNTA endopeptidase, that antagonize the extracellular or intracellular toxin, in vivo pharmacokinetics in mice, overview. Extended multiple molecular dynamics simulations of inhibitor-enzyme complex formations, overview
-
additional information
-
development of llama single domain antibodies specific for the seven botulinum neurotoxin serotypes as heptaplex immunoreagents. A single llama is immunized with a cocktail of seven BoNT toxoids to generate a phage display library of single domain antibodies, sdAb, VHH or nanobodies, which are selected on live toxins. Several sdAb act as both captor and tracer for several toxin and toxin complexes suggesting sdAb can be used as architectural probes to indicate BoNT oligomerisation, cross reactivities, overview
-
additional information
-
semisynthetic strategy to identify inhibitors based on toosendanin, a traditional Chinese medicine reported to protect from BoNT intoxication, overview. No inhibition by deacetylted toosendanin and by toosendanin ketone and lactone analogues
-
additional information
-
regions on BoNT/B that bind to blocking antibodies, synaptotagmin, or gangliosides, recognition pattern, overview
-
additional information
-
evaluation of relevant and available in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo assays for drug discovery and development, especially with regard to the potential for medium- to high-throughput automation and its use in identifying physiologically relevant inhibitors. BoNT intoxication steps as targets for inhibitors, schematic overview. Because all BoNT serotypes require the acidification step for inducing muscle failure, developing pan inhibitors that target this stage is an attractive approach. The cell entry of the toxin is inhibited by plant and animal lectines, glycoconjugates, and antibodies. The SNARE cleavage is inhibited by small molecule, peptide, and peptidomimetic inhibitors
-
additional information
-
a tetrapeptide provides an optimum length as the most efficient peptide inhibitor that binds at the active site normally occupied by the substrate. The peptides survive within neurons for at least 40 h and inhibit BoNT/A activity within two primary neuronal cells without showing any apparent cellular toxicity
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5-phenyl-2-acylguanidyl thiophenes
-
compounds containing a 2-acylthiophene moiety as a zinc-binding functionality, combined with acylguanidyl groups as an arginine side chain mimetic, structure-activity relationship of 5-phenyl-2-acylguanidyl thiophene activators of BoNT LC/A under standard screening conditions, overview
5-[3-(butylsulfanyl)phenyl]-N-carbamimidoylthiophene-2-carboxamide
-
4fold activation of BoNT LC/A
5-[4-(butylsulfanyl)phenyl]-N-carbamimidoylthiophene-2-carboxamide
-
7fold activation, BoNT LC/A activation profile, overview
Bovine serum albumin
-
stimulates hydrolysis of synthetic peptides
-
DTT
Q00496
near-complete conversion of the enzyme SC to a disulfide-linked DC in the presence of DTT
DTT
-
essential for activity of BoNT/C1
goat serum albumin
-
stimulates hydrolysis of synthetic peptides
-
horse serum albumin
-
stimulates hydrolysis of synthetic peptides
-
N-carbamimidoyl-5-[3-(ethylsulfanyl)phenyl]thiophene-2-carboxamide
-
4fold activation of BoNT LC/A
N-carbamimidoyl-5-[3-(methylsulfanyl)phenyl]thiophene-2-carboxamide
-
3fold activation of BoNT LC/A
N-carbamimidoyl-5-[4-(ethylsulfanyl)phenyl]thiophene-2-carboxamide
-
3.5fold activation of BoNT LC/A
N-carbamimidoyl-5-[4-(propylsulfanyl)phenyl]thiophene-2-carboxamide
-
7fold activation of BoNT LC/A
Proteases
-
activation by rapid cleavage of MW 150000 polypeptide chain and generation of active di-chain neurotoxin; bacterial or tissue proteases
-
Proteases
-
activation by rapid cleavage of MW 150000 polypeptide chain and generation of active di-chain neurotoxin
-
rabbit serum albumin
-
stimulates hydrolysis of synthetic peptides
-
sheep serum albumin
-
stimulates hydrolysis of synthetic peptides
-
tris-(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine hydrochloride
-
i.e. TCEP, a non-odorous, oxygen-insensitive, non-toxic sulfhydryl reducing compound, activates proteolytic activity of BoNT/B in human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells maximally at 1mM, protects against BoNT/B inhibition of noradrenaline release, achieving 72% of the release from un-intoxicated controls. TCEP significantly changes the conformation of BoNT/B holotoxin
Triton X-100
-
stimulates the catalytic efficiency of serotype A 35fold
Human serum albumin
-
stimulates hydrolysis of synthetic peptides
-
additional information
-
stimulation specific to serum albumins, bovine gamma globulin, ovalbumin, lysozyme, ribonuclease, and gelatin have no effect
-
additional information
-
identification of a small molecule scaffold based on 2-acyl guanidyl-5-phenyl thiophenes that strongly activates BoNT LC/A catalytic activity through an apparent reduction in KM activator screening, overview
-
additional information
-
nicking of the single chain BoNT/E to the dichain form is associated with 100fold increase in toxicity, activation mechanism of botulinum neurotoxin type E upon nicking and subsequent reduction of disulfide bond, overview
-
additional information
-
the presence of neurotoxin associated proteins enhances the oral toxicity of the neurotoxin significantly. Hemagglutinin Hn-33 makes up the largest fraction of neurotoxin associated proteins in BoNT/AC and strongly protects BoNT/A against proteases of the gastrointestinal tract
-
additional information
-
the toxins are synthesized as single polypeptide chains containing both HC and LC that are activated after undergoing posttranslational proteolysis. All BoNT serotypes require the acidification step for inducing muscle failure
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0709
-
Ac-ERDQKLSELDDRADALQAG-(7-methoxy-4-methylcoumaryl)Lys-SQ-diaminopropionic acid(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-ESSAAKLKRKYWWKNLK-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 22C
-
0.00013
-
Ac-IIGNLRH(Nle)ALD(Nle)GNEIDTQNRQIDRI(Nle)EKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
0.00079
-
Ac-IIGNLRHMALDMGNEIDTQNRQIDRIMEKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
0.011
-
Ac-KSDSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)LGSG-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
0.59
-
Ac-SNKTRIDCANQRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.013
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
1.7
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.89
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQRCTKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.0086
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 6.0, 37C, mutant E262Q
-
0.0403
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 6.0, 37C, wild-type enzyme
-
0.041
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.0, 37C, holo-light chain
-
0.043
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 6.0, 37C, mutant E262D
-
0.055
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.0, 37C, light chain Zn2+ replenished
-
0.8
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light chain + translocation domain
-
1.3
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light chain + belt
-
3.36
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light-chain
-
4.29
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, wild-type
-
0.0083
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant L175A/R177A
-
0.009
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant F194A
-
0.0092
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant F194A/T220A
-
0.011
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant D370R; pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant L175A
-
0.012
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant F163A; pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant R177A
-
0.014
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant D370A; pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant T176A
-
0.016
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant H269A; pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
-
0.017
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant Q162A
-
0.019
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant E257A
-
0.02
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant T220A
-
0.027
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant E257K
-
0.053
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant V129A
-
0.061
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant C134A
-
0.095
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant I115A
-
0.098
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant K41A
-
2.92
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.4, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme in absence of exogenous ZnCl2
-
4.81
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.4, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme in presence of exogenous ZnCl2
-
0.6
-
SNKTRIDEAAQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.83
-
SNKTRIDEANBRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.75
-
SNKTRIDEANNRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1.3
-
SNKTRIDEANQRABKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATAML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.9
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATK
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1.9
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKAL
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1.6
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKM
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1.2
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1.7
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.58
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKXL
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1.8
-
SNKTRIDEANQRBTKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1.1
-
SNKTRIDEBNQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.75
-
SNKTRIDQANQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.82
-
SNKTRINEANQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.0079
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, wild-type enzyme
-
0.0097
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E335A
-
0.01
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E335Q
-
0.0112
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E249A; 37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme R347A
-
0.0113
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E158A/T159A/N160A
-
37.5
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4
-
0.0067
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R263A
-
0.0069
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R240A; pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y368A
-
0.007
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, wild-type
-
0.0072
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant E200A
-
0.0075
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant S224A
-
0.0158
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant L173A
-
0.0356
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant I52A
-
0.038
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant S147A
-
0.0556
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y322A
-
0.0596
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant W319A
-
0.0702
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y26A
-
0.0737
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant E315A
-
0.0753
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant K172A
-
0.0798
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y113A
-
0.0838
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R171A
-
0.0857
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y168A
-
0.1308
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y133A
-
0.1405
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant V137A
-
0.1804
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant P25A
-
0.218
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant W44A
-
0.0016
-
VAMP2
-
pH 7.4, 22C
-
0.4
-
Ac-SNKTRIDECNQRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
additional information
-
additional information
-
thermodynamics and kinetics of wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of mutant enzymes, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
