Information on EC 3.2.1.1 - alpha-amylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.2.1.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
alpha-amylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
PFTA is a bifunctional enzyme showing alpha-amylase as well as cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing activity
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
residues Asp204, Glu240, and Asp305 are involved in catalysis, residues His118, Ala206, Lys207, and His304 are important for starch binding
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
the active site structure involves the catalytic residues D197, E233, and D300, reaction mechanism
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism and kinetic mechanism
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
mode of action
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
TVAII is a bifunctional enzyme showing alpha-amylase as well as cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing activity, the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages and alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages, active site structure and substrate binding structure, Trp356 is involved in substrate binding, and Tyr374 is involved in substrate orientation for catalysis
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
isozyme Amyl III acts on the alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkage of the inner granule and releases oligosaccharides, decomposition of granules into G2 and G3
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
Tyr105 and Thr212 at outermost substrate binding subsites -6 and +4 control substrate specificity, oligosaccharide cleavage patterns, and multiple binding modes of alpha-amylase 1
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
active site mobility and structure of the psychrophilic alpha-amylase, ligand binding mechanism and conformational changes, side chains involved in substrate binding are strictly conserved, overview
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
endo mode of action
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
the reaction mechanism involves no typical conformational change of the flexible loop, residues 303-309, that constitutes the surface edge of the substrate binding cleft, but only a small movement of the segment from residues 304/305, conformational change of catalytic residue Asp300 upon substrate binding, flexibility of the active site depends on the substrate aglycon bound, overview
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
isozyme Amyl III acts on the alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkage of the inner granule and releases oligosaccharides, decomposition of granules into G2 and G3
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
endo mode of action
Bacillus subtilis AX20
-
-
Endohydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in polysaccharides containing three or more (1->4)-alpha-linked D-glucose units
show the reaction diagram
TVAII is a bifunctional enzyme showing alpha-amylase as well as cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing activity, the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages and alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages, active site structure and substrate binding structure, Trp356 is involved in substrate binding, and Tyr374 is involved in substrate orientation for catalysis
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
-
-
endohydrolysis
-
O-glycosyl bond hydrolysis
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Metabolic pathways
-
Starch and sucrose metabolism
-
starch degradation I
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Acts on starch, glycogen and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides in a random manner; reducing groups are liberated in the alpha-configuration. The term "alpha" relates to the initial anomeric configuration of the free sugar group released and not to the configuration of the linkage hydrolysed.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
-
-
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
A7U965
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Bacillus megaterium WHO
A7U965
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Bacillus mojavensis A21
-
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
Geobacillus sp.
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
-
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase and endoamylase
Geobacillus sp.
-
-
1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase and endoamylase
-
-
-
acid-stable amylase
-
-
alkaline alpha-amylase
-
-
alkaline alpha-amylase
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
-
-
alkaline alpha-amylase
-
-
alkalophilic Bacillus alpha-amylase
-
-
alpha amylase
P06278
-
alpha amylase
Bacillus licheniformis CICC 10181
P06278
-
-
alpha amylase 1
-
-
alpha-(1,4)-D-glucan glucanohydrolase
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase
B8Y1H0
-
alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase
Bacillus subtilis BF768
B8Y1H0
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase
-, B8Y698
-
alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase
-
-
alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase
-
-
alpha-1-4 D-glucan glucanohydrolase
-
-
alpha-amylase
-
-
alpha-amylase
Bacillus mojavensis A21
-
-
-
alpha-amylase
A8VWC5
-
alpha-amylase
Bacillus subtilis KCC103
A8VWC5
-
-
alpha-amylase
-
-
alpha-amylase
-
type IX-A
alpha-amylase
-
-
alpha-amylase
-
-
alpha-amylase
-
-
alpha-amylase
-
-
alpha-amylase 1
-
-
alpha-amylase 1
-
-
alpha-amylase 2
-
-
alpha-amylase 3
-
-
alpha-amylase Aasp
-
-
alpha-amylase AI
-
the enzyme is an endoamylase
alpha-amylase AOA
-
-
Alpha-amylase carcinoid
-
-
-
-
alpha-amylase CMA
-
-
alpha-amylase gt
-
-
alpha-amylase HA
-
-
alpha-amylase I
-
-
alpha-amylase I
Bacillus halodurans 38C-2-1
-
-
-
alpha-amylase II
-
-
alpha-amylase II
Bacillus halodurans 38C-2-1
-
-
-
alpha-amylase II
-
-
alpha-amylase II
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
-
alpha-amylase PA
-
-
alpha-amylase PA
Bacillus licheniformis IFO12196
-
-
-
alpha-amylase PPA
-
-
alpha-amylase type A isozyme
P00693
-
alpha-amylase type II
-
-
alpha-amylase ZSA
-
-
alpha-amylases 1
P00693
-
AMF-3
Morimus funereus
-
-
Amy c6
-
-
-
-
Amy II
-
-
Amy-FC1
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
Amy-FC1
-
-
-
AMY1
-
-
-
-
AMY1
B1VK33
-
AMY1
-
isozyme
AMY1
P04745
-
AMY1
-
isoenzyme
AMY2
-
isozyme
AMY2
-
isoenzyme
AMY2
P04063
-
Amy3
B8Y698
isozyme
AmyA
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 610
-
-
-
AmyA
Q4J9M2
gene name
AmyA
Q4J9M2
gene name
-
AmyA
Q97YY0
-
-
AmyB
B5ARZ9
exo-acting intracellular alpha-amylase that possesses distinct characteristics from typical alpha-amylases and cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzymes such as maltogenic amylase, cyclodextrinase, and neopullulanase
AmyB
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
exo-acting intracellular alpha-amylase that possesses distinct characteristics from typical alpha-amylases and cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing enzymes such as maltogenic amylase, cyclodextrinase, and neopullulanase
-
AmyCR
A8VWC5
-
AmyCR
Bacillus subtilis KCC103
A8VWC5
-
-
AmyE
B8Y1H0
-
AmyE
Bacillus subtilis BF768
B8Y1H0
-
-
AmyI-1
P17654
isozyme
AmyK
-
-
AmyK
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
-
-
AmyK38
-
-
AmyL
Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 6598
-
-
-
Amyl III
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
-
-
amylase AI
-
-
amylase AII
-
-
amylase I
-
-
Amylase THC 250
-
-
-
-
amylase, alpha-
-
-
-
-
Amylopsin
-
-
-
-
AmyN26
-
recombinant enzyme
AmyQ
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CICIM B2125
P00692
-
-
AmyUS100
-
variant of the most thermoactive and thermostable maltohexaose forming alpha-amylase produced in Geobacillus stearothermophilus sp. US100
AmyUS100DELTAIG
-
recombinant protein
ApkA
O33476
-
ApkA
Pyrococcus sp. KOD1
O33476
-
-
Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase
P06278
-
Bactosol TK
-
-
-
-
barley alpha-amylase 1
-
-
BGTG-1
Q2KJQ1
-
BMA.2
Bacillus mojavensis A21
-
-
-
Bsamy-I
Bacillus subtilis DM-03
-
-
-
Buclamase
-
-
-
-
Ca2+-independent alpha-amylase gt
-
-
Clarase
-
-
-
-
Clone 103
-
-
-
-
Clone 168
-
-
-
-
Clone PHV19
-
-
-
-
Clones GRAMY56 and 963
-
-
-
-
crustacean cardioactive peptide
Q75UG5
-
diastase
-
-
-
-
endo-1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase
-
-
endo-1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 610
-
-
-
endoamylase
-
-
-
-
FORILASE NTL alpha-amylase
-
-
Fortizyme
-
-
-
-
Fungamyl 800 L
-
-
G 995
-
-
-
-
G6-amylase
-
-
glycogenase
-
-
-
-
HAS
-
human salivary alpha-amylase
HdAmyI
B6RB08
-
High pI alpha-amylase
-
-
-
-
HSAmy
P04745
-
HSAmy-ar
P04745
multiple mutant enzyme
human salivary alpha-amylase
-
commercial preparation
hyperthermophilic alpha-amylase
-
classified in family 13 of the glucosyl hydrolase superfamily
Isozyme 1B
-
-
-
-
Kleistase L 1
-
-
-
-
LAMY
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
;
-
liquozyme
-
commercial preparation, free and immobilzed enzyme, covalently bound to calcium alginate matrix
Low pI alpha-amylase
-
-
-
-
Low pI alpha-amylase
P00693
-
maltohexaose-producing alpha-amylase
-
-
maltotriose-producing alpha-amylase
-
-
MAmy
Q8LJQ6
-
Maxamyl
-
-
-
-
Maxilase
-
-
-
-
neutral amylase
-
-
Pancreatic alpha-amylase
-
-
-
-
Pivozin
-
-
-
-
PPA-I
-
isoform
PPA-I
-
isozyme
PPA-II
-
isoform
PPA-II
-
isozyme
Ptyalin
-
-
-
-
raw-starch-digesting alpha-amylase
-
-
raw-starch-digesting alpha-amylase
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
-
-
Saci_1162
Q4J9M2
locus name
Saci_1162
Q4J9M2
locus name
-
Sfamy
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KZ
D4P4Y7
-
-
Spitase CP 1
-
-
-
-
SSO1172
Q97YY0
locus name
SSO1172
Q97YY0
locus name
-
TAA
-
-
-
-
Taka-amylase A
-
-
-
-
Takatherm
-
-
-
-
Thermamyl
-
-
-
-
Thermolase
-
-
-
-
thermostable alpha-amylase
-
free and immobilzed enzyme, covalently bound to calcium alginate matrix
TO_amyl
Q2QC88
-
VAAmy1
-
-
VAAmy2
-
-
VrAmy
-
-
Meiotic expression upregulated protein 30
-
-
-
-
additional information
-
the soybean alpha-amylase belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 13
additional information
-
cf. EC 3.2.1.54, cyclomaltodextrinase, the enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 13
additional information
D4P4Y7
the enzyme belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 13, subfamily 1
additional information
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KZ
D4P4Y7
the enzyme belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 13, subfamily 1
-
additional information
-
cf. EC 3.2.1.54, cyclomaltodextrinase
additional information
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
cf. EC 3.2.1.54, cyclomaltodextrinase
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9000-90-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
two isozymes AoA1 and AoA2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 104-1A; strain Agnano 101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius 104-1A
strain 104-1A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius A-2
strain A-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius Agnano
strain Agnano 101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MR3CT, DSM 15939T, ATCC BAA-872, isolated from geothermal soil located on Mount Rittmann, Antartica
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Anoxybacillus amylolyticus MR3CT
strain MR3CT, DSM 15939T, ATCC BAA-872, isolated from geothermal soil located on Mount Rittmann, Antartica
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KT-11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KT-11, black mold isolated from air in Indonesia, isozyme Amyl III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
strain KT-11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
strain KT-11, black mold isolated from air in Indonesia, isozyme Amyl III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. columnaris
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
acid-stable and acid-unstable enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
acid-stable enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 76080
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFO 30103
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type enzyme and mutant enzymes D206E, D206N, K209F, K209R, E230D, E230Q, S297E, D297N
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hybrid Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from soil in Turkey
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CICIM B2125
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MTCC 610
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIM 2829
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SB, strain P, strain T, strain N, strain F
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CICIM B2125
strain CICIM B2125
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 610
strain MTCC 610
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NCIM 2829
strain NCIM 2829
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains IFO 3032 and IFO 3034
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain G-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus circulans G-6
strain G-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CUMC512
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus coagulans CUMC512
strain CUMC512
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 38C-2-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus halodurans 38C-2-1
strain 38C-2-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
diverse strains, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hybrid Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 44MB82
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 9945; strain NCIB 6346; strain NCIB 6816; strain NCIB 7224; strain NCIB 8061; strain NCIB 8537; strain NCIB 8549; strain NCIB 8874; strain NCIB 9668; strain NCTC 8233
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CCM 2145
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NA-14
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TCRDC-B13
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type; CICC 10181
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis 44MB82
strain 44MB82
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 27811
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis CCM 2145
strain CCM 2145
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis CICC 10181
wild-type; CICC 10181
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305
strain CUMC305
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis IFO12196
IFO12196
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 6598
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NA-14
strain NA-14
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 6346
strain NCIB 6346
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 6816
strain NCIB 6816
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 7224
strain NCIB 7224
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 8061
strain NCIB 8061
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 8537
strain NCIB 8537
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 8549
strain NCIB 8549
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 8874
strain NCIB 8874
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCIB 9668
strain NCIB 9668
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis NCTC 8233
strain NCTC 8233
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus licheniformis TCRDC-B13
strain TCRDC-B13
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WHO
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus megaterium WHO
strain WHO
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A21
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus mojavensis A21
strain A21
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A-40-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolate Ferdowsicous
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolate KSM-K38
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolate L1711, several isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KSM-1378
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 11-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 11-1S
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ANT-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IMD 434
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KSM-1378
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TS-23
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YX-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. 11-15
strain 11-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. 11-1S
strain 11-1S
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. A-40-2
A-40-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. ANT-6
strain ANT-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. BKL20
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. IMD 434
strain IMD 434
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
KSM-1378
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
strain KSM-1378
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TS-23
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. YX-1
strain YX-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
amyE; strain KCC103
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
diverse strains, overview, isozymes RBLA, RBSA-1 and BSA-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Marburg strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 65
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AX20, isolated from soil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BF768
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DM-03, isolated from traditional fermented food of India
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DP 1, CCM 2267, CCM 2268, CCM 2744, CCM 2794, NA 64, CCM 2722, CCM 2216 and CCM 1718
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KCC103
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type enzyme and mutant enzymes D176N, H180N, E203Q, E208Q and D269N
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis 65
strain 65
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis AX20
strain AX20, isolated from soil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis BF768
strain BF768
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis DM-03
strain DM-03, isolated from traditional fermented food of India
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis DP 1
strain DP 1, CCM 2267, CCM 2268, CCM 2744, CCM 2794, NA 64, CCM 2722, CCM 2216 and CCM 1718
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis KCC103
amyE; strain KCC103
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis KCC103
strain KCC103
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis Marburg
Marburg strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis WB600
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SS71
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacteria SS71
SS71
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
human gut symbiont
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Caloglyphus redickorzevi
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 6678
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida antarctica CBS 6678
strain CBS 6678
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cardamine battagliae
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tuberous-rooted chervil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Abosora
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain T-7
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium butyricum T-7
strain T-7
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Corallococcus coralloides D
strain D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolate I-11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain S-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
earthworm
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
finger millet or ragi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
flour moth
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme Amy3; flour moth
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fusicoccum sp.
