Information on EC 4.3.1.24 - phenylalanine ammonia-lyase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.3.1.24
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-phenylalanine = trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C-N bond formation
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
benzoate biosynthesis II (CoA-independent, non-beta-oxidative)
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
ephedrine biosynthesis
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Phenylalanine metabolism
-
-
phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
-
-
Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
-
-
phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, initial reactions
-
-
suberin monomers biosynthesis
-
-
trans-cinnamoyl-CoA biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (trans-cinnamate-forming)
This enzyme is a member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family, other members of which are EC 4.3.1.3 (histidine ammonia-lyase) and EC 4.3.1.23 (tyrosine ammonia-lyase) and EC 4.3.1.25 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyase). The enzyme contains the cofactor 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazol-4-one (MIO), which is common to this family [3]. This unique cofactor is formed autocatalytically by cyclization and dehydration of the three amino-acid residues alanine, serine and glycine [9]. The enzyme from some species is highly specific for phenylalanine [7,8].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9024-28-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 different enzyme forms are isolated after 68 h and after 116 h: PAL68 and PAL116
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAL1; var. mongholicus, i.e. Astralagus mongholicus, a Chinese traditional medicinal herb, gene PAL1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bovista sp.
weak
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. integrifolia
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ssp. napus var. pekinensis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PAL1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clavaria cristata
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marrow
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PRL155
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PRL155
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dunaliella marina
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAL1; several pal genes encode at least four isoforms of PAL
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fomes subroseus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Gossypium hirsutum Zhongmian 35
Zhongmian 35
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
synonym Ipomoea nil, variants Violet and Tendan
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lupinus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AAA Cavendish. cv. Brazil, banana, isozymes PAL1 and PAL2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 29133
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
variant crispa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
multiple MW-forms: 83000 Da and 77000 Da
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Telia and Muktateshi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Polyporus adustus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Quercus pedunculata
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ramaria secunda
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PALrs1; gene PALrs1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodococcus rubra
Genex 1983
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodosporidium toruloides
Rhodotorula aurantiaca
Rhodotorula aurantiaca KM-1
strain KM-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodotorula aurantiaca NCYC138
NCYC138
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AS2.102
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCYC61
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain RE4607095D
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCYC502
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCYC502
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodotorula marina
NCYC541
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodotorula marina NCYC541
NCYC541
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PRL251
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodotorula texensis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PAL is encoded by two genes, RiPAL1 and RiPAL2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Steccherinum adustum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces verticillatus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Appeldoorn
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-growing grape, genes PAL1, PAL2, and PAL3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Cabernet Sauvignon
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Xanthium pennsylvanicum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E)-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)acrylic acid + NH3
2-amino-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)acrylic acid + NH3
2-amino-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-3-(2-furyl)acrylic acid + NH3
(S)-2-amino-3-(2-furyl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-3-(2-thienyl)acrylic acid + NH3
2-amino-3-(2-thienyl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-4-amino-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-amino-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
-
r
(2E)-4-fluoro-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-4-formyl-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-formyl-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-4-hydroxycinnamate + NH3
L-tyrosine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-4-methyl-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-methyl-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-4-nitro-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-nitro-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2E)-4-trifluoromethyl-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-trifluoromethyl-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
-
r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-nitrophenyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(pyridin-4-yl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(pyridin-4-yl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid
(2E)-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(E)-cinnamate + NH3
L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-L-phenylalanine
2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
2,6-difluoro-L-phenylalanine
2,6-difluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
2-amino-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
49% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
-
-
r
2-amino-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
14% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
-
-
r
2-amino-3-(2-furyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(2-furyl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
34% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
-
-
r
2-amino-3-(2-thienyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(2-thienyl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
101% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
-
-
r
2-amino-3-(3-thienyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(3-thienyl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
16% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
-
-
r
2-chloro-L-phenylalanine
2-chloro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
2-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
2-fluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
29% of the activity with L-Phe
-
-
?
3,5-difluoro-L-phenylalanine
3,5-difluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
3-chloro-L-phenylalanine
3-chloro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
3-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
3-fluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
4-chloro-L-phenylalanine
4-chloro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
4-fluoro-(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
4-fluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
4-nitro-L-phenylalanine
4-nitro-(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
4-trifluoromethyl-L-phenylalanine
4-trifluoromethyl-(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
beta-(5-pyrimidinyl)-D,L-alanine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorophenylalanine
?