mutations at residues 41-51 of substrate vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 show dramatic effects on LC/TeNT cleavage with 320-fold inhibition by the individual mutations, E41A, V42A, V43A, and R47A. Deletion of the N-terminal 50 residues of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 causes a 500-fold reduction in LC/TeNT efficiency. Mutation D44A shows a 10-fold higher Km (46 microM) and 10-fold lower Turnover Number (0.018 1/sec) than wild-type vesicle-associated membrane protein 2
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Michaelis-Menten kinetics, overview
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3.81
-
Ac-ERDQKLSELDDRADALQAG-(7-methoxy-4-methylcoumaryl)Lys-SQ-diaminopropionic acid(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-ESSAAKLKRKYWWKNLK-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 22C
-
1.15
-
Ac-IIGNLRH(Nle)ALD(Nle)GNEIDTQNRQIDRI(Nle)EKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
2.08
-
Ac-IIGNLRHMALDMGNEIDTQNRQIDRIMEKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
1.01
-
Ac-KSDSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)LGSG-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
23
-
Ac-SNKTRIDCANQRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.79
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
47
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
31
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQRCTKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
4.6
-
Ac-SNKTRIDECNQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.042
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 6.0, 37C, mutant E262Q
-
0.09
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light chain + translocation domain
-
0.31
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light chain + belt
-
0.86
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 6.0, 37C, mutant E262D
-
1.2
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.0, 37C, light chain Zn2+ replenished
-
1.42
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, wild-type
-
2.134
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 6.0, 37C, wild-type enzyme
-
2.3
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.0, 37C, holo-light chain
-
2.94
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 6.0, 37C, wild-type enzyme
-
9
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light-chain
-
0.02
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant D370R
-
0.1
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant D370A; pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant E257K
-
0.19
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant F194A/T220A
-
0.2
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant F194A
-
0.3
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant T220A
-
0.4
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant F163A
-
0.41
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.4, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme in absence of exogenous ZnCl2; pH 7.4, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme in presence of exogenous ZnCl2
-
0.7
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant L175A
-
0.8
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant L175A/R177A
-
1.1
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutants R177A and E257A
-
1.2
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant T176A
-
11
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutants I115A and C134A
-
12
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutants K41A and V129A
-
12.35
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.4, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme in absence of exogenous ZnCl2
-
12.39
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.4, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme in presence of exogenous ZnCl2
-
58
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant H269A
-
60
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
-
63
-
SNAP25
-
pH 7.6, 37C, recombinant mutant Q162A
-
1.8
-
SNKTRIDEAAQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
7.7
-
SNKTRIDEANBRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
19
-
SNKTRIDEANNRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
35
-
SNKTRIDEANQRABKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
8
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATAML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
1
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATK
-
pH 7.3, 37C
25
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKAL
-
pH 7.3, 37C
56
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKM
-
pH 7.3, 37C
9
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
47
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
30
-
SNKTRIDEANQRATKXL
-
pH 7.3, 37C
39
-
SNKTRIDEANQRBTKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
11
-
SNKTRIDEBNQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
51
-
SNKTRIDQANQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
5
-
SNKTRINEANQRATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.00075
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E335Q
-
0.0058
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme R347A
-
0.144
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E335A
-
0.4
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E249A
-
0.836
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E158A/T159A/N160A
-
3.13
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, wild-type enzyme
-
4.29
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, wild-type enzyme
-
6.08
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4, mutant enzyme E158A/T159A/N160A
-
11.1
-
synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
-
37C, pH 7.4
-
0.0014
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant E200A
-
0.048
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y368A
-
0.23
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y26A
-
0.52
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R171A; pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R240A
-
0.58
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y168A
-
1.1
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R263A
-
2.3
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant P25A
-
3.2
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant I52A
-
4.2
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant S224A
-
4.5
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant V137A
-
5.2
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y133A
-
40.8
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant L173A
-
120.5
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant K172A
-
198.8
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant S147A
-
200.7
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant W319A
-
203.5
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant W44A
-
220.8
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, wild-type
-
225.8
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant E315A
-
240.8
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y113A; pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y322A
-
1
-
VAMP2
-
pH 7.4, 22C
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
8850
-
Ac-IIGNLRH(Nle)ALD(Nle)GNEIDTQNRQIDRI(Nle)EKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0
2630
-
Ac-IIGNLRHMALDMGNEIDTQNRQIDRIMEKADSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0
92
-
Ac-KSDSNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)LGSG-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0
61
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(pNO2-Phe)RA(1-pyrenylalanine)K(Nle)L-NH2
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0
0.11
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light chain + translocation domain
0
0.24
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light chain + belt
0
0.33
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, wild-type
0
2.68
-
SNAP-25
-
pH 7.4, 23C, mutant light-chain
0
0.19
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant E200A
0
0.32
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y26A
0
6.2
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R171A
0
6.9
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y168A
0
7
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y368A
0
13
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant P25A
0
19
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant V137A
0
32
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y133A
0
75
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R240A
0
89
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant I52A
0
160
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant R263A
0
560
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant S224A
0
920
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant W44A
0
1600
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant K172A
0
2700
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant L173A
0
3000
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y113A
0
3100
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant E315A
0
3400
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant W319A
0
4330
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant Y322A
0
4800
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, mutant S147A
0
31100
-
VAMP-2
-
pH 7.6, 37C, wild-type
0
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00016
-
(3R)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.0017
-
(3R)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.0038
-
([[5-[[1-(4-ammoniobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl]-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl]acetyl]amino)oxidanide
-
pH 7.3, 37C, hydroxyl-containing analogue of BoNTA endopeptidase
0.007
-
2-(5-{[1-(4-aminobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl}-2-phenylthiophen-3-yl)-N-hydroxyacetamide
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
0.00129
-
2-(9H-fluorene-2-carbonyl)benzoic acid
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.06
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-R
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.06
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RA
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.0007
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RAAKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.03
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RAT
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.003
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATAML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.004
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATK
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.0007
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATKAL
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.0003
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATKM
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.0003
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.0003
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RATKMLGSG
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.002
-
2-mercapto-3-phenylpropionyl-RVTKML
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.004
-
2-[5-{[1-(4-aminobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl}-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)thiophen-3-yl]-N-hydroxyacetamide
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
0.06
-
4-(2-amino-3-sulfanylpropyl)benzamide
-
-
0.065
-
4-(2-amino-3-sulfanylpropyl)benzenesulfonamide
-
-
0.022
-
4-(2-amino-3-sulfanylpropyl)benzenesulfonic acid
-
-
0.00058
-
4-[((2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2R)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)]benzoic acid
-
-
0.00081
-
4-[((2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)]benzoic acid
-
-
0.00035
-
4-[((2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)]benzoic acid
-
-
0.0005
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-(3H-imidazol-4-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-ylethylcarbamoyl)-3(S)sulfanylpropyl]benzoic acid
-
-
0.00054
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-methylbutylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-ylethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)-sulfanylpropyl)] benzoic acid
-
-
0.00054
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2R)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl]benzoic acid
-
-