strain BCC4124
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BCC4124
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fusidium sp.
strain BX-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fusidium sp. BX-1
strain BX-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Gammarus palustris
isoenzymes Amy IW, Amy IC, Amy II.52, Amy II.55, and Amy III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus sp.
strain IIPTN, MTCC 5319
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus sp.
strain LH8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IIPTN, MTCC 5319
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LH8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Donk, strain BS-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type enzyme and mutant enzymes Y63C, R232K, R232W, D234G, H238D, H238N, H238Y, E264V, Y265F, Y265S, D331A, D331E, N329D, N329K, N329V
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus CCM 2183
strain CCM 2183
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus stearothermophilus JT2
strain JT2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains HRO1 and HRO10, isolated from soil by enrichment on starch at 60C
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus thermodenitrificans HRO10
strain HRO10
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NP 54, isolated from a water sample collected from the hot water spring of the Waimangu volcanic valley in New Zealand
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP54
strain NP54
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mulberry moth
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DD1, moderately halophilic bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Gracilibacillus dipsosauri DD1
strain DD1, moderately halophilic bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
active site residues Asp214, Glu250, and Asp315, as well as the residues making up the calcium (Asn118, Arg175, Asp184, and His218) and chloride (Arg212, Asn313, and Arg351) binding sites are fully conserved in HdAmyI; disk abalone
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
entomopathogenic parasitic nematode, strain EGG, three isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AMY1A; isozyme AMY1A
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type enzyme and mutant enzymes H93B, S180N, E205Q, H290N, D291N, W279A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Humicola brevis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Humicola stellata
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KCTC 3597
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus amylovorus KCTC 3597
strain KCTC 3597
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus fermentum D-39
strain D-39
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LMG 18010
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010
strain LMG 18010
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a strain belonging to the amylolytic lactic acid bacteria, plasmid encoded gene amy+
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactococcus lactis IBB500
a strain belonging to the amylolytic lactic acid bacteria, plasmid encoded gene amy+
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sandfly, Phlebotomus papatasi, infected
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 1809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lipomyces starkeyi CBS 1809
strain CBS 1809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hard clam, three isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Micromonospora vulgaris
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Morimus funereus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AAA, cultivar nanicao
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 7326
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 7326
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme AmyI-1; cultivar Nipponbare
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Sasanishiki
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two major isoenzymes: Amy1A and Amy3D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
red porgy
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
desert and oasis flies studied, male and female, Neot Hakikar (oasis), Jordan Valley spring (wet), Kfar Adumim starved (arid), Jordan Valley autumn (arid)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Boidin, 2 enzyme foms
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 15-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pichia burtonii 15-1
strain 15-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a psychrophilic alpha-amylase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas sp. MS1
MS1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bifunctional enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pyrococcus sp. KOD1
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a hyperthermophilic organism
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DSM 3773
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhizopus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ruminobacter amylophilus 70
strain 70
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type enzyme and mutant enzymes Y83F, Y83L, Y83N, Y83W, W84F, W84L, W84Y, K210N, K210R
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KZ
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera ST 2
ST 2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene for alpha-amylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis was integrated into genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pathogenic fungus, grown on oats flour
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
thermophilic fungi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
maize weevil, insecticide-susceptible, resistant no-cost, and resistant cost strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. M25-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
coexpressed in a construct in Corynebacterium glutamicum, combined with Escherichia coli K-12 lysine decarboxylase for an one-step production of cadaverine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene for alpha-amylase from Debaryomyces occidentalis was integrated into genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DAS 131, alkali-thermotolerant strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS 131
DAS 131, alkali-thermotolerant strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces megasporus SD12
strain SD12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
D0KTV8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sulfolobus solfataricus 2
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sulfolobus solfataricus KM1
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isoenzymes AI and AII
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
commercial preparation
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hog
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 814.70
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Talaromyces emersonii CBS 814.70
strain CBS 814.70
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Talaromyces thermophilus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain No. 15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoactinomyces sp. No. 15
strain No. 15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
strain R-47
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus E 101-69
strain E 101-69
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from compost soils collected in Taiwan
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermobifida fusca NTU22
isolated from compost soils collected in Taiwan
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermococcus hydrothermalis AL662
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HJ21, extremely thermophilic anaerobic archaeon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HJ21, extremely thermophilic anaerobic archaeon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermomonospora viridis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermomonospora vulgaris
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 34626
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IISc91
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermomyces lanuginosus IISc91
strain IISc91
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DSM 3109
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MSB8, gene amyC or tm1438
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DSM 3109, hyperthermophilic bacterium
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 41025
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
strain 41025
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torula thermophila
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Yangmai 158
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Apeldoorn
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
azuki bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a Gram-negative bacterium. alpha-Amylase production is highly dependent on starch availability and is supressed in the presence of glucose or other reducing sugars whereas the transformed Xanthomonas expressing the hyperthermophilic alpha-amylase from Pyrococcus woesei produces similar levels of recombinant alpha-amylase activity, regardless of the carbon source present in growth medium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mexican bean weevil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
-
hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer
evolution
Lactococcus lactis IBB500
-
hypothesis of horizontal gene transfer
-
malfunction
Q4J9M2, -
construction of the alpha-amylase deletion strain. Inactivation of the amyA gene results in a complete loss of activity, suggesting that the same protein is responsible for the alpha-amylase activity at both locations, extracellular and intracellular
physiological function
-
alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of internal alpha-D-(1,4)-glucosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and related oligo- and polysaccharides to produce maltodextrins, maltooligosaccharides, and glucose
physiological function
Q8A1G3
SusG is the alpha-amylase expressed concomitantly with Sus-CDEF on the outer surface of the cell and is absolutely required for growth on starch
physiological function
Q97YY0
the alpha-amylase is essential for growth on starch, glycogen, and pullulan
physiological function
Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 6598
-
alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of internal alpha-D-(1,4)-glucosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and related oligo- and polysaccharides to produce maltodextrins, maltooligosaccharides, and glucose
-
physiological function
-
the alpha-amylase is essential for growth on starch, glycogen, and pullulan
-
malfunction
-
construction of the alpha-amylase deletion strain. Inactivation of the amyA gene results in a complete loss of activity, suggesting that the same protein is responsible for the alpha-amylase activity at both locations, extracellular and intracellular
-
additional information
-
enzyme modification using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride in the presence of a nucleophile, AME, to activate the carboxyl groups of the enzyme, comparisons in anion and cation exchange chromatographies and by native PAGE, overview. The modifications project into the bulk solvent. The enhanced thermostability leads to increased productivity
additional information
Q8A1G3
determination of the structure of carbohydrate binding CBM58-binding site, the active site, and the surface starch-binding site, directly adjacent to the reducing end of the active site
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 starch + H2O
2 malto-oligosaccharides + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2 starch + H2O
2 malto-oligosaccharides + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of soluble starch, and degradation of raw starch granules of different source, overview
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-galactopyranoside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-galactopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
the increase of absorbance of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol liberated by HSA is measured continuously at 400 nm
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P04746
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-maltotrioside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 6.8, 30C
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P00693
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + beta-D-maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
P04063
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-maltoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Gracilibacillus dipsosauri, Gracilibacillus dipsosauri DD1
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-alpha-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
commercial substrate for a flourescence-based assay, pH 7.0
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-maltotrioside
show the reaction diagram
-
acid-stable amylase and common neutral amylase can degrade the substrate at pH 5.4 to release 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol. In presence of 500 mM KSCN the reaction rate of common neutral amylase increases markedly whereas the reaction rate of acid-stable amylase decreases
-
-
?
3 glycogen
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
approx. 10% of activity with starch
-
-
?