0.00017
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl] benzoic acid
-
-
0.00022
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl)-(2S)-2-naphthalen-1-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl] benzoic acid
-
-
0.00016
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(1-benzylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-phenylethylcarbamoyl]-3(S)sulfanylpropyl)] benzoic acid
-
-
2e-05
-
4-[(2S)-2-amino-3-[1-(2S)-2-benzol[beta]thiophen-3-yl-1-benzylcarbamoylethylcarbamoyl-(2S)-2-biphenyl-4-yl-ethylcarbamoyl]-3-(S)-sulfanylpropyl] benzoic acid
-
-
0.22
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEACQRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.004
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(D)CRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.65
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEAN(D)QCRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.11
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEANCRATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
2
-
Ac-SNKTRIDEANQCATKML-NH2
-
pH 7.3, 37C
0.00028
-
AQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
-
0.002
-
CRATKML
-
pH 6.5, 22C
0.0013
-
GGPPAPPPNLTSNRRLQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
-
-
9.6e-05
-
GRKKRRQRRRPPQC
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
0.001
-
PPPNLTSNRRLQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
-
-
0.000158
-
RRGC
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.000664
-
RRGC
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.000358
-
RRGF
-
pH 7.4, 37C
-
0.000786
-
RRGI
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.000845
-
RRGM
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0019
-
TSNRRLQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
-
-
0.009
-
VVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
-
0.007
-
[[(5-[[1-(4-ammoniobutyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indol-6-yl]carbonyl]-2-phenylthiophen-3-yl)acetyl]amino]oxidanide
-
pH 7.3, 37C, wild-type BoNTA endopeptidase
3.4e-05
-
LQQTQAQVDEVVDIMRVNVDKVLERDQ
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics and mechanism of Echinacea components on BoNT/A, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
binding and inhibition kinetics of antigene heavy chain antibody fragment VH/VHH-specific antibodies, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
the non-fluorescent substrate GST-SNAP-25(141-206) is a competitive inhibitor in the fluorometric assay for CsY and YsCsY with Ki values of 0.0076 and 0.0045 mM, respectively
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.007
-
(2E)-2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-3-(3-iodo-4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-enenitrile
-
37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.0004
-
(2E)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.0009
-
(2E)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
0.025
-
(2E)-3-(2-amino-4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.0007
-
(2E)-3-(2-bromo-4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.0044
-
(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.013
-
(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.009
-
(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-methoxyphenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.0008
-
(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.0008
-
(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
0.002
-
(2E)-3-(4-chloro-2-nitrophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.015
-
(2E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.012
-
(2E)-3-[4-chloro-2-(iminomethyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.0051
-
(2E)-3-[4-chloro-2-(methylsulfanyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.017
-
(2E)-3-[4-chloro-2-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.0006
-
(2E)-3-[4-chloro-2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N-hydroxyprop-2-enamide
-
-
0.001
-
(3R)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.008
-
(3R)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.021
-
(3S)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.036
-
(3S)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dihydroxypentanamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.0009
-
2,4-dichlorocinnamic acid hydroxamate
-
-
0.0003
-
2,4-dichlorocinnamic hydroxamate
-
-
0.059
-
2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-3-(5-(furan-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)acrylonitrile
-
37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.086
-
2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-3-(biphenyl-4-yl)acrylonitrile
-
37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.025
-
2-(4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenyl)-6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1H-indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.1
-
2-(4-(2-chloro-4-cyanophenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole-6-carbonitrile
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.03
-
2-(4-(2-chloro-4-cyanophenoxy)phenyl)-6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.054
-
2-(4-(4-(6-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.0071
-
2-(4-(4-(6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.0073
-
2-(4-(4-(6-(5-hydroxy-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-1H-indol-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-ol
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.1
-
2-(4-(4-carbamoylphenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboxamide
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.025
-
2-(4-(4-cyanophenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboximidamide
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.1
-
2-(4-(4-cyanophenoxy)phenyl)indole-6-carbonitrile, 2-(4-(6-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)phenyl)-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.043
-
2-(4-(6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-phenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.1
-
2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indole-6-carbonitrile, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboxamide, 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboximidamide, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboxamide, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboximidamide
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.045
-
2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1H-indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.1
-
2-(5-(4-cyanophenoxy)pyridin-2-yl)-1H-indole-6-carbonitrile, 2-(5-fluoro-2-pyridyl)-6-benzo[b]thiophenecarboxamide
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.094
-
2-[1-cyano-2-(3-bromo-5-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]benzimidazole
-
37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.059
-
2-[1-cyano-2-(3-chloro-5-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)vinyl]benzimidazole
-
37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.026
-
3-(2,20-bithiophen-5-yl)-2-(1H-benzo-imidazol-2-yl)acrylonitrile
-
37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.073
-
3-(4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenyl)-2-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)acrylonitrile
-
37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.003
-
3-(4-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-N-hydroxypropanamide
-
pH 7.4, 22.5C
0.015
-
4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate
-
-
0.028
-
6-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.021
-
6-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.1
-
6-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(4-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.067
-
6-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(3,2,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.02
-
6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-(4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.0245
-
6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.0125
-
6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-(4-(4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.1
-
6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.069
-
6-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl)-2-(5-(4-(4,5-dihydroimidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)pyridine-2-yl)indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.071
-
6-bromo-N-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
0.1
-
6-chloro-2-(4-(4-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)-phenyl)-1H-indole
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.045
-
6-chloro-N-hydroxy-1-benzothiophene-2-carboxamide
-
-
0.038
-
6-chloro-N-hydroxy-1-methyl-1H-indole-2-carboxamide
-
-
0.041
-
6-chloro-N-hydroxy-1H-indene-2-carboxamide
-
-
0.021
-
6-chloro-N-hydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxamide
-
-
0.011
-
indole bis-amidine
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.06
-
L-Arginine hydroxamate
-
-
0.007
-
methyl 3alpha-(N-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]ethyl)amino,7alpha,12alpha-diacetoxy-5beta-cholan-24-oate
-
-
0.017
-
methyl 3beta-(N-[(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)amino]ethyl)amino,7alpha,12alpha-diacetoxy-5beta-cholan-24-oate
-
-
0.0025
-
N'-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-2-(4-(4-(N'-2-(dimethylaminoethyl)carbamimidoyl)phenoxy)phenyl)-1H-indole-6-carboximidamide
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
0.01
-
N-(3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-triacetoxy-5beta-cholan-24-yl)-N'-(7'-chloroquinolin-4'-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamine
-
-
0.041
-
N-hydroxy-4-pentylbenzamide
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
0.056
-
N1-(6-(6-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-pyridine-3-yl)ethane-1,2-diamine
-
pH 7.4, 37C, BoNT/A light chain
-
4.7e-07
-
single-domain llama antibody Aa1
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.0032
-
tris[3-(7-chloroquinolin-4-yl)aminopropyl]amine
-
-
1e-06
-
VAMP 22-58/Gln58D-cysteine
P30996
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
-
1.9e-06
-
VAMP 27-58/Gln58D-cysteine
P30996
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
15.8
-
-
69nM purified native BoNT/A1 toxin, substrate SNAP25, pH 7.3, 37C
additional information
-
-
development of a rapid quantitative assay method to distiguish the enzyme serotypes A, B, E, F, and G, evaluation, overview
additional information
-
-
studies on the use of BoNT-A in rat prostates, dog prostates, human prostates for analysing effect on lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargment. Human prostates: analysis of disease specific and clinical relevant values
additional information
-
-
status epilepticus induced in Mus musculus C57BL/6N. Mouse treatment with BoNT/E delays the onset of chronic epilepsy but does not inhibit the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. BoNT/E reduces loss of CA1 pyramidal neurons and dispersion of dentate granule cells. BoNT/E supresses the downregulation of reelin mRNA expression along the hippocampal fissure.
additional information
-
-
synaptosome capture assay for the different serotype BoNTs, synaptosome from rat brains, overview
additional information
-
-
BoNT/A activity in muscle, twitch tension, overview
additional information
-
-
163-167 U/ml by MBA assay, 153 U/ml by RSC assay
additional information
-
P30996
activities of wild-type and mutant BoNT/Fs
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
-
-
BoNT/A1
7.2
-
-
assay at
7.4
-
-
assay at
7.4
-
Q00496
assay at
7.4
-
Q57236
receptor binding assay at
7.4
-
P10844, P10845
assay at; assay at
7.4
-
-
assay at
7.4
-
-
BoNT/B1
8
-
-
assay at
additional information
-
-
different serotypes were found to possess different optimal cleavage pHs
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
22
-
-
aasay at room temperature
22
-
-
assay at room temperature
22.5
-
-
assay at
23
-
-
assay at for determination of Km and kcat
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
Q00496
assay at
37
-
Q57236
receptor binding assay at
37
-
P10844, P10845
assay at; assay at
37
-
Q5DW55
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
50
-