3 starch + 2 H2O
3 malto-oligosaccharides + D-glucose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4,6-ethylidene-4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + 4,6-ethyliden-[G7]-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
4,6-ethylidene-[G7]-p-nitrophenyl-[G1]-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + 4,6-ethyliden-[G7]-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4,6-ethylidene-[G7]-p-nitrophenyl-[G1]-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + 4,6-ethyliden-[G7]-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus licheniformis CICC 10181
P06278
-
-
-
-
4,6-O-benzylidene 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside + H2O
4,6-O-benzylidene 4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltosides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltohexaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltose
show the reaction diagram
P00690
4-nitrophenol is bound at the ative site
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose + 4-nitrophenyl maltotetraoside + 4-nitrophenyl maltotrioside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + maltoheptaoside
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoheptaoside-4,6-O-ethylidene + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltoheptaoside-4,6-O-ethylidene
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltopentaoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
activity measured in total fly homogenates, substrate concentration of 2.2 mM in HEPES buffer, enzyme activity preferentially required for degrading starch components of plant tissue
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acarbose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate is a potent inhibitor of alpha-amylases, cyclomaltodextrinase activity
-
-
?
alpha-1,4-glucan + H2O
fragments of alpha-1,4-glucan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
92% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
weak activity
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
9.2% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
1.1% relative activity compared to amylose as substrate, pH 8.0. 65C
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus solfataricus 2
-
catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch, dextrin, and alpha-cyclodextrin with similar efficiencies
-
-
?
alpha-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP54
-
9.2% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
alpha-maltosyl fluoride + H2O
maltose + fluoride
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-maltotriosyl fluoride + H2O
maltotriose + fluoride
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-maltotriosyl fluoride + H2O
maltotriose + fluoride
show the reaction diagram
P04746
-
-
-
?
amylase + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q8A1G3
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
O33476
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII, good substrate
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
121% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
53.8% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
66% of the activity with potato starch, AmyD
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
66.1% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6WUB6
69% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
95% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
74.6% relative activity compared to amylose as substrate, pH 8.0. 65C
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
86% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
80% activity compared to potato starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
liquefying enzyme. The main products of polysaccharide hydrolysis are G2 to G7. A small amount of G1 is formed after long hydrolysis periods. The enzyme A hydrolyzes long-chain oligosaccharides faster than shorter chain oligosaccharides
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q2QC88, -
the enzyme shows a liquefying activity, hydrolyzing maltooligosaccharides, amylopectin, and starch to produce mainly maltose (G2) to maltoheptaose (G7)
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pyrococcus sp. KOD1
O33476
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus mojavensis A21
-
80% activity compared to potato starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
86% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus halodurans 38C-2-1
-
121% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
fragments of amylopectin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
fragments of amylopectin
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus manihotivorans, Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010
-
90% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
137% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
55% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
from potato, 74% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-, main products
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
73% activity compared to corn starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
78% activity compared to starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q8A1G3
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
O33476
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII, moderate activity
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
101% of the activity with potato starch, AmyD
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
137% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
30% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6WUB6
61% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
with potato amylose as substrate, the enzyme displays a high degree of multiple attack (the number of bonds broken during the lifetime of an enzyme-substrate complex minus one). The level of multiple attack decreases when temperature is raised
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
with potato amylose as substrate, the enzyme displays a high degree of multiple attack (the number of bonds broken during the lifetime of an enzyme-substrate complex minus one). The level of multiple attack increases when temperature is raised
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
with potato amylose as substrate, the enzyme displays a low degree of multiple attack (the number of bonds broken during the lifetime of an enzyme-substrate complex minus one). The level of multiple attack increases when temperature is raised
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
with potato amylose as substrate, the enzyme displays an intermediate degree of multiple attack (the number of bonds broken during the lifetime of an enzyme-substrate complex minus one). The level of multiple attack increases when temperature is raised
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
100% relative activity as reference for substrate specificity studies, pH 8.0. 65C
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
120% relative enzyme activity compared to reaction with soluble starch as substrate, pH 5.0, 50C
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
amylose DP440, pH 6.8, 30C
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 6.5, 37C, inhibition studies with acarviosin-containing oligosaccharides
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
liquefying enzyme. The main products of polysaccharide hydrolysis are G2 to G7. A small amount of G1 is formed after long hydrolysis periods. The enzyme A hydrolyzes long-chain oligosaccharides faster than shorter chain oligosaccharides
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pyrococcus sp. KOD1
O33476
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KZ
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
fragments of amylose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
fragments of amylose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
fragments of amylose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
fragments of amylose
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus manihotivorans, Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010
-
1.6times higher activity than with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
65% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
69% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
73% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
approx. 10% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-, main products
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-, preferred substrate
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble substrate
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
amylose DP440 and amylose DP17
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble substrate, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-linkages
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
145% activity compared to starch, the enzyme activity on the amylose as substrate is 1.98times greater than amylopectin
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus mojavensis A21
-
78% activity compared to potato starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate for AmyC, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
small amount of longer maltodextrins, degradation process via malto-oligosaccharides
-
?
amylose + H2O
oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
P04063
amylose DP17, preferred substrate of mutant enzyme T212Y
-
-
?
amylose DP440 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P00693
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
insight into the action of alpha-amylase at the molecular level
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.7% relative activity compared to amylose as substrate, pH 8.0. 65C
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pichia burtonii 15-1
-
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KZ
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
27% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
beta-cyclodextrin + H2O
panose + maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
beta-limit dextrin + H2O
fragments of beta-limit dextrin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
beta-limit-dextrin + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
28% of the activity with amylose, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
small amount of longer maltodextrins, degradation process via malto-oligosaccharides
-
?
cassava starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp., Geobacillus sp. IIPTN
-
129% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
corn flour + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp., Geobacillus sp. IIPTN
-
58% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
62% relative enzyme activity compared to reaction with soluble starch as substrate, pH 5.0, 50C
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
107% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
boiled starch
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
107% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
64% activity compared to potato starch
major end-products of starch hydrolysis
-
?
cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cyclodextrin + H2O
panose + maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
cyclomaltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp. MS1
-
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
fragments of dextrin
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus manihotivorans, Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010
-
7% of activity with starch
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
27% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus solfataricus 2
-
catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch, dextrin, and alpha-cyclodextrin with similar efficiencies
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
67% activity compared to corn starch
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
lower activity with isozyme AI-2, no activity with isozymes AI-1 and AII
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
21% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
2.6% relative activity compared to amylose as substrate, pH 8.0. 65C
-
-
?
gamma-cyclodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gelatinized starch + H2O
maltotetraose + maltopentaose + maltohexaose
show the reaction diagram
-
isozyme RBLA prefers gelatinized starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
glycogen from Ascaris suum, intestine and muscle alpha-amylase, glycogen from rabbit or Ascaris suum, intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII, good substrate
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
104% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
3.6% of the activity with potato starch, AmyD
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6WUB6
32% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
16.7% relative activity compared to amylose as substrate, pH 8.0. 65C
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
liquefying enzyme. The main products of polysaccharide hydrolysis are G2 to G7. A small amount of G1 is formed after long hydrolysis periods. The enzyme A hydrolyzes long-chain oligosaccharides faster than shorter chain oligosaccharides
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
fragments of glycogen
show the reaction diagram
-
29% of activity with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
fragments of glycogen
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus manihotivorans, Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010
-
7% of activity with starch
-
-
-
glycogen + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
69% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
from bovine muscle, 58% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate from oyster
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
81% activity compared to corn starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
14% activity compared to starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
49.5% of the activity with starch
main product
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
O33476
-
major products
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
main products
-
?
glycogen + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Pyrococcus sp. KOD1
O33476
-
major products
-
?
glycogen starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
insoluble Blue Starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 5.5, 37C
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
23% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
laminarin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
lower activity with isozyme AI-1, low activity with isozymes AI-2 and AII
-
-
?
malto-oligosaccharides + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
maltodextran + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
O08452
-
-
-
?
maltodextran + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
maltodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
O08452
white dextrin
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
60% of the activity with amylose
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Ruminobacter amylophilus 70
-
60% of the activity with amylose
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
100% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltodextrin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
85% activity compared to starch
-
-
?
maltodextrin G5 + H2O
maltodextrin G2 + maltodextrin G3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin G6 + H2O
maltodextrin G2 + maltodextrin G4
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin G6 + H2O
maltodextrin G3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltodextrin G7 + H2O
maltodextrin G3 + maltodextrin G4
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus mojavensis, Bacillus mojavensis A21
-
95% activity compared to potato starch
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KZ
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
43% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P04745
all mutants possess the ability to hydrolyze heptasaccharide substrates and generate a similar product profile like the wild-type enzyme. The three mutants W203A, W284A, HSAmy-ar generate less products. They require higher enzyme concentration (600 nM vs. 60 nM for HSAmy and the other mutants) and more time (5 min vs. 2 min) 25C, pH 6.9
-
-
?
maltohexaitol + H2O
maltotriose + maltotriitol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
58% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
maltopentaose + maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
45% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
3 maltose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltooctaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q2QC88, -
the enzyme shows a liquefying activity, hydrolyzing maltooligosaccharides, amylopectin, and starch to produce mainly maltose (G2) to maltoheptaose (G7)
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharides + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
11% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltooligosaccharides + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-amylase activity
main products
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII, low activity
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pichia burtonii 15-1
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
26% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
malto-oligomers + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-, preferred substrate
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotetraose + maltotriose + maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltopentaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P04745
all mutants possess the ability to hydrolyze pentasaccharide substrates and generate a similar product profile like the wild-type enzyme. The three mutants W203A, W284A, HSAmy-ar generate less products. They require higher enzyme concentration (600 nM vs. 60 nM for HSAmy and the other mutants) and more time (5 min vs. 2 min) 25C, pH 6.9
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
weak activity
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
18% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
maltose + H2O
D-glucose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltosyl fluoride + H2O
maltose + fluoride
show the reaction diagram
P04746
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII, low activity
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pichia burtonii 15-1
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 610
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
2 maltose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
46% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose
maltose + glucose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose + maltohexaose
show the reaction diagram
-
the final optimum also mirrors the reverse reaction
-
r
maltotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
lower activity with isozyme AII, no activity with isozymes AI-1 and AI-2
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas sp. MS1
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
oyster glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + maltose
show the reaction diagram
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius A-2
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a maximum of substrate cleavage was identified at 152 MPa and 64C, yielding approximately 25% higher substrate conversion after 30 min, as compared to the maximum at ambient pressure and 59C
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltopentaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate, good substrate
-
-
?
p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltri[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
intestine alpha-amylase
-
?
p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltri[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
muscle alpha-amylase
-
?
p-nitrophenylhexa[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrophenylhexa[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenol + p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltri[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltetra[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
?
p-nitrophenylhexa[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
predominant product, no p-nitrophenol detected
-
?
p-nitrophenylhexa[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + H2O
p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyldi[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltri[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside + p-nitrophenyltetra[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
muscle alpha-amylase
-
?
p-nitrophenylpenta[alpha-D-glucopyranosyl(1-4)]-alpha-D-galactopyranoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
potato soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp., Geobacillus sp. IIPTN
-
100% activity
-
-
?
potato starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
potato starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
95% relative enzyme activity compared to reaction with soluble starch as substrate, pH 5.0, 50C
-
-
?
potato starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
potato starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch has low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI (12% activity compared to corn starch)
-
-
?
potato starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
potato starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
major end-products of starch hydrolysis
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q8A1G3
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
41.1% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
2.5% relative activity compared to amylose as substrate, pH 8.0. 65C
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pichia burtonii 15-1
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KZ
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP54
-
41.1% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
Thermomonospora viridis
-
-
-
-
-
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme can attack some of the (1, 6)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkages in partial hydrolyzates of pullulan
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoanaerobacter thermohydrosulfuricus E 101-69
-
-
-
-
-
pullulan + H2O
panose
show the reaction diagram
Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47
-
-
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
main products
-
?
pullulan + H2O
panose + maltoheptaose
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity
-
-
?
rabbit glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
-
-
?
raw sago starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q1KLC8
high level of activity
-
-
?
raw sago starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
high level of activity
-
-
?
raw sago starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermobifida fusca NTU22
Q1KLC8
high level of activity
-
-
?
raw sago starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermobifida fusca NTU22
-
high level of activity
-
-
?
raw starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
raw starch from corn, 20% of activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
raw starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes RBSA-1 and BSA-2, raw starch from corn and potato, the latter is preferred
-
-
?
raw starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
raw starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the fungal enzyme shows high activity on raw starch
-
-
?
raw starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
the recombinant enzyme shows low degradation of raw starch in a concentration-dependent manner
-
-
?
raw starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Remazol Brilliant Blue dyed starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
B8Y698, -
-
-
-
?
Remazol Brilliant Blue-dyed starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
B8Y698, -
-
-
-
?
rice starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
43% relative enzyme activity compared to reaction with soluble starch as substrate, pH 5.0, 50C
-
-
?
rice starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
boiled starch
-
-
?
soluble potato starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
major products of the enzymatic reaction with starch as substrate
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q6WUB6
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
D4P4Y7
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
97.5% hydrolysis of soluble starch by soluble enzyme, 92.2% hydrolysis of soluble starch by the enzyme immobilized in calcium alginate breads
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-amylase PA
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Fusicoccum sp.