20% of maximal activity at 20C, as the temperature is increased to 45C, the endopeptidase activity dramatically decreases to 21% cleavage of SNAP-25, but at 50C its enzymatic activity increases again to 64% cleavage of SNAP-25, 4% of maximal activity at 60C
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.2
-
-
isoelectric focusing
5.5
-
-
calculated from sequence
6
-
-
recombinant catalytically inactive BoNT/A1 mutant H223A/E224A/H227A holoprotein, sequence calculation
8.7
-
-
light chain, isoelectric focusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
A5JGM8
serotype BoNT/C requires a single ganglioside as a binding receptor on neuronal cells, while serotypes BoNT/A and BoNT/B require two receptors for specific binding. Binding mechanism of the BoNT/OFD05 binding domain and its ganglioside receptors on neuronal host cells, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
BoNTs enter sensitive host cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Exposure of the BoNT-receptor complex to the acidic milieu of endosomes induces a conformational change, leading to the insertion of the HC into the endosomal membrane, thereby forming a transmembrane protein-conducting channel that translocates the light chain to the cytosol where it acts. Disulfide reduction prior to translocation dissociates the light chain from the heavy chain, thereby generating a channel devoid of translocation activity, the channel-forming entity is confined to HN, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
expression analysis of BoNT/A2 and of BoNT/A2 toxin complexes in Clostridium botulinum strains comprising subtypes A1, A2, A3, A4, and B, immunohistochemic analysis, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
accumulates until bacterial lysis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
accumulates until bacterial lysis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
accumulates until bacterial lysis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme consists of two components, which are both secreted into the target cells or the cell culturemedium, respectively
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium botulinum C3
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the C2II binding component forms cation-selective and chloroquine-sensitive heptameric channels into lipid bilayer membranes, which is essential for C2I catalytic component transport into target cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
parasite enzyme component C2IIa forms ring-shaped heptamers, which bind to cell receptors and mediate the transport of component C2I into the cytosol of target cells. Receptor-bound C2IIa serves as a docking platform for C2I on the cell surface, following assembly of C2I, the toxin complex is taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and finally, C2IIa facilitates translocation of C2I from acidic endosomes into the cytosol, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the toxin binds to host plasma membrane of epithelial or neuronal cells, overview. Molecular modelling of Hc-N/A membrane binding via sphingomyelin-enriched membrane microdomains and phosphatidylinositol phosphates, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the C-terminal B domain, i.e. heavy chain, HC, is composed of two functional domains that are involved in receptor recognition and translocation of the light chain across the host cell endosomal membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
50000
-
-
light chain, enzymatic subunit
50000
-
-
light chain, SDS-PAGE
50000
-
-
light chain of BoNT, analytical gel filtration
100000
-
-
heavy chain of BoNT, analytical gel filtration
146000
-
Q00496
recombinant His-tagged BoNT AE and EA chimeras, gel filtration
146900
-
-
Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/D, calculated from nucleotide sequence
147300
-
-
calculated from sequence
148700
-
-
Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/C1, calculated from nucleotide sequence
149400
-
-
Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/A, calculated from nucleotide sequence
149500
-
-
Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/A, calculated from nucleotide sequence
150000
-
-
Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/A, SDS-PAGE, calculated from amino acid sequence
150000
-
-
commercial preparation
150000
-
-
amino acid sequence
150000
-
P18640, P19321, P30996
-
150000
-
-
holotoxin
150000
-
C7BEA8
SDS-PAGE
152000
-
-
Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/E, calculated from amino acid sequence
155000
-
-
Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/B, calculated from amino acid sequence
additional information
-
-
amino acid content; comparison of amino acid sequences of H- and L-chains of serotypes A, B and E
additional information
-
-
comparison of amino acid sequences of botulinum serotype BoNT/A and tetanus neurotoxin
additional information
-
-
amino acid sequence similarity of clostridial neurotoxins
additional information
-
-
analytical gel filtration analysis of enzyme fragments from trypsin-derived nicks in the enzyme molecule, overview
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Q00496
x * 146000, recombinant His-tagged BoNT AE and EA chimeras, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 50000, type A botulinum neurotoxin light chain, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
1 * 50000 + 1 * 102000, Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/E, calculated from amino acid sequence, 1 * 51000 + 1 * 104000, Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/B, calculated from amino acid sequence, 1 * 53000 + 1 * 97000, Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/A, calculated from amino acid sequence
dimer
-
1 * 50000 + 1 * 100000, light chain and heavy chain, covalently linked by a disulfide bond
dimer
-
1 * 50000 + 1 * 100000, light chain LC and heavy chain HC, linked by a disulfide bridge
dimer
P18640, P19321, P30996
1 * 50000 + 1 * 100000, light chain and heavy chain yielded by posttranslational modification by bacterial or exogenous proteases
dimer
-
1 * 50000, light chain, + 1 * 100000, heavy chain, linked by a disulfide bond
dimer
Clostridium botulinum BoNT/E
-
1 * 50000 + 1 * 102000, Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/E, calculated from amino acid sequence, 1 * 51000 + 1 * 104000, Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/B, calculated from amino acid sequence, 1 * 53000 + 1 * 97000, Clostridium botulinum, serotype BoNT/A, calculated from amino acid sequence
-
dimer
Clostridium botulinum CB16
-
1 * 50000 + 1 * 100000, light chain and heavy chain yielded by posttranslational modification by bacterial or exogenous proteases
-
heptamer
-
7 * 60000, activated C2II binding component, which oligomerizes into heptamers and forms channels in lipid bilayer membranes, residues 303-330 of C2II contain a conserved pattern of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, which is involved in the formation of two amphipathic beta-strands involved in membrane insertion and channel formation
additional information
-
synthesized as single-chain polypeptide of about MW 150000 Da, proteolytic activation yields 2-chain neurotoxin with N-terminal light (MW 50000 Da) and C-terminal heavy chains (MW 100000 Da) connected by single disulfide bonds
additional information
-
synthesized as single-chain polypeptide of about MW 150000 Da, proteolytic activation yields 2-chain neurotoxin with N-terminal light (MW 50000 Da) and C-terminal heavy chains (MW 100000 Da) connected by single disulfide bonds
additional information
-
serotype BoNT/E: single-chain polypeptide, serotype BoNT/B: mixture of single- and 2-chain molecules, serotype BoNT/A: 2-chain molecule
additional information
-
the enzyme is a binary toxin, which is composed of two separate proteins, the enzyme component C2I and the component C2IIa, overview
additional information
-
comparison of wild-type and mutant tertiary structure by circular dichroism, overview
additional information
Q00496
near-complete conversion of the SC to a disulfide-linked DCas revealed by the appearance of the HC and LC upon SDS-PAGE in the presence of DTT
additional information
-
Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin is a binary AB type toxin that is structurally organized into distinct enzyme and binding components, i.e. A and C2I components and B and C2II components, respectively
additional information
A5JGM8
BoNTs are large neurotoxic proteins of about 150 kDa that consist of a light chain of 50 kDa, and a heavy chain of 100 kDa linked by a disulfide bond. BoNTs possess binding, translocation and catalytic domains
additional information
-
BoNT is a modular enzyme of trimodular protein architecture with an N-terminal Zn2+-metalloprotease, which cleaves the SNARE substrate and chaperones the protease across endosomes, and a C-terminal receptor binding module, consisting of two subdomains that determine target specificity by binding to a ganglioside and a protein receptor on the cell surface and triggering endocytosis, overview. The activated mature toxin consists of the three modules: the N-terminal LC Zn2+-metalloprotease, the heavy chain that encompasses the N-terminal translocation domain HN, and the C-terminal receptor-binding domain HC. The latter comprises two subdomains, a beta-sheet jelly roll fold, denoted HCN, and a beta-tree foil fold carboxy subdomain, known as HCC, structure, overview
additional information
-
BoNTs are proteins comprised of three functional domains, the light chains, LCs, the heavy chain, HC, and the translocation HN of the LC into the cell cytoplasm
additional information
Q60393
structure comparisons of BoNT/G HCR, BoNT/A HCR, and BoNT/B HCR, modelling, overview
additional information
-
three-dimensional structure of BoNT showing the catalytic, translocation, and receptor-binding domains, overview
additional information
-
the transmembrane domain comprises residues A449 to I873, and the receptor binding domain residues I874 to L1296. Epitope tagging by specific antibodies, recombinant peptide fragment binding experiments, the epitopes for antibodies F1-2 and F1-5 are located between amino acids R564 and S793 on the toxin heavy chain, overview
additional information
P10844, P10845
enzyme model with light chain LC or effector domain, showing the catalytic activity, heavy chain HC binding domain binding to neuronal receptors, after which the HN translocation domain mediates the entry of the light chain into the nerve cell; enzyme model with light chain LC or effector domain, showing the catalytic activity, heavy chain HC binding domain binding to neuronal receptors, after which the HN translocation domain mediates the entry of the light chain into the nerve cell
additional information
-
the BoNT HC-LC subunits are held together by a single disulfide bond
additional information
Q00496
in BoNT E, both the binding domain and the catalytic domain are on the same side of the translocation domain, and all three have mutual interfaces. This unique association may have an effect on the rate of translocation, with the molecule strategically positioned in the vesicle for quick entry into cytosol. Separation of the domains causes conformational changes. Domain organization of BoNT E, modelling, overview
additional information
-
each toxin is composed of a heavy, HC, 100 kDa, and a light chain, L, 50 kDa, linked by a disulfide bond and non-covalent interactions
additional information
-
the BoNT toxin is composed of a catalytic light chain, a heavy chain, and a translocation domain
additional information
-
BoNT/A is composed of a heavy (HC) and light (LC) chain linked by a disulfide bond
additional information
-
BoNTs are synthesized as150-kDa proteins consisting of a 100-kDa heavy chain, HC, and a 50-kDa light chain, LC, linked by disulfide bonds
additional information
-
BoNT is a 150 kDa protein consisting of a 100 kDa heavy-chain, Hc, and a 50 kDa light-chain, Lc. Epitope mapping of the light chain, overview
additional information
-
localization of the antigenic regions on the heavy chains of BoNTs A and B, epitope mapping, overview. Mapping of the regions on BoNTs A and B that bind blocking antibodies in hyperimmune sera against the correlated toxin from human, mouse and other species, submolecular specificity of blocking antibodies that appear in humans, profile and threedimensional structure, overview
additional information
-
each BoNT serotype consists of a heavy chain, HC, of 100 kDa covalently attached by a disulfide bond to a light chain, LC, of 50 kDa
additional information
-
BoNTs consist of a light chain of 50 kDa and a heavy chain of 100 kDa
additional information
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
the transmembrane domain comprises residues A449 to I873, and the receptor binding domain residues I874 to L1296. Epitope tagging by specific antibodies, recombinant peptide fragment binding experiments, the epitopes for antibodies F1-2 and F1-5 are located between amino acids R564 and S793 on the toxin heavy chain, overview
-
additional information
Clostridium botulinum BoNT/E
-
serotype BoNT/E: single-chain polypeptide, serotype BoNT/B: mixture of single- and 2-chain molecules, serotype BoNT/A: 2-chain molecule
-
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
proteolytic modification
-
BoNTs are produced as a single 150 kDa polypeptide chain that is subsequently cleaved by endogenous proteases to give the dichain holotoxin
proteolytic modification
-
the C2II binding enzyme component is proteolytically activated
proteolytic modification
-
limited trypsin proteolysis of BoNT produces two nicks, the first nick yields a BoNT 50 kDa light chain disulfide linked to a 100 kDa heavy chain, a second nick arose in Hc C-terminal 10 kDa. The second nick occurrs in the putative binding domain of the BoNT molecule and induces alterations in its secondary structure, leading to a significant reduction of mouse toxicity in comparison with that of the fully activated singly nicked BoNT
proteolytic modification
-
BoNT/A LC undergoes autocatalytic degradation into two major fragments in the presence of exogenous zinc, autolysis of wild-type and mtant BoNT/As, overview
proteolytic modification
-
the inactive precursor protein is cleaved either by clostridial or tissue proteases into a 50-kDa light chain and a 100 kDa heavy chain linked by an essential interchain disulfide bridge and by the belt, a loop from the heavy chain that wraps around the light chain. Intracellular processing of the toxin, importance of unfolding for efficient translocation, detailed overview
proteolytic modification
-
BoNTs are synthesized as single inactive polypeptide chains that are cleaved by endogenous or exogenous proteases to generate the active dichain form of the toxin. Nicking of the single chain BoNT/E to the dichain form is associated with 100fold increase in toxicity
proteolytic modification
-
the toxins are synthesized as single polypeptide chains containing both heavy chain and light chain that are activated after undergoing posttranslational proteolysis
proteolytic modification
-
the toxins are synthesized as single polypeptide chains containing both heavy chain and light chain that are activated after undergoing posttranslational proteolysis
additional information
-
BoNT/B LC is processed for removal via the proteasome-dependent degradation pathway after ubiquitination in neuronal cells
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
BoNT E holotoxin, sitting-drop vapor diffusion, 8 mg/ml toxin in 50 mM HEPES buffer and 100 mM NaCl at pH 7.0, is mixed in a 1:1 ratio with reservoir solution containing 10% PEG 8000, 100 mM NaCl, and 100 mM HEPES at pH 7.0 at 18 C, crystals appear after 1 weeks and grow to full-size within 2 weeks, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.65 A resolution
Q00496
BoNT/F in complex with inhibitors VAMP 22-58/Gln58D-cysteine and VAMP 27-58/Gln58D-cysteine, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.1 A and 2.17 A resolution, respectively
P30996
botulinum neurotoxin E light chain, sitting drop vapor diffusion method
-
complex between the botulinum neurotoxin A light chain and the inhibitory peptide N-Ac-CRATKML, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.4 A resolution, and in a second approach unliganded enzyme light chain with and without the Zn2+ cofactor bound, X-ray diffraction structure determination and anaylsis at 1.25 A and 1.20 A resolution, respectively, 6-8 mg/ml purified BoNT/ALC, residues 1-425, in 50 mM NaPO4, pH 6.0, and 2 mM EDTA, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, mixing of protein solution with reservoir solution containing 20% PEG 3,350, 0.2 M diammonium tartrate, pH 6.6, and equilibration against 0.5 ml reservoir solution, the crystals are soaked prior to cryo-cooling in the crystallization solution plus 10 mM Zn(NO3)2 for 4.5 h or 5 mM Zn(NO3)2 and 2 mM N-Ac-CRATKML for 23 h, respectively, modeling
-
complex of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A protease bound to human SNAP-25, 2.1 A resolution
-
crystal structure of BoNT/CD-HCR (S867-E1280) is determined at 1.56 A resolution and compared to previously reported structures for BoNT/DHCR. The BoNT/CD-HCR structure is similar to the two sub-domain organization observed for other BoNT HCRs: an N-terminal jellyroll barrel motif and a C-terminal beta-trefoil fold
Q5DW55
enzyme in a product-bound state, hanging drop vapor diffusion; hanging drop vapor diffusion at 22C, crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin protease in a product-bound state
-
full length Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain, sitting drop vapor diffusion method, crystals diffract to better than 2.1 A, crystals belong to space group P2(1)2(1)2 with cell dimensions a = 88.33 A, b = 144.45 A, c = 83.37 A
-
high-resolution structure of botulinum neurotoxin serotype F light chain in two crystal forms, sitting drop vapor diffusion method
-
nanodroplet vapor diffusion method, 1.65 A resolution crystal structure of the catalytic domain of BoNT serotype D light chain. Structural analysis has identified a hydrophobic pocket potentially involved in substrate recognition of the P1' VAMP residue (Leu 60) and a second remote site for recognition of the V1 SNARE motif that is critical for activity. A structural comparison of BoNT/D-LC with BoNT/F-LC that also recognizes VAMP-2 one residue away from the BoNT/D-LC site provides additional molecular details about the unique serotype specific activities. In particular, BoNT/D prefers a hydrophobic interaction for the V1 motif of VAMP-2, while BoNT/F adopts a more hydrophilic strategy for recognition of the same V1 motif
-
nanodroplet vapor diffusion method, crystal structure of botulinum neurotoxin type G light chain at 2.35 A resolution
-
purified recombiant protein consisting of the receptor-binding domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B fused to the luminal domain of synaptotagmin II, vapour diffusion method, 20C, using first 13% PEG 6000 and 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.0, and second, 0.8 M sodium citrate, pH 6.5, X-ray diffraction structure detremination and analysis at 2.15 A resolution, molecular replacement and modeling
-
purified recombinant enzyme free or in complex with substrate analogue inhibitor peptides, sitting drop vapor diffusion method at room temperature, 0.002 ml of 20 mg/ml enzyme in 2 mM DTT, 200 mM NaCl, and 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, is mixed with 0.002 ml reservoir solution containing 15% w/v PEG 3350, 0.3 M ammonium sulfate and 100 mM Bis-Tris buffer, pH 6.8 , equilibration against 0.8 ml of reservoir solution, plate-like crystals within a week, recombinant Balc424 is co-crystallized individually with the tetrapeptides, sitting drop vapor diffusion method at room temperature using conditions similar to native protein, Balc424 gives good complex crystals with RRGC, RRGM, RRGL and RRGI at stoichiometric ratios of 1:30, 1:30, 1:40 and 1:40, respectively, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.6-1.8 A resolution
P10845
purified recombinant His-tagged BoNT/C1-LC, vapour diffusion method, 12 mg/ml protein in 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, is mixed with an equal volume of reservoir solution containing 1.6 M sodium formate and 0.1 M sodium citrate, pH 4.6-5.0, 4C, cryoprotection in the same mother liquor supplemented with 20% glycerol, X-ray structure determination and analysis at 1.75 A resolution, molecular replacement
-
purified recombinant His-tagged BoNT/G HCR, hanging drop vapour diffusion method, 11.5 mg/mL protein in mother liquor containing 12-15% w/v PEG 3350, 20 mM Bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.75-6.5, and 20-25 mM MgCl, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.0 A resolution, modelling
Q60393
purified recombinant His-tagged truncated enzyme, residues 1-424, in complex with inhibitors 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate, 2,4-dichlorocinnamic hydroxamate, and L-arginine hydroxamate, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, drops are formed of equal parts BoNT/A-LC(1-424) at 10 mg/ml in 20 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 50 mM NaCl and well solution containing 10%-15% PEG-2000 monomethyl ether, 0.3M(NH4)2HPO4, 50 mM Tris, pH 8.5, co-crystallization with inhibitor by addition of 0.5 mM ligand to the protein solution, 1.3 days, larger crystals by microseeding, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.9-2.5 A resolution, modeling
-
purified recombinant native and SeMet-derivative enzyme, mixing of 0.001 ml protein solution containing 1 mg/ml protein in 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, and 200 mM NaCl, with 0.001 ml reservoir buffer, containing 0.2 M potassium/sodium tartrate, 0.1 M trisodium citrate, pH 5.6, and 1 M ammonium sulfate for the native enzyme, and 0.1 M MES pH 6.5, 1.6 M magnesium sulfate, and 1 M sodium chloride for the selenium methionine-labeled enzyme, equilibration against 0.1 ml reservoir buffer, 20C, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.8 A and 3.1 A resolution, respectively
A5JGM8
receptor binding domains of BoNT/A and BoNT/F
Q57236
sructures of BoNT/A, BoNT/B, and BoNT/E holotoxins
-
the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a is reported. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by a conserved peptide motif, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues
Q57236
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5
-
-
the BoNT complex and its components precipitate below pH 5.5, overview
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
38
41
-
thermal denaturation of wild-type and mutant BoNT/As, overview
44
52
-
temperature denaturation Tm is significantly decreased upon removal of Zn2+
44
-
-
BoNT/A activity significantly decreases after 30 min incubation and is not detected at 3 h or longer incubation time; BoNT/E is stable in culture supernatant at 44C
additional information
-
-
thermodynamic parameters for temperature-induced denaturation of BoNT/E, overview
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
BoNT/A is sensitive to proteolysis at 44C. Only EDTA and EDTA (1 mM) block degradation
-
stable in many freeze and thawing processes
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
extremely sensitive to oxidants
-
31426
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, HEPES buffer, 10-20% glycerol, stable
-
-80C, in 10 mM HEPES buffer, pH 7.2, 50 mM NaCl, after freezing in liquid N2, stable
-
the recombinant enzyme is most stable stored at pH 4.0 in 15 mM succinate
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
BoNT HCR/A and HCR/B co-purify with synaptic vesicle protein complexes
-
BoNT serotype D and enzyme large toxin complex, L-TC, from strain 4947, by ammonium sulfate fractionation, cation exchange chromatography, another step of ammonium sulfate fractionation, and gel filtration
-
botulinum neurotoxin E light chain
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype F light chain
-
C-terminal quarter of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A
-
commercial preparations of BoNT/A and BoNT/E further purified
-
extraction of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 from Clostridium botulinum strain Loch Maree by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/A antibodies, overview
-
full length Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain
-
method is based on filtration and chromatography procedures only, which can easily be scaled up from the laboratory purification to industrial needs
-
native BoNT/A free and in complex. Recombinant His-tagged BoNT/A mutant E224A/E262A from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity chromatography, separation of the light and heavy chains
-