-
maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose are the major products from starch hydrolysis but prolonged reaction leads to the production of glucose, maltose, and maltotriose
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 5.0, 95C
varying amounts of maltooligosaccharides, depending on reaction time
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
liquefying enzyme. The main products of polysaccharide hydrolysis are G2 to G7. A small amount of G1 is formed after long hydrolysis periods. The enzyme A hydrolyzes long-chain oligosaccharides faster than shorter chain oligosaccharides
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose are the major products from starch hydrolysis but prolonged reaction leads to the production of glucose, maltose, and maltotriose
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus licheniformis IFO12196
-
alpha-amylase PA
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus stearothermophilus JT2
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus halodurans 38C-2-1
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP54
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 5.0, 95C
varying amounts of maltooligosaccharides, depending on reaction time
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus subtilis KCC103
-
endolytic activity. Small maltooligosaccharides (D2-D4) are formed more predominantly than larger maltooligosaccharides (D5-D7)
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
Morimus funereus
-
maximal activity is achieved with horse-radish starch, undetectable activity towards potato starch
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
alpha-maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus subtilis BF768
B8Y1H0
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis IBB500
-
-
products of amylolytic attack are mixed oligosaccharides including mainly maltose and maltotriose
-
?
starch + butanol
butylglucoside + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P96107
-
butylglucoside: wild-type ca. 4.5 mg/ml, mutant H222Q ca. 6.5 mg/ml, mutant H222E ca. 3.5 mg/ml, mutant H222D ca. 5.5 mg/mk, identified and analyzed by thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P06278
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q4J9M2, -
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch, best substrate for isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
salivary alpha-amylase digests a portion of ingested starch in the stomach before it enters the intestine and is exposed to pancreatic amylase. A role of salivary alpha-amylase is bacterial clearance from the mouth and prevention of bacterial attachment to oral surfaces
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8LJQ6
endoglycolytic activity
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
rice starch, starch of pearl millet, corn starch, potato starch, wheat starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
strong digesting ability towards various raw starches. The degradation rates of corn, wheat and potato starch granules at 1% concentration are 57.5%, 53%, 45.1% at 8 h and 63.2%, 56.4%, 48.6% at 12 h, respectively. Efficiently hydrolyzes raw corn starch at a concentration of 20% and pH 5.0
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the optimum starch concentration for the enzyme production is 32 g/l. Higher concentrations show substrate inhibition
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
P04745
25C, pH 6.9
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
50C, pH 6.0 or 9.0
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
inhibition studies using extract of different medicinal plants, pH 6.9
absorbance of reaction products are measured at 540 nm
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 5.5, 55C
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B6RB08, -
pH 6.5, 50C
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch, pH 6.0, room temperature
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch as substrate
the liberated reducing sugars are determined using dinitrosalicylic acid reagent
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch as substrate, pH 5.0, 50C, 100% relative enzyme activity
the liberated reducing sugars (glucose equivalents) are estimated by the dinitrosalicylic acid method
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch, 2000000 Dalton, only soluble at temperatures close to 100C, in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, assay at 37C
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch, 93.9% relative activity compared to amylose as substrate, pH 8.0, 65C
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch, dextrin, and alpha-cyclodextrin with similar efficiencies
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q2QC88, -
the enzyme shows a liquefying activity, hydrolyzing maltooligosaccharides, amylopectin, and starch to produce mainly maltose (G2) to maltoheptaose (G7)
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q4J9M2
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Sulfolobus solfataricus 2
-
catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch, dextrin, and alpha-cyclodextrin with similar efficiencies
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. YX-1
-
strong digesting ability towards various raw starches. The degradation rates of corn, wheat and potato starch granules at 1% concentration are 57.5%, 53%, 45.1% at 8 h and 63.2%, 56.4%, 48.6% at 12 h, respectively. Efficiently hydrolyzes raw corn starch at a concentration of 20% and pH 5.0
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus licheniformis NA-14
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus licheniformis CICC 10181
P06278
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP54
-
rice starch, starch of pearl millet, corn starch, potato starch, wheat starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltohexaose
show the reaction diagram
P06279
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
main product
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
AmyD produces mainly maltotriose
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
high enzyme production during stationary phase of growth, lack of catabolite repression
-
-
-
starch + H2O
glucooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Thermomonospora vulgaris
-
enzyme production is induced by 2% starch or solid CaCO3
-
-
-
starch + H2O
glucooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera ST 2
-
high enzyme production during stationary phase of growth, lack of catabolite repression
-
-
-
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
Gracilibacillus dipsosauri, Gracilibacillus dipsosauri DD1
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. ANT-6
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-, soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-amylase activity, preferred substrate, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
A8VWC5
synthesis of alpha-amylase not catabolite-repressed by glucose in strain KCC103, difference to other Bacillus species, endolytic activity by forming maltooligosaccharides on hydrolysis of soluble starch, similar product profiles at pH 4 and pH 7, rather small maltooligosaccharides (D2D4) than larger maltooligosaccharides (D5D7) formed, proportional levels of sugars produced after 24 h hydrolysis of soluble starch indicated
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis KCC103
A8VWC5
synthesis of alpha-amylase not catabolite-repressed by glucose in strain KCC103, difference to other Bacillus species, endolytic activity by forming maltooligosaccharides on hydrolysis of soluble starch, similar product profiles at pH 4 and pH 7, rather small maltooligosaccharides (D2D4) than larger maltooligosaccharides (D5D7) formed, proportional levels of sugars produced after 24 h hydrolysis of soluble starch indicated
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
O33476
-
major products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
main products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch
major products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 6.5, 37C
the main products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Pyrococcus sp. KOD1
O33476
-
major products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS 131
-
pH 6.5, 37C
the main products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltohexaose + maltoheptaose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
first two are major products, maltohexose and maltose are intermediate products, maltotriose and maltohexaose are major products, maltoheptaose and maltose are intermediate products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-, potato starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
alpha-D-glucose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
P96107
pH 7.0, 85C
wild-type (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 22 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 5.5 mg/ml), mutants: W177V (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 20 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 5 mg/ml), Y178V (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 19 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 4 mg/ml), and F179V (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 17.5 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 7 mg/ml), almost no maltotriose as product for all variants, identified and analyzed by thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucooligomer
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
D-glucose disaccharides + D-glucose trisaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
degradation of raw starch, isozyme Amyl III, degradation of raw and cooked starch granules by raw-starch-digesting alpha-amylase, Amyl III, starch of wheat bran, and and corn, microscopy of untreated granules and partially degraded granules, overview
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose disaccharides + D-glucose trisaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
degradation of raw starch, isozyme Amyl III, degradation of raw and cooked starch granules by raw-starch-digesting alpha-amylase, Amyl III, starch of wheat bran, and and corn, microscopy of untreated granules and partially degraded granules, overview
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
A7U965
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
P00692
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
P17654
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
ir
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
raw starch from corn and potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
maltoheptaose is observed as a predominant product. When further hydrolysis is performed, glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose and maltohexaose appear. Glucose and maltose are produced after 2 h of incubation, and after 24 h, the main products are maltotriose, maltose and glucose
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
gelatinized starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
raw starch from corn and potato, the latter is preferred
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
starch granules, high affinity for the substrate is mediated by the enzyme's separate starch binding domain, SBD
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
the alpha-amylase from the resistant no-cost strain exhibits higher activity towards starch compared to the resistant cost strain
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis DM-03
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium WHO
A7U965
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus amylovorus KCTC 3597
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus thermodenitrificans HRO10
-
soluble starch from potato
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MTCC 610
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CICIM B2125
P00692
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
raw starch from corn and soluble starch, endo mode of action
25% maltose, 75% glucose
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis AX20
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis AX20
-
raw starch from corn and soluble starch, endo mode of action
25% maltose, 75% glucose
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltodextrins
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch, 68% of the activity with amylose, hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages
small amount of longer maltodextrins, degradation process via malto-oligosaccharides
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + malto-oligosaccharides + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
trace amounts of D-glucose
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
alpha-amylase activity, preferred substrate
main products
-
?
starch + H2O
oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
P04063
insoluble blue starch, preferred substrate of mutant enzyme Y105A
-
-
?
starch + H2O
dextrin
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus subtilis WB600
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
alpha-D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
P96107
pH 7.0, 85C
mutants: H222Q (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 21 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 5 mg/ml, maltotriose: ca. 2.5 mg/ml), H222D (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 21 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 8 mg/ml, maltotriose: ca. 2.5 mg/ml), H222E (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 13 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 8 mg/ml, maltotriose: ca. 2.0 mg/ml), and V259W (alpha-D-glucose: ca. 16 mg/ml, maltose: ca. 8 mg/ml, maltotriose: ca. 2.5 mg/ml), identified and analyzed by thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose + maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
various sources of starch are tested, japonica rice as control with 100% relative activity, India rice: 294% and 508% relative activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively, corn: 10.7% and 2.8% relative activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively, wheat: 27.1% and 47.5% relative activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively, potato: 10.6% and 4.47% relative activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively, sweet potato: 13.5% and 1.88% relative activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively, cassava: 1.22% relative activity for Amy II
reactions product identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + glucose + maltose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 4, 55C, various starches are tested: soluble potato starch as reference 100% relative activity, gelatinized amylose: 74%, potato native starch: 0.2%, potato gelatinized starch: 106%, maize native starch: 0.8%, maize gelatinized starch: 53%, rice native starch: 0.5%, and rice gelatinized starch: 52%
identified by thin-layer-chromatography, maltotriose represents 70% of the end products, only traces of glucose, small amounts of maltose and maltotetraose
-
?
starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
major end products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
active on wheat starch, corn starch, potato starch, the latter is the best starch substrate
major end products, see also EC 3.2.1.116
-
?
starch + methanol
methylglucoside + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
P96107
-
methylglucoside: wild-type ca. 7.5 mg/ml, mutant H222Q ca. 13 mg/ml, mutant H222E ca. 11 mg/ml, mutant H222D ca. 11 mg/mk, identified and analyzed by thin-layer-chromatography and HPLC
-
?
sweet sorghum starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
62% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
tapioca root starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
88% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
wheat starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
56.5% relative enzyme activity compared to reaction with soluble starch as substrate, pH 5.0, 50C
-
-
?
wheat starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
78% activity compared to potato starch
major end-products of starch hydrolysis
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus thermoleovorans NP54
-
66.1% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
O08452
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
predominant initial products are: maltose, maltotriose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltotriose
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
92% of the activity with amylose
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
95% of the activity obtained with starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
-
94% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
Pseudomonas sp. MS1
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
Clostridium butyricum T-7
-
94% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius A-2
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
Ruminobacter amylophilus 70
-
92% of the activity with amylose
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. IMD 434
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus halodurans 38C-2-1
-
30% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
O08452
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
glucose + maltose
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
predominant initial products are: maltose, maltotriose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
short chain, DP 17
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
short chain, DP 17
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
short chain, DP 17
yield of maltotriose is 69%
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
34% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
short chain amylose
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
-
65% of the activity obtained with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
Pseudomonas sp. MS1
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
Clostridium butyricum T-7
-
34% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
Ruminobacter amylophilus 70
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. IMD 434
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus halodurans 38C-2-1
-
104% of the activity with soluble starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltotriose
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
immediate products are maltohexaose and maltoheptaose
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
weak activity
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
68% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
65% of the activity obtained with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
-
86% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
Clostridium butyricum T-7
-
86% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius A-2
-
68% of the activity with starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. IMD 434
-
-
-
-
?
isopanose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
cyclomaltodextrinase activity, hydrolysis of alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages
-
-
?
isopanose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
glucose + maltose + isomaltose
?
isopanose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
at low substrate concentratins, 0.5%, equimolar maltose and glucose are produced, at high substrate concentrations, 4.0%, a small amount of isomaltoside + glucose + maltose is produced. The enzyme can hydrolyze alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkage as well as alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkage
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltotriose + maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
identified by thin-layer-chromatography
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltotetraose + maltotriose
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltotetraose + maltotriose
?
maltohexaose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Pichia burtonii 15-1
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
additional information
-
Fusidium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltose + maltotetraose or maltotriose
?
maltohexaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
glucose + maltopentaose
?
maltohexaose + H2O
additional information
-
Fusidium sp. BX-1
-
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
additional information
-
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltotriose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
major products
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
Fusidium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltose + maltotriose
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
glucose + maltose + maltotriose + a slight amount of maltotetraose
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
-
no activity
-
-
-
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
Fusidium sp. BX-1
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
additional information
-
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
2 maltose
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
Fusidium sp.
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
glucose + maltose + maltotriose
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltose + maltose
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltose + maltose
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltose with some glucose and maltotriose
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
-
no activity
-
-
-
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
Fusidium sp. BX-1
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
additional information
-
Ruminobacter amylophilus 70
-
-
maltose + maltose
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
6% of activity with potato starch
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
D4P4Y7
substrate specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with pullulan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
chimeric enzyme engineered from two rice alpha-amylases isoenzymes, Amy1A and Amy3D. Amy1 shows high activity in soluble-starch hydrolysis and low activity in oligosaccharide degradation, while Amy3D shows low activity in soluble-starch hydrolysis and high activity in oligosaccharide degradation. The chimeric enzyme shows high activities in both soluble-starch hydrolysis and oligosaccharide degradation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
action pattern on maltooligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AmyH might be a substrate of the Twin-ariginine translocase Tat pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q75UG5
the crustacean cardioactive peptide isolated from midgut and central nervous system of cockroaches exhibits alpha-amylase activity in the midgut and might be involved in digestion of carbohydrate in a paracrine manner, CCAP also shows myotropic activity and might also be involved in stimulation of midgut contraction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the digestive endo-type enzyme plays an essential role in the carbohydrate metabolism and energy production of the insect, Zabrotes subfasciatus is able to infest stored beans of Phaseolus vulgaris causing severe crop losses in Latin America and Africa
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
adsorption to and hydrolysis of raw starch from corn and potato, effect on isozymes, overview, isozyme RBLA is a liquifying alpha-amylase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
adsorption to and hydrolysis of raw starch from corn and potato, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
hydrolysis of alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages, glycogen and beta-cyclodextrin are poor substrates for AmyC, no activity with pullulan and maltose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme substrate specificity, no activity of all isozymes with pullulan, alpha-cyclodextrin, and beta-cyclodextrin, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with maltodextrins of G2-G4
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P04063
substrate specificities of wild-type and mutant enzymes, oligosaccharide action patterns of mutant enzymes, overview, Tyr105 and Thr212 at outermost substrate binding subsites -6 and +4 control substrate specificity, oligosaccharide cleavage patterns, and multiple binding modes of alpha-amylase 1, modelling of oligosaccharide substrate docking at the substrate binding area
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of the bifunctional enzyme, the enzyme hydrolyzes alpha-1,4-glucosidic linkages and alpha-1,6-glucosidic linkages, and performs transglycosylation reactions, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity, hydrolytic pattern, PFTA is a bifunctional enzyme showing alpha-amylase as well as cyclodextrin-hydrolyzing activity, but no transglycosylation activity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is a maltohexaose-producing alpha-amylase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key enzyme in digestive system
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no hydrolytic activity towards pullulan or dextran
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q6WUB6
the enzyme has some glycosyl transferase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Fusicoccum sp.
-
trace activity towards alpha-cyclodextrin, no hydrolysis of pullulan, no hydrolysis of maltose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
alpha-Amylase production is highly dependent on starch availability and is supressed in the presence of glucose or other reducing sugars whereas the transformed Xanthomonas expressing the hyperthermophilic alpha-amylase from Pyrococcus woesei produces similar levels of recombinant alpha-amylase activity, regardless of the carbon source present in growth medium
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
maltose is not hydrolyzed by the alpha-amylase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity detected using cassava starch as substrate for Amy I
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
ScAmy43 does not hydrolyze native starches
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
alpha-amylase hydrolyzes beta-cyclodextrin with difficulty, and fails to hydrolyze gamma-cyclodextrin to any appreciable extent
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B5ARZ9, -
AmyB enzymatic activity is negligible when acarbose, a maltotetraose is present, indicating that AmyB cleaves maltose units from the nonreducing end of maltooligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
does not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B1VK33
high-molecular-mass compounds containing alpha-1,4 linkages are the best substrates for the enzyme. After 5 min reaction, no hydrolytic activity can be detected using maltose, xylan, pullulan or alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins as substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B5ARZ9, -
inability to hydrolyze pullulan and beta-cyclodextrin with less than 10% of the specific activity of starch
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
does not hydrolyze alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity towards maltohexaose, maltopentaose, and maltotetraose, BMA.2 is active on potato starch, wheat starch, corn starch, amylose, amylopectin, and maltoheptaose, highest activity on amylose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
soybean alpha-amylase shows high specificity for its primary substrate starch, followed by amylopectin and dextrin (III), lower activity with amylopectin, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
activity of Amy1 towards soluble starch, glycogen, amylopectin, amylose in descending order
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8A1G3
maltooligosaccharide bind to the carbohydrate-binding domain, CBM58, of SusG. SusG is flexible in its carbohydrate selectivity because it binds to and degrades pullulan, amylopectin, and amylose. It shows low activity on alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
does not hydrolyze pullulan, cyclodextrins, sucrose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O33476
very weakly hydrolyzes pullulan to form panose or isopanose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q2QC88, -
no hydrolysis of pullulan and cyclodextrin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
trace activity towards alpha-cyclodextrin, no hydrolysis of pullulan, no hydrolysis of maltose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Pyrococcus sp. KOD1
O33476
very weakly hydrolyzes pullulan to form panose or isopanose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
AmyB enzymatic activity is negligible when acarbose, a maltotetraose is present, indicating that AmyB cleaves maltose units from the nonreducing end of maltooligosaccharides, inability to hydrolyze pullulan and beta-cyclodextrin with less than 10% of the specific activity of starch
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus mojavensis A21
-
no activity towards maltohexaose, maltopentaose, and maltotetraose, BMA.2 is active on potato starch, wheat starch, corn starch, amylose, amylopectin, and maltoheptaose, highest activity on amylose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera KZ
D4P4Y7
substrate specificity, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Streptomyces gulbargensis DAS 131
-
maltose is not hydrolyzed by the alpha-amylase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Bacillus halodurans 38C-2-1
-
no hydrolytic activity towards pullulan or dextran
-
-
-
starch + H2O
maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 8.0, 100C
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltotriose + maltose, glucose is also formed
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
major products are maltotriose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
major products are maltotriose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
major products are maltotriose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
main products are maltose, maltotriose, and higher dextrins
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Gammarus palustris
-
-
predominant formation of maltotriose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
main products of the 6 h reaction and the 18 h reaction are glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetraose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
glucose + maltose + maltotriose and maltotetraose are the principal products
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
production of high levels of maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltose + higher oligomers of glucose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltotetraose + maltopentaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltotetraose + maltopentaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltotetraose + maltopentaose are the main products
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
one enzyme form produces maltose and maltohexaose, another form produces exclusively maltopentaose from polysaccharide substrates
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose and low levels of glucose, maltose and maltotetraose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltose and traces of maltotriose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
-
maltohexaose is the main product
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
O08452
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
products in the late stage of reaction: maltose + maltotriose with less amounts of maltotetraose and maltopentaose and traces of glucose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
major products are maltotriose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltotetraose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
after 15 min: formation of maltodextrins, after 60 min: formation of glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltohexaose + maltoheptaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
enzyme form Amyl I hydrolyzes waxy maize starch to produce mainly maltose, maltotriose, and some maltooligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization, the enzyme forms Amyl II and Amyl III produce maltose and some maltooligosaccharides of higher molecular weight than maltotetraose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Fusidium sp.
-
soluble starch
main products are maltose and maltotriose, minor products are maltotetraose and maltopentaose in the early stage of reaction. Small amounts of glucose are detected after 24 h
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
the major products are maltotriose + maltopentaose
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
after 24 h: 6.1% glucose, 18.0% maltose, 21.0% maltotriose, 1.3% maltotetraose, 1.3% maltopentaose and 1.1% maltohexaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
main products in the early stage of hydrolysis are maltopentaose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose, on further incubation maltotriose and maltopentaose increase while maltohexaose, maltoheptaose and maltooctaose decrease
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
initially produces large amounts of maltose and maltotriose. Gradually as the amount of maltotriose decreases the amounts of glucose and maltose increase
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
major products: maltotriose + maltopentaose + maltohexaose + maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
mainly glucose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
soluble starch
mainly glucose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
raw starches
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
digestion of raw potato starch is almost as far as that of corn starch
glucose + maltose + small amounts of maltooligosaccharides ranging from maltotriose to maltoheptaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
rice starch, yam starch, cassava starch
mainly glucose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
sweet potato starch
glucose + maltose + small amounts of maltooligosaccharides ranging from maltotriose to maltoheptaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
plantain starch, sorghum starch, cocyam starch
mainly glucose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
corn starch
glucose + maltose + small amounts of maltooligosaccharides ranging from maltotriose to maltoheptaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
corn starch
after 24 h: 6.1% glucose, 18.0% maltose, 21.0% maltotriose, 1.3% maltotetraose, 1.3% maltopentaose and 1.1% maltohexaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
corn starch
mainly glucose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
waxy corn starch
glucose + maltose + small amounts of maltooligosaccharides ranging from maltotriose to maltoheptaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
waxy corn starch
enzyme form Amyl I hydrolyzes waxy maize starch to produce mainly maltose, maltotriose, and some maltooligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization, the enzyme forms Amyl II and Amyl III produce maltose and some maltooligosaccharides of higher molecular weight than maltotetraose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
insoluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
-
wheat starch
glucose + maltose + small amounts of maltooligosaccharides ranging from maltotriose to maltoheptaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
soluble starch
main products in the early stage of hydrolysis are maltopentaose, maltohexaose and maltoheptaose, on further incubation maltotriose and maltopentaose increase while maltohexaose, maltoheptaose and maltooctaose decrease, major products: maltotriose + maltopentaose + maltohexaose + maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. KSM-1378
-
soluble starch
the major products are maltotriose + maltopentaose
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Pseudomonas sp. MS1
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus licheniformis TCRDC-B13
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus licheniformis CCM 2145
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. A-40-2
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Clostridium butyricum T-7
-
-
major products are maltotriose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius A-2
-
soluble starch, corn starch
after 24 h: 6.1% glucose, 18.0% maltose, 21.0% maltotriose, 1.3% maltotetraose, 1.3% maltopentaose and 1.1% maltohexaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Fusidium sp. BX-1
-
soluble starch
main products are maltose and maltotriose, minor products are maltotetraose and maltopentaose in the early stage of reaction. Small amounts of glucose are detected after 24 h
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera ST 2
-
soluble starch
glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltotetraose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacteria SS71
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Thermoactinomyces sp. No. 15
-
soluble starch, rice starch, yam starch, cassava starch, plantain starch
mainly glucose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Talaromyces emersonii CBS 814.70
-
-
maltose + higher oligomers of glucose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus subtilis 65
-
digestion of raw potato starch is almost as far as that of corn starch, sweet potato starch, corn starch, waxy corn starch, wheat starch
glucose + maltose + small amounts of maltooligosaccharides ranging from maltotriose to maltoheptaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius Agnano
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. 11-1S
-
soluble starch
major products are maltotriose and maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
soluble starch, waxy corn starch
enzyme form Amyl I hydrolyzes waxy maize starch to produce mainly maltose, maltotriose, and some maltooligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization, the enzyme forms Amyl II and Amyl III produce maltose and some maltooligosaccharides of higher molecular weight than maltotetraose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus licheniformis 44MB82
-
soluble starch
after 15 min: formation of maltodextrins, after 60 min: formation of glucose + maltose + maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltohexaose + maltoheptaose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Geobacillus stearothermophilus CCM 2183
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Ruminobacter amylophilus 70
-
soluble starch
products in the late stage of reaction: maltose + maltotriose with less amounts of maltotetraose and maltopentaose and traces of glucose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius 104-1A
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus subtilis DP 1
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Streptomyces megasporus SD12
-
-
major products are maltotriose and maltose, maltose and traces of maltotriose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Thermomyces lanuginosus IISc91
-
-
production of high levels of maltose
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305
-
soluble starch
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Corallococcus coralloides D
-
-
-
-
-
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus coagulans CUMC512
-
-
glucose + maltose + maltotriose and maltotetraose are the principal products
?
starch + H2O
additional information
-
Bacillus sp. IMD 434
-
soluble starch
initially produces large amounts of maltose and maltotriose. Gradually as the amount of maltotriose decreases the amounts of glucose and maltose increase, mainly glucose and maltose
?