native BoNT/A1 and BoNT/A3, by ultrafiltration, hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatography, followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography and dialysis; native BoNT/A1, BoNT/A3, BoNT/B1, and BoNT/B4 from strains ATCC 3502, NCTC 2012, Okra, and Eklund 17B strains, respectively, by ultrafiltration, hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatography, followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography and dialysis; native BoNT/B1, and BoNT/B4 by ultrafiltration, hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatography, followed by hydroxyapatite chromatography and dialysis
P10844, P10845
native BoNT/A2 toxin complex and BoNT/A2 from Clostridium botulinum A2 strain by ammonium sulfate fractionation, and by two different steps of each anion exchange and cation exchange chromatographies
-
native BONT/B from Clostridium botulinum by ion exchange chromatography
-
recombinant C-terminally His-tagged wild-type and SeMet-labeled BoNT/OFD05 receptor-binding domain from Escherichia coli strain B843 (DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography, dialysis, and gel filtration
A5JGM8
recombinant catalytically inactive BoNT/A1 mutant H223A/E224A/H227A holoprotein from Pichia pastoris by cation exchange chromatography to about 95% homogeneity. The purified ciBoNT/A1 HP is a mixed population of singlechain and nicked dichain
-
recombinant GST-tagged HC-fragments pHCAS, pHCBS, pHCCS, pHCDS, pHCES, pHCFS, and pHCGS, and the full-length BoNT/A, BoNT/B, BoNT/D, BoNT/G, and Strep-tagged pBoNTCS-Thro encoding from Escherichia coli by glutathione and streptavidin affinity chromatography, respectively
-
recombinant GST-tagged wild-type and mutant C2II components from Escherichia coli strain BL21
-
recombinant His-tagged and/or FLAG-tagged heavy chains, BoNT/G HCR, BoNT/A HCR, and BoNT/B HCR, from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration
Q60393
recombinant His-tagged BoNT AE and EA chimeras from Escherichia coli strain BL21 by immobilized metal affinity and adsorption chromatography, followed by gel filtration, to homogeneity, near-complete conversion of the SC to a disulfide-linked DC as revealed by the appearance of the HC and LC upon SDS-PAGE in the presence of DTT
Q00496
recombinant His-tagged BoNT/C1(1-430) from Escherichia coli strain B21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
-
recombinant His-tagged BoNT/C1-LC from Escherichia coli strain M15[pREP4] by nickel affinity chromatography
-
recombinant His-tagged BoNT/E fragment HC1163-1256 from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
-
recombinant His-tagged truncated enzyme, residues 1-424, from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by metal ion affinity chromatography
-
recombinant His6-tagged BoNT/A heavy chain fragment from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity chromatography
-
recombinant His6-tagged light chains of the BoNT subtypes from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity chromatography
-
recombinant light chain
-
recombinantly expressed His6-tagged type B botulinum neurotoxin heavy chain transmembrane and binding domain, isolation from Escherichia coli inclusion body, purification, and refolding in a single step by Ni2+ affinity chromatography
-
scale-up, recombinant heavy chain fragment C of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E GS115
-
serotypes BoNT/A, B, E (and their H-chain and L-chain); serotypes BoNT/A, B, E, C, D, F
-
serotypes BoNT/A, B, E, C, D, F
-
serotypes BoNT/A to F
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
gene bont/F, subtype F7, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
Q45851
BoNT/A, DNA and amino acid sequence determination, BoNT/A is produced along with six neurotoxin associated proteins, including hemagglutinin Hn-33, through polycistronic expression of a clustered group of genes to form a complex, BoNT/AC. Expresssion of His-tagged BoNT/A mutant E224A/E262A in Escherichia coli
-
bont/F, bont/A, and bont/B genes, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, comparisons, and phylogenetic analysis; bont/F, bont/A, and bont/B genes, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
A2I2R9, Q58GH1
botulinum neurotoxin complex bont genes from different strains, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis, overview
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype F light chain
-
botulinum neurotoxin type B strains type B, Ab, and A(B) contain five different subtypes of gene bont/B. B1 subtype gene bont/B DNA sequence determination and analysis. Genomic localization of the bont/B and /A subtype genes, plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related. Plasmid-borne bont/B PCR-RFLP subtype genes among Clostridium botulinum strains, overview; botulinum neurotoxin type B strains type B, Ab, and A(B) contain five different subtypes of gene bont/B. B2 subtype gene bont/B DNA sequence determination and analysis. Genomic localization of the bont/B and /A subtype genes, plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related. Plasmid-borne bont/B PCR-RFLP subtype genes among Clostridium botulinum strains, overview; botulinum neurotoxin type B strains type B, Ab, and A(B) contain five different subtypes of gene bont/B. Bivalent subtype gene bont/B DNA sequence determination and analysis. Genomic localization of the bont/B and /A subtype genes, plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related. Plasmid-borne bont/B PCR-RFLP subtype genes among Clostridium botulinum strains, overview; botulinum neurotoxin type B strains type B, Ab, and A(B) contain five different subtypes of gene bont/B. Non-proteolytic subtype gene bont/B DNA sequence determination and analysis. Genomic localization of the bont/B and /A subtype genes, plasmid carriage is bont/B subtype-related. Plasmid-borne bont/B PCR-RFLP subtype genes among Clostridium botulinum strains, overview
A2I2U3, A2I2W1, Q08077, Q93G71
C-terminal quarter of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin type A, expression in Escherichia coli
-
C1; Clostridium botulinum
-
C1; Clostridium botulinum; D
-
catalytically inactive, mutated fragments, designated LHN, comprise the light chain and translocation domains of each neurotoxin and are devoid of any neuron-binding activity. Using codon-optimized genes, LHN fragments, derived from BoNT serotype A, are expressed in Escherichia coli in high yield as soluble proteins; catalytically inactive, mutated fragments, designated LHN, comprise the light chain and translocation domains of each neurotoxin and are devoid of any neuron-binding activity. Using codon-optimized genes, LHN fragments, derived from BoNT serotype B, are expressed in Escherichia coli in high yield as soluble proteins; catalytically inactive, mutated fragments, designated LHN, comprise the light chain and translocation domains of each neurotoxin and are devoid of any neuron-binding activity. Using codon-optimized genes, LHN fragments, derived from BoNT serotypes A and B, are expressed in Escherichia coli in high yield as soluble proteins
P10844, P10845
cell bank construction, expression of the C-terminal heavy chain fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E in Pichia pastoris strain GS115, method development and evaluation using the pHILD4 Escherichia coli-Pichia pastoris shuttle plasmid, fermentation up-scaling, modeling, overview
-
cloning of the gene encoding the BoNT/A heavy chain as 1275 bp AHc fragment synthesized by PCR, and overexpression as His6-tagged protein in Escherichia coli
-
construction of an expression vector containing DNA encoding the enterokinase whose cleavage site positioned between LC and HC is replaced with a sequence encoding a second TEV cleavage site, His10- or GFP-tagged, expression in Escherichia coli, generation of a recombinant baculovirus containing BoNT/A LC peptide
-
DNA sequence encoding the receptor binding domain of BoNT/CD (S867-E1280) is codon-optimized for expression in Escherichia coli with a C-terminal His tag and cloned into the expression vector pJexpress411 and expressed in Escherichia coli
Q5DW55
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli TG1; serotypes BoNT/A (3 fragments encompassing the structural gene)
-
expression in Escherichia coli strains BL21(DE3) and M15 of GST-tagged HC-fragments pHCAS, pHCBS, pHCCS, pHCDS, pHCES, pHCFS, and pHCGS, and the full-length BoNT/A, BoNT/B, BoNT/D, BoNT/G, as well as pBoNTCS-Thro encoding full-length BoNT/C fused C-terminally to a Streptag and containing an Escherichia coli protease sensitive peptide between LC and HC
-
expression of BoNT serotype A, B, and C light chains
-
expression of C-terminally His-tagged BoNT/C1-LC in Escherichia coli strain M15[pREP4]
-
expression of catalytically inactive BoNT/A1 mutant H223A/E224A/H227A holoprotein in Pichia pastoris
-
expression of GST-tagged wild-type and mutant C2II components in Escherichia coli strain BL21
-
expression of heavy chain fragment C of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E in Pichia pastoris
-
expression of His-tagged BoNT AE and EA chimeras in Escherichia coli strain BL21
Q00496
expression of His-tagged BoNT/E fragment, composed by the 1163-1256 residues of botulinum type E neurotoxin HC gene and termed HC1163-1256, in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
expression of His-tagged truncated enzyme, residues 1-424, in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
expression of His6-tagged light chains of thr BoNT subtypes in Escherichia coli
-
expression of N-terminally GST-tagge BoNT/A peptide fragments
-
expression of recombinant His-tagged and/or FLAG-tagged heavy chains, BoNT/G HCR, BoNT/A HCR, and BoNT/B HCR, in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
Q60393
expression of Strep-tagged HCB-Syt-II fusion protein
-
expression of tagged heavy chain domain, as EGFP-Hc-N/A or mCherry-Hc-N/A, in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
expression of the Clostridium botulinum A2 neurotoxin orfX gene cluster proteins ORFX1, ORFX3, P47, and the middle part of NTNH from Clostridium botulinum A2 strain Kyoto F, and NTNH of Clostridium botulinum A1 strain ATCC 3502 in Escherichia coli strain CA434 and in a Clostridium botulinum expression system involving type A transposon Tn916 mutant strain LNT01, expression analysis of orfX cluster genes in native A2 strain, overview
-
expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
full length Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E light chain, expression in Escherichia coli
-
genes bont, 6 subtypes, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons. The genes from proteolytic, group I, strains form subtypes F1 through F5, while the genes from nonproteolytic, group II, strains form subtype F6, phylogenetic analysis; genes bont, 6 subtypes, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons. The genes from proteolytic, group I, strains form subtypes F1 through F5, while the genes from nonproteolytic, group II, strains form subtype F6, phylogenetic analysis; genes bont, 6 subtypes, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis. The genes from proteolytic, group I, strains form subtypes F1 through F5, while the genes from nonproteolytic, group II, strains form subtype F6, phylogenetic analysis; genes bont, 6 subtypes, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis. The genes from proteolytic, group I, strains form subtypes F1 through F5, while the genes from nonproteolytic, group II, strains form subtype F6, phylogenetic analysis
C5IWN7, D2KCK3, P30996, Q58GH1
heavy and light chain DNA sequence determination, expression of GST-tagged wild-type BoNT/A light chain and of seven peptide fragments of BoNT/A light chain, Lc, L1, L2, L1-1, L1-2, L1-3, L1-4, as well as mutant L1-3 BoNT/A light chain peptide fragment in Escherichia coli strain Bl21(DE3)
-
high level overexpression by autoinduction method of botulinum neurotoxin serotype C1, comprising residues 1-430, in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) as His-tagged protein
-
His6-tagged recombinant type B botulinum neurotoxin heavy chain transmembrane and binding domain, expression in Escherichia coli BL21
-
mouse microarray test to identify genes induced by injection of lysophosphatidic acid in a BoNT/C3-reversible manner
-
recombinant expression of the C-terminally His-tagged BoNT/OFD05 receptor-binding domain, wild-type and SeMet-labeled, in Escherichia coli strain B843 (DE3)
A5JGM8
recombinant light chain type A BoNT LC expressed in Escherichia coli HB101
-
regulated expression of serotype B-LC in yeast leads to cleavage of the chimera and a conditional growth defect
-
serotypes BoNT/A
-