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 starch + H2O
2 malto-oligosaccharides + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltotrioside + H2O
2-chloro-4-nitrophenol + alpha-D-maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3 glycogen
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
approx. 10% of activity with starch
-
-
?
3 starch + 2 H2O
3 malto-oligosaccharides + D-glucose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl alpha-D-maltohexaoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
4-nitrophenyl maltoheptaoside + H2O
4-nitrophenol + maltoheptaoside
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
-
-
?
alpha-1,4-glucan + H2O
fragments of alpha-1,4-glucan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylase + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q8A1G3
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
86% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
73% activity compared to corn starch
-
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
86% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q8A1G3
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
fragments of amylose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
approx. 10% of activity with starch
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
amylose + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble substrate
-
-
?
cassava starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp., Geobacillus sp. IIPTN
-
129% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
corn flour + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp., Geobacillus sp. IIPTN
-
58% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
107% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity
-
-
?
corn starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
107% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
-
-
?
dextrin + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
67% activity compared to corn starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
glycogen from Ascaris suum, intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
81% activity compared to corn starch
-
-
?
glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
-
-
-
?
maltoheptaose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltohexaose + H2O
3 maltose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
malto-oligomers + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltopentaose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
2 maltose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
maltotetraose + H2O
2 maltose
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
-
-
-
?
oyster glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
-
-
?
potato soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp., Geobacillus sp. IIPTN
-
100% activity
-
-
?
potato starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch has low affinity toward alpha-amylase AI (12% activity compared to corn starch)
-
-
?
pullulan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q8A1G3
-
-
-
?
rabbit glycogen + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
-
-
?
Remazol Brilliant Blue dyed starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
B8Y698, -
-
-
-
?
Remazol Brilliant Blue-dyed starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
B8Y698, -
-
-
-
?
soluble potato starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltose + maltotetraose
show the reaction diagram
B1VK33
-
major products of the enzymatic reaction with starch as substrate
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
B8Y1H0
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
-
-
-
?
soluble starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis BF768
B8Y1H0
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
intestine and muscle alpha-amylase
-
-
?
starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
salivary alpha-amylase digests a portion of ingested starch in the stomach before it enters the intestine and is exposed to pancreatic amylase. A role of salivary alpha-amylase is bacterial clearance from the mouth and prevention of bacterial attachment to oral surfaces
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
-
high enzyme production during stationary phase of growth, lack of catabolite repression
-
-
-
starch + H2O
glucooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Thermomonospora vulgaris
-
enzyme production is induced by 2% starch or solid CaCO3
-
-
-
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
A8VWC5
synthesis of alpha-amylase not catabolite-repressed by glucose in strain KCC103, difference to other Bacillus species
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
potato starch
major products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltohexaose + maltoheptaose + maltose
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
first two are major products, maltohexose and maltose are intermediate products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltotriose + maltotetraose + maltopentaose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
D-glucose disaccharides + D-glucose trisaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
degradation of raw starch, isozyme Amyl III
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
P00692
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
P17654
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
-
the alpha-amylase from the resistant no-cost strain exhibits higher activity towards starch compared to the resistant cost strain
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltohexaose + maltopentaose + maltotriose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
major end products
-
?
starch + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis AX20
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
Gracilibacillus dipsosauri DD1
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus sp. ANT-6
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis DM-03
-
soluble starch
-
-
?
starch + H2O
maltooligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus subtilis KCC103
A8VWC5
synthesis of alpha-amylase not catabolite-repressed by glucose in strain KCC103, difference to other Bacillus species
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
glucooligosaccharide
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomycopsis fibuligera ST 2
-
high enzyme production during stationary phase of growth, lack of catabolite repression
-
-
-
starch + H2O
D-glucose disaccharides + D-glucose trisaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus awamori KT-11
-
degradation of raw starch, isozyme Amyl III
-
-
?
starch + H2O
fragments of starch
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus manihotivorans LMG 18010
-
-
-
-
?
starch + H2O
malto-oligosaccharides
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CICIM B2125
P00692
-
-
-
?
sweet sorghum starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
62% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
tapioca root starch + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Geobacillus sp.
-
88% activity compared to potato soluble starch
-
-
?
maltotriose + H2O
maltose + D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
B5ARZ9, -
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
AmyH might be a substrate of the Twin-ariginine translocase Tat pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q75UG5
the crustacean cardioactive peptide isolated from midgut and central nervous system of cockroaches exhibits alpha-amylase activity in the midgut and might be involved in digestion of carbohydrate in a paracrine manner, CCAP also shows myotropic activity and might also be involved in stimulation of midgut contraction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the digestive endo-type enzyme plays an essential role in the carbohydrate metabolism and energy production of the insect, Zabrotes subfasciatus is able to infest stored beans of Phaseolus vulgaris causing severe crop losses in Latin America and Africa
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key enzyme in digestive system
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
alpha-Amylase production is highly dependent on starch availability and is supressed in the presence of glucose or other reducing sugars whereas the transformed Xanthomonas expressing the hyperthermophilic alpha-amylase from Pyrococcus woesei produces similar levels of recombinant alpha-amylase activity, regardless of the carbon source present in growth medium
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
alpha-amylase hydrolyzes beta-cyclodextrin with difficulty, and fails to hydrolyze gamma-cyclodextrin to any appreciable extent
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B5ARZ9, -
AmyB enzymatic activity is negligible when acarbose, a maltotetraose is present, indicating that AmyB cleaves maltose units from the nonreducing end of maltooligosaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
does not hydrolyze beta-cyclodextrin and dextran
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B1VK33
high-molecular-mass compounds containing alpha-1,4 linkages are the best substrates for the enzyme. After 5 min reaction, no hydrolytic activity can be detected using maltose, xylan, pullulan or alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrins as substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B5ARZ9, -
inability to hydrolyze pullulan and beta-cyclodextrin with less than 10% of the specific activity of starch
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
soybean alpha-amylase shows high specificity for its primary substrate starch, followed by amylopectin and dextrin (III), lower activity with amylopectin, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermotoga neapolitana 41025
B5ARZ9
AmyB enzymatic activity is negligible when acarbose, a maltotetraose is present, indicating that AmyB cleaves maltose units from the nonreducing end of maltooligosaccharides, inability to hydrolyze pullulan and beta-cyclodextrin with less than 10% of the specific activity of starch
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ag+
-
0.5 mM, enhances activity
Ag+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, slight activation for Amy I and Amy II
Ag2+
A8VWC5
activity inhibited
Al3+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 110% and 73% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Al3+
Geobacillus sp.
-
120% relative activity at 10 mM
Ba2+
-
stimulates
Ba2+
-
5 mM, slight activation
Ba2+
-
activation
Ba2+
-
activates
Ba2+
-
1 mM, 2.24fold activation
Ba2+
A8VWC5
measured activity about 8090%
Ba2+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 104% and 95% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Ba2+
-
35% increase of activity at 2 mM
Ba2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
163% relative activity at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 5.0
Ba2+
-
the activity is increased by approximately 15% by 1 mM Ba2+
Ca2+
-
required
Ca2+
-
5 mM, required for activation
Ca2+
-
required
Ca2+
-
40 mM calcium acetate, enhances activity of membrane-bound enzyme to 268% of control
Ca2+
-
5 mM, about 70% activation
Ca2+
-
the enzyme is Ca2+-protein. Removal of Ca2+ by dialysis against water causes irreversible inactivation of the enzyme
Ca2+
-
2-mercaptoethanol interfers with activation by Ca2+, glutathione enhances it
Ca2+
-
contains one gatom of Ca2+ per mol of enzyme
Ca2+
-
95% loss of activity after removal of Ca2+ by EDTA, addition of Ca2+ results in the recovery of 12% of the original activity, alpha-amylase III
Ca2+
-
catalytic and/or structure-stabilizing Ca2+ ions are tightly bound to the enzyme
Ca2+
-
optimal activation at 15 mM
Ca2+
-
stimulates
Ca2+
-
activation
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
activates, activity profile
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
stimulates
Ca2+
-
stabilizes the partially purified enzyme against thermal inactivation
Ca2+
-
increases the thermostability of the enzyme, two Ca2+ ions per enzyme molecule
Ca2+
-
increases the thermostability of the enzyme, four Ca2+ ions per enzyme molecule
Ca2+
-
increases the thermostability of the enzyme, five Ca2+ ions per enzyme molecule
Ca2+
-
increases the thermostability of the enzyme, three Ca2+ ions per enzyme molecule
Ca2+
-
increases the thermostability of the enzyme, one Ca2+ ion per enzyme molecule
Ca2+
-
stabilizes the enzyme
Ca2+
-
1 Ca2+ bound per enzyme molecule
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 1.35fold activation of wild-type enzyme, 1.24fold activation of mutant enzyme L134R/S320A
Ca2+
-
10 mM, 1.35fold activation
Ca2+
Fusicoccum sp.
-
2 mM, about 1.2fold activation
Ca2+
-
slightly improves enzymatic activity
Ca2+
A8VWC5
activity not significantly enhanced in presence of 1 mM CaCl2
Ca2+
-
enhances the enzyme activity with 5 mM Ca2+, 120% relative activity, and with 10 mM 96% relative activity, pH 5.0, 50C
Ca2+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 105% and 106% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 148% relative activity
Ca2+
-
AMY1 shows the highest activity at 5 mM calcium concentration and maintains its activity at a broad range from 0.1 to 10 mM of calcium ion. AMY2 shows the highest acitivity at 15-20 mM of calcium, compared with the lowest 20% of activity at 0.1 mM of calcium concentration, 37C, substrate insoluble blue starch. There is no significant difference in hydrolyzing activity on the soluble starch substrate between AMY1 and AMY2, with the increase of calcium concentration. The increase in calcium up to 50 mM causes the decrease by 0-30% in the activity of both AMYs
Ca2+
-
strictly dependent, retaining below 20% activity in the absence of CaCl2. The optimal concentration is ca. 0.2 mM
Ca2+
-
the activity of the alpha-amylase AI is increased 1.5fold in the presence of 4 mM Ca2+
Ca2+
-
Bacillus subtilis alpha-amylase requires roughly 4times more calcium for full activity than other alpha-amylases of nonbacterial nature
Ca2+
A7U965
in the presence of calcium, the affinity of the enzymes (wild type and mutants) toward starch is increased, the thermostability of the wild type and A53S mutant is calcium dependent at different temperatures, in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2 at 60C, the percentage of residual activity in both the wild type and A53S mutant changes after 30 min of incubation
Ca2+
B1VK33
calcium-dependent alpha-amylase, maximum activity at 2.5 mM CaCl2
Ca2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
180% relative activity at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 5.0
Ca2+
-
128% activity at 10 mM
Ca2+
-
197% relative activity at 20 mM Ca2+ for salivary gland alpha-amylase
Ca2+
P00692
the Ca2+-binding residue Asp233 affects significantly the alpha-amylase specific activity
Ca2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
200% relative activity at 10 mM
Ca2+
-
required
Ca2+
-
no effect on enzyme activity by Ca2+, but structural stabilization of the protein molecule by calcium ions
Ca2+
-
required
Ca2+
-
calcium stabilizes the conformation of alpha-amylase and also involved in substrate binding, but inhibits enzyme activity
Ca2+
Q8A1G3
2 ions per enzyme molecule
CaCl2
-
5 mM, slight activation
CaCl2
-
76% activation of isozyme alpha-amylase I at 1 mM
CaCl2
Morimus funereus
-
maximal activity at 0.1 mM, higher concentrations inhibit activity
CaCl2
-
incubated in different concentrations 0.5-100 mM at 25C overnight, with 10 mM EDTA, significant activation, with two apparent dissociation constants K1: 0.3 mM and K2: 5.4 mM
CaCl2
-
the reusability of the immobilized enzymes are similar in starch hydrolysis reaction medium containing either 5 mM or 0.25 mM CaCl2
CaCl2
B6RB08, -
2 mM, pH 6.5, 50C, 115% relative activity
CaCl2
-
5 mM, pH 4.0, 55C, 111% relative activity
Cd2+
-
activation
chloride
-
is a weak allosteric enzyme activator
Cl-
-
required
Cl-
-
10-100 mM, activates
Cl-
-
activates
Cl-
Gammarus palustris
-
activates isoenzyme IC and IW
Cl-
-
activation above 10 mM
Co2+
-
0.5 mM, enhances activity
Co2+
-
5 mM, about 70% activation
Co2+
-
activates
Co2+
-
slight activation of isozyme AI-2, slight inhibition of isozymes AI-1 and AII
Co2+
-
activates and enhances structural enzyme stability
Co2+
-
activation of isozyme BAA at 10 mM
Co2+
-
1 mM, 3.06fold activation
Co2+
-, Q6WUB6
5 mM, strong stimulation
Co2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
162% relative activity at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 5.0
Cr3+
Geobacillus sp.