botulinum neurotoxin complex bont genes from different strains, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis, overview. Synteny among proteolytic, group I, strains or nonproteolytic, group II, strains but not between the two groups
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
C134A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of a binding site residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
D130A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
D341A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows unaltered channel forming activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
D342C
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows unaltered channel forming activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
D369N
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
D370A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S1' pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
D370R
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S1' pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
D426A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows unaltered channel forming activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E110A
P30996
the mutant shows similar activity to wild-type BoNT/F
E1172A
-
the binding of radioactively-labeled, in vitro translated HCE E1172A to rat brain synaptosomes is highly decreased to 8.5% of wild-type levels, as well as the binding of Escherichia coli derived HCE mutants to isolated GT1b
E1195A
-
the HCF mutant E1195A displays a diminished affinity of 31.6% to synaptosomes as well as a reduction of about 85% in binding to isolated GT1b compared to HCF wild-type
E158A/T159A/N160A
-
kcat/KM for synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 is 7.4fold lower than the wild-type value
E163L
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
E163Q
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
E170A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
E200A
-
Km (VAMP-2) similar to wild-type, kcat strongly decreased compared to wild-type
E212A/E335Q
-
no detectable activity with synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
E224A
-
the mutation abrogates the catalytic activity of the endopeptidase of BoNT/A
E224A/E262A
-
the recombinant full length botulinum type A with mutation in its two active site residues is a detoxified BoNT/A mutant since it lacks its endopeptidase activity
E224D
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows highly reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E224Q/H227Y
P10844, P10845
the mutation removes the endopeptidase activity of BoNT/A LH fragment; the mutation removes the endopeptidase activity of BoNT/A LH fragment
E231Q/H234Y
P10844, P10845
the mutation removes the endopeptidase activity of BoNT/B LH fragment
E249A
-
kcat/KM for synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 is 20fold lower than the wild-type value
E256A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme in addition of ZnCl2 but not in absence of it, the ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 is altered compared to the wild-type enzyme
E257A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S4' pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E257K
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S4' pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E262D
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows a three-fold reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E262Q
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows highly reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E272A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows unaltered channel forming activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E280C
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows unaltered channel forming activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E315A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat similar to wild-type
E335A
-
kcat/KM for synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 is 37fold lower than the wild-type value
E335Q
-
kcat/KM for synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 is 7300fold lower than the wild-type value. Mutation causes the toxin to transform into a persistent apoenzyme decoid of zinc
E346A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows unaltered channel forming activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E399/D426A/F428A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows almost no channel forming activity
E399A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows unaltered channel forming activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
E399A/D425A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows almost no channel forming activity
E54A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
E63A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
F163A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S1' pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
F194A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S1' pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
F194A/T220A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of S1' pocket residues, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
F428A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows altered chloroquine binding and almost no channel formation activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
F428D
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows altered chloroquine binding and almost no channel formation activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
F428W
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows altered chloroquine binding and almost no channel formation activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
F428Y
-
site-directed mutagenesis, a C2II component mutant, the mutant shows altered chloroquine binding and almost no channel formation activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
H1241K
Q57236
mutant shows an increased affinity for GD1a and confers the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a
H223A
-
the mutation abrogates the catalytic activity of the endopeptidase of BoNT/A
H223A/E224A/H227A
-
site-directed mutagenesis of active site residues, catalytically inactive BoNT/A1 mutant
H227A
-
the mutation abrogates the catalytic activity of the endopeptidase of BoNT/A
H269A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows unaltered activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
I115A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of a binding site residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
I52A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
K165L
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
K172A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat moderately decreased compared to wild-type
K224D
-
mutation of BoNT/E light chain. The mutant shows extended substrate specificity to cleave SNAP-23, and the natural substrate, SNAP-25, but not SNAP-29 or SNAP-47, introduction into HeLa cells
K29A
P30996
the BoNT F K29A mutation does not abrogate VAMP cleavability
K41A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of a binding site residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
L173A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat moderately decreased compared to wild-type
L175A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S5 pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
P25A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
Q138G/P139G/D140G
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant is no longer recognized by antibody F1-40
Q161A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
Q162A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows unaltered activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
Q66A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
R1111A/H1241K/R1256A
Q57236
triple mutant binds GD1a 17fold greater than the double-mutant
R1111A/R1256A
Q57236
triple mutant binds GD1a 17fold greater than the double-mutant
R133A
P30996
the BoNT/F mutant shows over 95% reduced activity with VAMP substrate compared to the wild-type enzyme
R133K
P30996
the BoNT/F mutant shows over 95% reduced activity with VAMP substrate compared to the wild-type enzyme
R171A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
R171K
P30996
the exosite 1 variant BoNT F shows about 98% reduction in activity with VAMP compared to the wild-type enzyme
R177A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S5 pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
R230K
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
R230L
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
R240A
-
Km (VAMP-2) similar to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
R263A
-
Km (VAMP-2) similar to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
R347A
-
kcat/KM for synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25 is 1060fold lower than the wild-type value
R362L
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
S147A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat similar to wild-type
S224A
-
Km (VAMP-2) similar to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
T176A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S5 pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
T220A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of an S1' pocket residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
V129A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of a binding site residue, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
V137A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
W1224L
-
the binding of radioactively-labeled, in vitro translated HCE W1224L to rat brain synaptosomes is highly decreased to 3.7% of wild-type levels, as well as the binding of Escherichia coli derived HCE mutants to isolated GT1b
W1250L
-
the HCF mutant W1250L displays a diminished affinity of 20.5% to synaptosomes as well as a reduction of about 85% in binding to isolated GT1b compared to HCF wild-type
W1266L
-
the mutant HCA W1266L that lacks ganglioside binding, does not interfere with BoNT/A neurotoxicity
W319A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat similar to wild-type
W44A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat similar to wild-type
Y113A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat similar to wild-type
Y133A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
Y168A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
Y26A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat decreased compared to wild-type
Y322A
-
Km (VAMP-2) increased compared to wild-type, kcat similar to wild-type
Y350A
-
no detectable activity with synaptosome-associated protein SNAP-25
Y361A
P30996
the BoNT/F mutant shows about 18% reduction in activity with VAMP compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y365F
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y365N
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced activity and an altered ratio of activity in absence or presence of exogenous ZnCl2 compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y368A
-
Km (VAMP-2) similar to wild-type, kcat strongly decreased compared to wild-type
L175A/R177A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of S5 pocket residues, the mutant shows reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
additional information
-
an insertion mutant moving Glu224 laterally by one residue is catalytically inactive
additional information
Q00496
construction of BoNT AE and EA chimeras from serotypes BoNT/A and BoNT/E in DC and SC forms, overview, catalytic and physiological properties of the chimeric forms, overview
additional information
-
construction of a HCB-Syt-II fusion protein by fusion of the HC fragment of BoNT/B, residues 858-1291, with the luminal domain of rat Syt-II, residues 861, connected by a 15-residue linker, PPTPGSAWSHPQFEK, including a Strep-tag, site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the toxin-receptor binding site in BoNT/B and in the luminal domains of Syt-I and Syt-II, overview
additional information
-
construction and growth-selection of chimeric SNARE mutations that inhibit proteolysis, when these mutations are introduced into Sb and examined for cleavage, substrate residues located near and distal to the cleavage site are important, including residues positioned near the Sb transmembrane domain, overview, additional mutations in a nine-residue SNARE motif