-
140% relative activity at 10 mM
Cs+
-
1 mM, 1.13fold activation of wild-type enzyme
Cu2+
-
5 mM, slight activation
Cu2+
-
slightly improves enzymatic activity
Cu2+
A8VWC5
measured activity about 8090%
Cu2+
-
enhances the enzyme activity with 5 mM Cu2+, 120% relative activity, and with 10 mM 87% relative activity, pH 5.0, 50C
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 100% relative activity
CuCl
-
1 mM, 34% inhibition
EDTA
B6RB08, -
2 mM, pH 6.5, 50C, 40% relative activity
EDTA
-
112% relative activity at 2 mM EDTA for salivary gland alpha-amylase
F-
-
stimulates
Fe2+
-
0.5 mM, enhances activity
Fe2+
-
5 mM, slight activation
Fe2+
-
activates
Fe2+
-
activates
Fe2+
-
activates
Fe2+
-
1 mM, 2.72fold activation
Fe2+
-
the activity is increased by approximately 15% by 1 mM Fe2+
Fe3+
-
activates slightly
Fe3+
A8VWC5
activity about 120%
Fe3+
Geobacillus sp.
-
133% relative activity at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 5.0
Hg2+
A8VWC5
activity inhibited
HgCl2
-
1 mM, 13% inhibition
K+
-
5 mM, slight activation
K+
-
optimal activation at 10 mM
K+
-
slight activation of isozymes AI-1 and AII, slight inhibition of isozyme AI-2
K+
Geobacillus sp.
-
131% relative activity at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 5.0
K+
-
248% relative activity at 20 mM K+ for midgut alpha-amylase and 223% relative activity at 20 mM K+ for salivary gland alpha-amylase
K+
Geobacillus sp.
-
105% relative activity at 10 mM
KCl
B6RB08, -
2 mM, pH 6.5, 50C, 105% relative activity
KCN
Thermomonospora vulgaris
-
10 mM, 82% inhibition
Li+
-
5 mM, slight activation
Li+
-
slight activation of isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, slight inhibition of isozyme AII
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
40 mM magnesium acetate, enhances activity of the membrane-bound enzyme to 216% of the control
Mg2+
-
5 mM, slight activation
Mg2+
-
optimal activation at 10 mM
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
activation
Mg2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
slight activation of isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII
Mg2+
-
1 mM, 1.72fold activation
Mg2+
-
slightly improves enzymatic activity
Mg2+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 111% and 107% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Mg2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 98% relative activity
Mg2+
-
118% relative activity at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 6.5; activates
Mg2+
-
the activity is increased by approximately 15% by 10 mM Mg2+
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
Q8A1G3
2 ions per enzyme molecule
MgCl2
-
1 mM, 22% inhibition
MgCl2
-
5 mM, pH 4.0, 55C, 103% relative activity
Mn2+
-
0.5 mM, enhances activity
Mn2+
-
activation
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
-
activation of isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
-
1 mM, 1.34fold activation
Mn2+
-
slightly improves enzymatic activity
Mn2+
A8VWC5
measured activity about 8090%
Mn2+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 108% and 102% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Mn2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 96% relative activity
Mn2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
191% relative activity at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 5.0
Mn2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
140% relative activity at 10 mM
Mn2+
-
activates at 10 mM
Na+
-
stimulates
Na+
-
5 mM, slight activation
Na+
-
optimal salinity: 10% NaCl
Na+
-
optimal activation at 5 mM
Na+
-
activity is promoted by 0.5-2.0% NaCl
Na+
-
activation of isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII
Na+
-
activation of isozyme BAA at 10 mM
Na+
Geobacillus sp.
-
142% relative activity at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 5.0
Na+
-
120% relative activity at 10 mM Na+ for midgut alpha-amylase and 183% relative activity at 20 mM Na+ for salivary gland alpha-amylase
Na2SO4
-
1 M, 4fold increase in activity
NaCl
-
18% activation of isozyme alpha-amylase I at 1 mM, 21% at 10 mM
NaCl
-
AmyH is very halophilic, but is also active in absence of salt, denaturation by urea occurs only in absence of NaCl
NaCl
Morimus funereus
-
activation above 10 mM, 28% activation at 250 mM
NaCl
B6RB08, -
2 mM, pH 6.5, 50C, 100% relative activity
NaCl
-
the enzyme is active over a broad range of salt concentrations, with optimum activity at 0.9 M. At 1.7, 2.6, and 4.3 M NaCl AmyB ist 80, 60, and 12% active, respectively. AmyB is a halophilic enzyme, but is still above 45% active in the absence of salt
NH4+
-
activates
Ni2+
-
1 mM, 1.23fold activation
Ni2+
A8VWC5
measured activity about 8090%
Ni2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 100% relative activity
Pb2+
-
5 mM, slight activation
Pb2+
-
activates slightly
Pb2+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 101% and 87% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Pb2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 91% relative activity
PO43-
-
100 mM, stimulates
S2O32-
-
stimulates
SO32-
-
stimulates
SO42-
-
stimulates
Sr2+
-
1 mM, 1.11fold activation of wild-type enzyme, no activation of mutant enzyme L134R/S320A
Sr2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 92% relative activity
Urea
-
132% relative activity at 8 mM urea for salivary gland alpha-amylase
WO42-
-
stimulates
Zn2+
-
5 mM, slight activation
ZnCl2
-
5 mM, pH 4.0, 55C, 104% relative activity
MoO42-
-
10-100 mM, stimulates
additional information
-
alpha-amylase I is no affected by NaNO3, BaCl2, and MgCl2
additional information
-
the enzyme is not affected by Mn2+ at 1-100 mM
additional information
-
no effect by 1 mM EGTA
additional information
-
no effect on isozymes by Ca2+
additional information
-
the enzyme is poorly affected by Ca2+, Mg2+, Li+, Cu2+, Ba2+, and Mn2+
additional information
-
the enzyme shows no requirement for metals
additional information
-
does not require Ca2+ for its stability or activity; no quantitative change in the activity even at high concentrations of acrylamide, 0.05 to 0.6 mM. The addition of CsCl decreases the fluorescence quenching with no influence on enzyme activity
additional information
-
no requirement for Ca2+
additional information
-
Ca2+-independent
additional information
-
Li+ has negligible effect on activity
additional information
-
does not require Ca2+
additional information
-
activity is not stimulated by the presence of Ca2+, Fe2+, Ba2+, K+, and Mn2+; no stimulation by Ca2+, no or poor effect on activity by Mn2+, Fe2+, and K+
additional information
B1VK33
Li+, Na+, K+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+ have no stimulatory effect on activity
additional information
B5ARZ9, -
Ni2+ and Ca2+ do not stimulate the activity of AmyB
additional information
-
not affected by Mg2+ and Cu2+
additional information
B8Y698, -
isozyme Amy3 is a chloride-independent alpha-amylase
additional information
Geobacillus sp.
-
not stimulated by Na+
additional information
-
the enzyme is Ca2+-independent
additional information
-
additional provision of Cl- (up to 30 mM NaCl) in the reaction mixture does not affect significantly the activity of alpha-amylases
additional information
-
no activation by Ca2+ or other divalent cations
additional information
-
no requirement for Ca2+
additional information
-
the enzyme does not require Ca2+ for activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one
-
-
1,10-phenanthroline
-
1 mM, 39% loss of activity of the membrane-bound enzyme
1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloyl-beta-D-glucose
-
mixed non-competitive inhibition, KEI: 0.0026 mM, KEIS: 0.0039 mM, tested in a concentration range of 0.04 to 0.5 mM, reduced inhibitory efficiency of the mutants W58L and Y151M with 92 and 97% remaining enzyme activity at 0.00235 mM inhibitor concentration, respectively, pH 6.0, 37C
1-cyclohexyl-3-(morpholinyl-4-ethyl)-carbodiimide
-
40 mM, 50% inhibition after 20 min, 100 mM, 44% inhibition after 10 min in the presence of 1% starch
2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one
-
-
2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene
-
6 mM
2-amino-7-hydroxyphenoxazine-3-one
-
-
2-amino-7-methoxyphenoxazine-3-one
-
-
2-amino-phenoxazine-3-one
-
-
2-deoxyglucose
-
-
2-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one
-
-
2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
1 mM, 23% loss of activity
2-mercaptoethanol
-
; 87% residual activity at 5 mM
3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone
-
identified in the Sysygium cumini seed extract which results in 98% inhibition compared to control without the addition of medicinal plant extract, non-competitive inhibition determined by a Dixon plot, pH 6.9
-
4-bromophenacyl bromide
-
complete inhibition at 4 mM
4-chloromercuribenzoate
-
98% inhibition of isozyme alpha-amylase I at 0.5 mM
4-hydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one
-
-
4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis-[2-nitrobenzoic acid]
-
10 mM, 35% inhibition
6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one
-
-
7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one
-
-
acacetin
-
a flavone, 0.888 mM, pH 6.0, room temperature, 14.1% maximum inhibition
Acalpha indica leaf extract
-
herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic system of medicine, 15% relative inhibition compared to control without the addition of medicinal plant extract, non-competitive inhibition determined by a Dixon plot, pH 6.9
-
acarbose
-
binding mechanism, acarbose rearrangement mechanism implied by the kinetic and structural analysis, and potential pathways of rearrangement, enzyme-inhibitor complex crystal structure analysis
acarbose
-
IC50 is 0.023 mM
acarbose
-
pH 6.5, 37C, mixed noncompetitive inhibition, substrate: soluble amlyose
acarbose
-
0.888 mM, pH 6.0, room temperature, 99.2% maximum inhibition
acarbose
-
-
acarbose
B8Y698, -
;
acarbose
Q8A1G3
a pseudotetrasaccharide inhibitor of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, binding structure, overview
acarviosine-glucose
-
binding mechanism, resistance to rearrangement, enzyme-inhibitor complex crystal structure analysis
acarviostatin I03
-
pH 6.5, 37C, mixed noncompetitive inhibition, substrate: soluble amlyose
acarviostatin II03
-
pH 6.5, 37C, mixed noncompetitive inhibition, substrate: soluble amlyose
acarviostatin III03
-
pH 6.5, 37C, mixed noncompetitive inhibition, substrate: soluble amlyose
acarviostatin IV03
-
pH 6.5, 37C, mixed noncompetitive inhibition, substrate: soluble amlyose
Aegle marmelos leaf extract
-
herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic system of medicine, 6% relative inhibition compared to control without the addition of medicinal plant extract, non-competitive inhibition determined by a Dixon plot, pH 6.9
-
Ag+
-
2 mM, 61.2% inhibition
Ag+
-
5 mM AgNO3, 82% inhibition
Ag+
-
5 mM AgNO3, 95% inhibition
Ag+
-
2 mM, complete inhibition
Ag+
-
1 mM, 50% loss of activity
Ag+
-
1 mM AgCl2, 77% loss of activity
Ag+
-
1 mM, 51% inhibition
Ag+
-
0.1 mM, 11% inhibition
Ag+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 36% relative activity
Ag2+
A8VWC5
activity severely inhibited, indicates the role of sulfydryl group in catalysis
AgNO3
-
2 mM, complete inhibition
AgNO3
-
1 mM, 40C, 30 min, 12% loss of activity, alpha-amylase I
Al3+
-
2 mM, 38.7% inhibition
Al3+
-
10 mM, 90% inhibition
Al3+
-
complete inhibition of isozyme AI-1, nearly complete inhibition of isozyme AI-2, moderate inhibition of isozyme AII, at 5 mM
Al3+
-
10 mM, 58% inhibition
Al3+
-, Q6WUB6
5 mM, weak inhibition
Al3+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 110% and 73% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
AlCl3
-
5 mM, complete inhibition
alpha-acarviosinyl-1,4-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-1,6-D-glucopyranosylidene-spiro-thiohydantoin
-
i.e. PTS-G-TH, mixed-competitive type inhibition
alpha-AI-Pc1
-
alpha-amylase inhibitors from Phaseolus coccineus
-
alpha-AI1
-
alpha-amylase inhibitor 1 from cultivated Phaseolus vulgaris
-
alpha-AI2
-
alpha-amylase inhibitor 2 from wild Phaseolus vulgaris
-
alpha-amylase inhibitors from Dipteryx alata seeds
-
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
-
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
weak inhibition
alpha-cyclodextrin
B1VK33
the addition of alpha-cyclodextrin (0.1% w/v) induces a very weak inhibition of the Amy1 protein activity against soluble starch
alpha-cyclodextrin
-
1-10 mM, 25-35% inhibition
alpha-cyclodextrin
O33476
0.2%, 10% inhibition
alpha-D-methylglucopyranose
-
-
-
alpha-D-phenylglucoside
-
-
-
alphaAI-PF
-
alpha amylase inhibitor from Palo Fierro seeds
-
ammonium sulfate
B1VK33
non-competitive inhibitor at concentrations higher than 20 mM
amylase wheat inhibitor
Morimus funereus
-
-
-
amylase-inhibitor
-
14 kinds of alpha-amylase inhibitors from Streptomyces sp. No. 280
-
apigenin-7-glucoside
-
IC50 is 0.17 mM
arabitol
-
competitive
ATP
-
90% inhibition at 5 mM, reversible by addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+
Ba2+
-
5 mM BaCl2, 28% inhibition
Ba2+
-
5 mM BaCl2, 22% inhibition
Ba2+
-
0.1 M, complete inhibition
Ba2+
-
1 mM BaCl2, 40% loss of activity
Ba2+
-
slight inhibition of isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII
Ba2+
-
strong inhibition of isozyme BAA
Ba2+
-
0.1 mM, 60% inhibition
Ba2+
-
1 mM, 23% inhibition of wild-type enzyme, 28% inhibition of mutant enzyme L134R/S320A
Ba2+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 104% and 95% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Ba2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 29% relative activity
Ba2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
80% residual activity at 10 mM
BaCl2
-
1 mM, 40C, 30 min, 16% loss of activity, alpha-amylase I
BaCl2
-
5 mM, pH 4.0, 55C, 25% relative activity
Benzene
-
10%, 40% inhibition
benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin
-
-
beta-cyclodextrin
B1VK33
the addition of beta-cyclodextrin (0.1% w/v) induces a very weak inhibition of the Amy1 protein activity against soluble starch
beta-cyclodextrin
-
1-10 mM, 10-25% inhibition
beta-cyclodextrin
O33476
0.2%, 19% inhibition
betulinic acid
-
identified in the Sysygium cumini seed extract which results in 98% inhibition compared to control without the addition of medicinal plant extract, non-competitive inhibition determined by a Dixon plot, pH 6.9
Bi2+
-
0.5 mM BiOCl2, 16% inhibition
butanol
-
10%, 80% inhibition
Ca2+
-
0.01 M CaCl2, 3% loss of activity after 1 h, in presence of 0.01 M Na2-EDTA, complete inactivation after 1 h
Ca2+
-
5 mM CaCl2, 21% inhibition
Ca2+
-
10 mM CaCl2, inhibition of enzyme form Amyl II and Amyl III, no inhibition of enzyme form Amyl I
Ca2+
-
1 mM, 25-30% inhibition between pH 8.0 and 10.0
Ca2+
-
added alone Ca2+ is inhibitory
Ca2+
-
strong inhibition of isozyme BAA
Ca2+
-, Q6WUB6
5 mM, weak inhibition
Ca2+
-
about 80% relative activity at 10 mM Ca2+
Ca2+
-
40% residual activity at 20 mM Ca2+ for midgut alpha-amylase and 46% residual activity at 10 mM Ca2+ for salivary gland alpha-amylase
Ca2+
-
calcium stabilizes the conformation of alpha-amylase and also involved in substrate binding, but inhibits enzyme activity
CaCl2
-
inhibition above 100 mM, approx. 50% inhibition at 500 mM
CaCl2
-
4 mM, 30% inhibition
CaCl2
Morimus funereus
-
above 0.1 mM
caffeic acid
-
IC50 is 4.8 mM
caffeic acid
-
mixed-type inhibition, almost all activities of isozymes PPA-I and PPA-II are lost in the presence of 4 mM
catechin
-
a flavonol, 0.888 mM, pH 6.0, room temperature, 13.1% maximum inhibition
Cd2+
-
2 mM, 43% inhibition
Cd2+
Thermomonospora vulgaris
-
1 mM CdSO4, 82% inhibition
Cd2+
-
2 mM, 65% inhibition
Cd2+
-
1 mM, 91% inhibition
Cd2+
-
1 mM, 40% loss of activity
Cd2+
-
complete inhibition of isozyme AII, high inhibition of isozymes AI-1 and moderate of AI-2, at 5 mM
Cd2+
-
1 mM, 33% inhibition of wild-type enzyme, 48% inhibition of mutant enzyme L134R/S320A
Cd2+
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
CdCl2
-
30 mM, 95% inhibition
CdCl2
-
5 mM, 14% inhibition; 5 mM, 38% inhibition; 5 mM, 43% inhibition
CH2ICOOH
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
chlorogenic acid
-
IC50 is 1.4 mM
chlorogenic acid
-
5-caffeoylquinic acid, mixed-type inhibition, complete inhibition of isozymes PPA-I is observed at 1.5 mM and that of isozyme PPA-II is at 2.0 mM
Citric acid
-
25 mM, 54% inhibition
Cl-
-
above 100 mM
Co2+
-
5 mM, 16% inhibition
Co2+
-
5 mM CoCl2, 91% inhibition
Co2+
-
1 mM, 17% loss of activity
Co2+
-
1 mM CoCl2, 65% loss of activity
Co2+
-
slight activation of isozyme AI-2, slight inhibition of isozymes AI-1 and AII
Co2+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 92% and 93% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Co2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 23% relative activity
Co2+
-
; 16% residual activity at 5 mM
Co2+
B5ARZ9, -
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Co2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
70% residual activity at 10 mM
CoCl2
-
30 mM, 50% inhibition
CoCl2
-
21% inhibition of isozyme alpha-amylase I at 0.5 mM, 29% at 5 mM
CoCl2
-
1 mM, 40C, 30 min, 22% loss of activity, alpha-amylase I
CoCl2
O33476
1 mM, 52% inhibition
corosolic acid
-
triterpene acid isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves, weak inhibitory activity
Cs+
-
5 mM, 32% loss of activity
Cs2+
-
1 mM, 37C, 30 min, pH 6.5, 89% relative activity
Cu2+
Fusidium sp.
-
1 mM, 28% inhibition
Cu2+
-
2 mM, almost complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
5 mM CuSO4, 16% inhibition
Cu2+
-
5 mM CuSO4, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
0.1 M, complete inhibition
Cu2+
Thermomonospora vulgaris
-
1 mM CuSO4, 82% inhibition
Cu2+
-
2 mM, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
5 mM, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 67% loss of activity
Cu2+
-
1 mM CuCl2, 28% loss of activity
Cu2+
-
10 mM, strong inhibition of enzyme form Amyl I, Amyl II and Amyl III
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 52% inhibition
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 99% loss of activity
Cu2+
-
5 mM, 90% inhibition
Cu2+
-
10 mM, 49% inhibition
Cu2+
-
nearly complete inhibition of isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII at 5 mM
Cu2+
-
strong inhibition
Cu2+
-
strong inhibition of isozyme BAA
Cu2+
-
1 mM, 55% inhibition of wild-type enzyme, 49% inhibition of mutant enzyme L134R/S320A
Cu2+
-
10 mM, 58% inhibition
Cu2+
-, Q6WUB6
5 mM, complete inhibition
Cu2+
-
1 mM, pH 8.0, 24 h at 4C, 36% and 64% residual activity for Amy I and Amy II, respectively
Cu2+
-
addition to growth medium in logarithmic phase, maximum inhibition of about 70-80% of enzyme expression at 0.47 mM. Addition to enzyme assay, 38.2% inhibition at 1.5 mM
Cu2+
-
7% residual activity at 2 mM
Cu2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
complete inhibition at 5 mM, at 80C and pH 5.0
Cu2+
B5ARZ9, -
52.2% residual activity at 1 mM
Cu2+
Geobacillus sp.
-
86% residual activity at 10 mM
Cu2+
-
complete inhibition at 4 mM
CuCl2
-
10 mM, 95% inhibition
CuCl2
-
5 mM, 88% inhibition; 5 mM, 89% inhibition; 5 mM, 94% inhibition
CuCl2
-
5 mM, pH 4.0, 55C, 26% relative activity
CuCl2
O33476
1 mM, complete inhibition
CuSO4
-
4 mM, complete inhibition
CuSO4
-
2 mM, 33% inhibition
CuSO4
-
1 mM, 40C, 30 min, 25% loss of activity, alpha-amylase I
CuSO4
B6RB08, -
2 mM, pH 6.5, 50C, 50% relative activity
cyclomaltoheptaose
-
-
cyclomaltohexaose
-
-
cynarin
-
IC50 is above 2.0 mM
D-gluconic acid lactone
-
-
D-glucosamine
-
-
daidzein
-
a isoflavone, 0.888 mM, pH 6.0, room temperature, 23.3% maximum inhibition
Dextran
-
1%, 20% inhibition
dihydrocaffeic acid
-
IC50 is above 14.0 mM
diisopropyl fluorophosphate
-
1 mM, 34% inhibition of the membrane-bound enzyme
diosmetin
-
a flavone, 0.888 mM, pH 6.0, room temperature, 19.2% maximum inhibition
dithiothreitol
-
1 mM, 50% inhibition
dithiothreitol
B1VK33
inhibits the enzyme activity at concentrations higher than 80 mM
dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide
-
2.5 mM, approx. 40% inhibition at 60C
dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide
-
2.5 mM, approx. 20% inhibition at 60C
DTNB
-
inhibition of isozymes AI-1 and AI-2, and AII, at 5 mM
DTNB
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
EDTA
-
reverses stimulation by Ca2+
EDTA
-
0.1 mM, 61.3% inhibition
EDTA
-
resistant at 30C, inhibition at 90C, inhibition is partially recovered by Cu2+ or Fe2+