additional information
-
the endopeptidase activities of the three forms (complex, purified BoNT/B holotoxin, and separated light chain) are compared under the same conditions. Results show that enzyme activities of the three forms differ significantly and are dependent on nicking and disulfide reduction conditions. Light chain form has the highest level of activity, and the complex has the lowest. The activity is enhanced by nicking of BoNT/B holotoxin and is enhanced even more by dithiothreitol reduction after nicking
additional information
-
an atoxic derivative of BoNT/A (BoNT/A ad) as a full-length 150 kDa molecule consisting of a 50 kDa light chain and a 100 kDa heavy chain joined by a disulfide bond and metalloprotease-inactivating point mutations (E224A/Y366A) in the light chain. Studies in neuronal cultures demonstrates that the mutant is unable to cleave SNAP25, and that it effectively competes with wild-type BoNT/A for binding to endogenous neuronal receptors. In vivo studies indicate accumulation of the mutant (BoNT/A ad) at the neuromuscular junction of the mouse diaphragm. Toxicity of the mutant BoNT/A ad is reduced by 100000fold relative to wild-type BoNT/A
additional information
-
four variants of type A BoNT (BoNT/A) light chain are prepared and their catalytic parameters with those of BoNT/A whole toxin are compared. The four variants are light chain + translocation domain, a trypsin-nicked light chain + translocation domain, light chain + belt, and a free light chain. Km (SNAP-25) (synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa) for these constructs is not very different, but kcat for the free light chain is 6-100fold higher than those of its four variants. None of the four variants of the light chain is prone to autocatalysis
E224A/E262A
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
the recombinant full length botulinum type A with mutation in its two active site residues is a detoxified BoNT/A mutant since it lacks its endopeptidase activity
-
additional information
-
single point mutations in VAMP-2 for analysation of binding kinetics to TeNT
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
analysis
-
development and evaluation of molecular detection tool for tracking and tracing Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, F and other botulinum neurotoxin producing Clostridia using the real-time PCR-based GeneDisc cycler and BoNTs, overview. No cross reactivity with non human-toxigenic bacteria, Clostridium botulinum types C, D and G
analysis
-
the recombinant VAMP2 peptide substrate can be used as in vitro bioassay for the detection of BONT/B in food samples and provide a relevant replacement assay for the estimation of the toxin potency in contaminated therapeutic preparations
analysis
-
development and evaluation of molecular detection tool for tracking and tracing Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, F and other botulinum neurotoxin producing Clostridia using the real-time PCR-based GeneDisc cycler and BoNTs, overview. No cross reactivity with non human-toxigenic bacteria, Clostridium botulinum types C, D and G
drug development
-
because of the potential for use of the toxin in bioterrorism and the increasingly widespread application of the toxin in the medical field, there is interest in the development of small-molecule inhibitors of the metalloprotease
drug development
P10845
the enzyme is a target for design of specific inhibitors
drug development
-
botulinum toxins are targets for rational development of preventive vaccines or inhibitors
drug development
-
RNA aptamers are a unique group of molecules acting as therapeutics and as an antidote against botulism
drug development
-
ability of monoclonal antibodies F1-2 and F1-40 to provide therapeutic protection against BoNT/A intoxication in mouse intravenous and oral intoxication models, overview
drug development
-
the botulinum toxin is a target for development of specific drugs to treat botulism
drug development
-
the toxin is a target for development of inhibitors to treat muscular paralysis, and of drugs altering BoNT/B light chain ubiquitination to overcome botulinum persistence in neuronal cells
drug development
-
the BoNT/A Lc alpha-exosite is a target for inhibitor development
medicine
-
most lethal biological substance have been weaponized in highly toxic aerosol form to pose a significant dual threat to both civilian and military populations, there is an urgent need for therapeutic countermeasures against BoNTs
medicine
-
designing of novel drugs
medicine
-
BoNT/A is the best available therapeutic agent of a variety of human diseases that benefit from a finctional inhibition of cholinergic terminals
medicine
-
remarkably effective drug for treating a wide variety of muscle dysfunctions in humans
medicine
-
drug to treat certain muscle dysfunctions
medicine
-
design of inhibitors to treat food-borne, wound and infant botulism, rare but severe diseases, moreover, the enzyme can be used as biological warfare, because of its easiness of production and very high toxicity
medicine
-
the enzyme is a useful therapeutic agent for many human syndroms caused by hyperactivity of cholinergic nerve terminals. Human diseases treated with BoNT/A: blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, laryngeal dysphonia, head and neck dystonias, strabismus, limb dystonias, occupational cramps, anal fissure and rectal spasms, palmar and ascellar hyperhydrosis, hypersalivation and hypersweating, migraine headache, pain, bruxism, spasticity, urinary retention and pain, essential tremors, dysphagia and achalasia esophagea. BoNT/A is extensively used as a pharmaco-cosmetic
medicine
-
retargeting of BoNT endopeptidase into specific cells has an enormous potential of therapeutic use, not only for moderating release of hormones, peptides, and metabolites, but also disrupting cancer cell growth and functioning
medicine
-
process development for production of a candidate vaccine antigen by recombinant expression of the C-terminal heavy chain fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E Pichia pastoris strain GS115
medicine
-
botulinum neurotoxins BoNT/A-G are used as therapeutics in a variety of neuromuscular disorders of the skeletal, glandular, and smooth muscles and pain disorders
medicine
-
BoNT/E can reduce seizure incidence in Mus musculus strain C57BL/6N, a mouse model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (electroencephalography analysis)
medicine
-
candidate for treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargment
medicine
-
BoNT/A is widely used as a therapeutic agent and to reduce wrinkles. The toxin is used at very low doses, which have to be accurately quantified
medicine
-
BoNT/A is largely employed in human therapy because of its specific inhibition of peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals
medicine
-
RNA aptamers are a unique group of molecules acting as therapeutics and as an antidote against botulism
medicine
-
BoNTs are among the most useful reagents to treat neuromuscular afflictions
medicine
-
BoNT-A treatment of bladder of human hosts, patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, improves bladder capacity, reflex volume, continence status, and detrusor compliance, maximum detrusor pressure iss significantly reduced, long-term effects of repeated intradetrusor BoNT-A injections on detrusor function in human hosts result in a succes rate of 74%, overview
medicine
P10844, P10845
LHN/A vaccine protects mice against challenge with BoNT/A subtypes A1, A2, and A3; LHN/A vaccine protects mice against challenge with BoNT/A subtypes A1, A2, and A3,the LHN/B vaccine is also highly efficacious; LHN/B vaccine protects mice against challenge with BoNT/A subtypes A1, A2, and A3
medicine
-
localized injections of BoNT/A are widely employed in clinical neurology to treat several human diseases characterized by muscle hyperactivity
medicine
P30996
BoNT/A is very effective in the therapy of a wide range of human syndromes characterized by hyperactivity of peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals
medicine
-
analgesic effect of BoNT/A on neuropathic pain, e.g. chronic refractory neck pain, application on human neck and shoulder muslces
medicine
-
BoNT-A can be administered subcutaneously or topically, in addition to the common application by intradermal and intramuscular injection, with a transdermal delivery peptide to reduce inflammation produced by activating nociceptors in the skin. Peptide-mediated delivery of BoNT-A is an easy and non-invasive way of administering the toxin that may prove to be useful in clinical practice, overview
medicine
-
Hn-33 and other neurotoxin associated proteins can potentially be employed as adjuvants for development of vaccines against botulism and can be a good surrogate for botulinum diagnostics. Medical implications of immunogenicity of different components of BoNT/A complex
medicine
-
clinical evidence on the effectiveness and reliability of minimally invasive and reversible sacral neuromodulation and botulinum toxin A treatment as well as the current significance of sacral neuromodulation and botulinum toxin A for the second-line treatment of adult syndrome of idiopathic overactive bladder, overview
medicine
-
evaluation of catalytically inactive BoNT/A1 mutant H223A/E224A/H227A holoprotein as a vaccine candidate by comparison against recombinant BoNT/A1 LC, LC-belt, LC-Hn, and Hc antigens and a LC-Hn +Hc combination in mouse potency and efficacy bioassays when challenged with BoNT/A subtypes /A1, /A2, and /A3, overview
medicine
-
a number of peptides are selected on the basis of their involvement in BoNT/A binding in vitro to snps and/or to blocking Abs, for their ability to exert an inhibitory effect on the action of the toxin in vivo
medicine
Clostridium botulinum ATCC3502
-
Hn-33 and other neurotoxin associated proteins can potentially be employed as adjuvants for development of vaccines against botulism and can be a good surrogate for botulinum diagnostics. Medical implications of immunogenicity of different components of BoNT/A complex
-
medicine
Clostridium botulinum NCTC 11219
-
process development for production of a candidate vaccine antigen by recombinant expression of the C-terminal heavy chain fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E Pichia pastoris strain GS115
-
analysis
-
development and evaluation of molecular detection tool for tracking and tracing Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E, F and other botulinum neurotoxin producing Clostridia using the real-time PCR-based GeneDisc cycler and BoNTs, overview. No cross reactivity with non human-toxigenic bacteria, Clostridium botulinum types C, D and G
medicine
-
designing of novel drugs
additional information
-
development of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo assays for drug discovery and development, especially with regard to the potential for medium- to high-throughput automation and its use in identifying physiologically relevant inhibitors, overview
molecular biology
-
botulinum neurotoxins BoNT/A-G are widely used as laboratory research tools
additional information
-
the enzyme can be used as an agent in biowarfare
additional information
P10845
the enzyme is used as a biowapon
additional information
-
botulinum neurotoxins are biological hazards to humans and a serious potential bioweapon threat
additional information
-
botulinum neurotoxins BoNT/A-G are the most potent of all toxins and potential bioterrorism agents, they are also used in cosmetic applications
additional information
-
botulinum neurotoxin type A is the most poisonous substance known to humans and is a potential bioterrorism agent
additional information
-
botulinum neurotoxin serotype A causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism that can afflict large, unprotected populations if the toxin is employed in an act of bioterrorism
additional information
-
development of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo assays for drug discovery and development, especially with regard to the potential for medium- to high-throughput automation and its use in identifying physiologically relevant inhibitors, overview
medicine
-
designing of novel drugs
additional information
-
development of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo assays for drug discovery and development, especially with regard to the potential for medium- to high-throughput automation and its use in identifying physiologically relevant inhibitors, overview