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces verticillatus
-
-
-
-
?
fluorophenylalanine
trans-(4-fluoro)cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Phe
(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Phe
trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Phe
trans-cinnamic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
assay at pH 8.5, 37C, reaction terminated by addition of HCl
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine methyl ester
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-Tyr
(2E)-4-hydroxycinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Tyr
p-coumarate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine
(2E)-4-hydroxycinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
-
r
L-tyrosine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine
p-coumarate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-methyl-L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamate + methylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
trans-cinnamic acid + NH3
L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-Phe
trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazol-4-one
4-methylidene-imidazole-5-one
-
deamination of L-Phe is dependent upon a 4-methylidene-imidazole-5-one prosthetic group that is produced by the posttranslational condensation of a sequential Ala-Ser-Gly triad in the enzyme
additional information
PAL2 sequence containes a conserved active site motif, the Ala-Ser-Gly triad, which can be converted into a 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidine-4H-imidazol-4-one prosthetic group
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
partially stabilizes the enzyme during storage, but less effective than Mn2+
Cs+
1 mM, weak enhancement
Li+
-
partially stabilizes the enzyme during storage, but less effective than Mn2+
Ni2+
-
induces the enzyme in cotyledons, highest activity at 0.40 mM nickel, overview
Zn2+
-
partially stabilizes the enzyme during storage, but less effective than Mn2+
additional information
-
no requirement for metal ion cofactors
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+)-1-amino-3',4'-dichlorobenzylphosphonic acid
-
strongest inhibitor among 1-aminobenzylphosphonic acids
(+-)-2-aminomethyl-3-phenylpropanoic acid
-
-
(+-)-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid
-
strong inhibition
(2S)-2-amino-3-(1-benzofuran-3-yl)propanoic acid
-
competitive
(2S)-2-amino-3-(1-benzothien-3-yl)propanoic acid
-
competitive
(R)-1-amino-2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethylphosphonic acid
-
-
(R)-1-amino-2-phenylwthylphosphonic acid
-
strong inhibition
(S)-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropanoic acid
1-amino-2-phenylethyl-phosphonic acid
1-amino-3-phenylpropylphosphonate
-
inhibitory effect is half of that of 1-amino-2-phenylethyl-phosphonic acid
1-aminobenzylphosphonic acid
-
various substitutes in the benzene ring
2-amino-3-(1-benzofuran-3-yl)propanoic acid
-
competitive
2-amino-3-(1-benzothien-3-yl)propanoic acid
-
competitive
2-amino-4-bromoindane-2-phosphonic acid
-
-
2-amino-4-hydroxyindane-2-phosphonic acid
-
-
2-aminoindan-2-carboxylic acid
-
-
2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid
2-aminoindane-2-phosphonate
2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid
2-mercaptoethanol
2-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde
-
0.010 mg/ml, 82% inhibition; 0.010 mg/ml, complete inhibition
2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide
-
partially blocks PAL activity in immobilized cells
3,4-dihydroxybenzoate
-
-
3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid
-
-
3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-DL-Ala
-
-
3-phenylpropionaldehyde
-
0.010 mg/ml, 67% inhibition
4-coumarate
4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid
-
-
4-hydroxycinnamic acid
-
-
8-hydroxyquinoline
-
-
ADP
-
5 mM, approx. 50% inhibition
Aminooxyacetate
-
-
aminooxyacetic acid
AMP
-
5 mM, approx. 40% inhibition
ATP
-
5 mM, approx. 80% inhibition
Benzoate
-
uncompetitive inhibition of enzyme form PAL68, non-competitive inhibition of enzyme form PAL116
benzyl alcohol
-
-
beta-(2-pyrimidinyl)-D,L-alanine
-
competitive inhibition
beta-chloroethyltrimethylammonium
-
10 mM, 60% inhibition of PAL activity in cotyledons
beta-phenyl-DL-Ser
-
-
beta-phenylethylamine
-
-
caffeate
catechin
-
-
Cd2+
-
CdCl2, 1 mM, 100% inhibition
chlorogenic acid
Cinnamic acid
Cinnamonitrile
-
-
cinnamyl alcohol
Co2+
-
strong inhibition
coniferyl alcohol
competitive
coniferyl aldehyde
competitive
coumaric acid
uncompetitive
coumestrol
-
weak
cyclomaltoheptaose
-
-
cyclomaltohexaose
-
-
D-phenylalanine
daidzein
-
weak
dihydrocaffeic acid
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
slight
EDTA
-
35 mM, complete inactivation
Fe3+
-
60% inhibition
ferulate
fluorophenylalanine
formonetin
-
weak
gallic acid
genistein
-
weak
genistin
-
weak
heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose
-
-
heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose
-
competitive and noncompetitive inhibition
hexakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)cyclomaltohexaose
-
-
hexakis(2,3-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltohexaose
-
competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, activation at 2 and 3 mM
His
Streptomyces verticillatus
-
-
indole butyric acid
at concentrations higher than 0.001 mM there is inhibitory effect on PAL specific activity
iodoacetamide
-
-
kaempferol
-
mixed inhibition
L-2-aminooxy-3-phenylpropionic acid
-
-
L-alpha-aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionic acid
Mn2+
-
strong inhibition
N,N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide
-
10 mM, 82% inhibition
N,N-dimethyl-4-nitro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
N-acetylimidazol
-
10 mM, 75% inhibition
N-methyl-4-nitro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
NaHSO3
-
irreversible
naringenin
-
-
Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine
-
partially blocks PAL activity in immobilized cells
o-coumarate
o-hydroxy-trans-cinnamic acid
-
-
o-phenanthroline
-
20 mM, complete inactivation
p-chloromercuribenzoate
p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid
-
-
p-hydroxybenzoate
Pb2+
1 mM, 50% loss of activity
Phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride
-
10 mM, 59% inhibition
phenylpropiolic acid
-
-
phenylpyruvate
-
-
quercetin
salicylic acid
-
PAL activity decreases with prolonged exposure to 0.25 mM salicylic acid indicating its inhibition
salidroside
competitive
scopoletin
-
increases the negative cooperativity between the substrate binding sites
Sinapic acid
-
weak
trans-cinnamaldehyde
-
0.010 mg/ml, complete inhibition
trans-cinnamic acid
-
product inhibition, PAL is tightly regulated by a feedback mechanism
umbelliferone
-
increases the negative cooperativity between the substrate binding sites
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
abscisic acid
-
exogenous application of abscisic acid (up to 0.08 mM) enhances PAL activity
acetone
Rhodosporidium toruloides
9.0fold
ascorbic acid
caffeate
Cd2+
-
treatment with Cd2+ results in increase in enzyme activitiy along with increase in total phenolics content and decrease in content of chlorophyll and carotinoids in the fronds
cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide
Rhodosporidium toruloides
8.2fold
chitosan
-
treatment leads to increased enzymic activity in cortex and cork tissues, with maximum specific activity after 12 h, and accumulation of phenolic compounds including 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde
esculetin
-
activates
fluridone
-
effective in increase of PAL activity
fraxetin
-
activates
jasmonic acid
-
jasmonic acid addition enhances PAL activity
L-phenylalanine
-
exposure of 4-week old plants to phenylalanine increases enzyme activity as well as accumulation of coumarin-related compounds
L-tyrosine
-
exposure of 4-week old plants to L-tyrosine at 0.01 or 0.1 mM significantly increases enzyme activity and increases free tyrosine content, while free phenylalanine content decreases. Tyrosine has no effect on coumarin accumulation
NaCl
-
maximal activity at 200 mM, inhibition above
phytotoxic protein
-
phytotoxic protein PcF from Phytophthora cactorum induces PAL activity in seedlings
-
S-methyl 1,2,3-benzothiadiazole-7-carbothioate
-
treatment of fruits
salicylic acid
activates phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in grape berry in response to high temperature stress, it also induces the accumulation of PAL mRNA and the synthesis of new PAL protein, in addition to increasing the enzyme activity, under high temperature stress
scoparone
-
activates
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.07
(2E)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
3.3
(2E)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
0.12
(2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.66
(2E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.39
(2E)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.38
(2E)-3-(pyridin-4-yl)prop-2-enoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.03
(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
1.51
(2E)-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]prop-2-enoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.3 - 0.7
(2E)-4-fluoro-cinnamic acid
0.1 - 0.4
(2E)-4-formyl-cinnamic acid
5.9 - 12.6
(2E)-4-hydroxycinnamate
0.1 - 0.5
(2E)-4-methyl-cinnamic acid
2.8 - 4.2
(2E)-4-nitro-cinnamic acid
0.75
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
1.11
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.56
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.23
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-nitrophenyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
3.39
(2S)-2-amino-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.48
(2S)-2-amino-3-(pyridin-4-yl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.29
(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
1.05
(2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid
-
pH 8.3, 30C
-
0.2
(E)-cinnamate
-
mutant F137V, pH 10, 30C; wild-type, pH 10, 30C
0.076
2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
0.085
2,6-difluoro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
0.048
2-amino-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.8, 30C
0.116
2-amino-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.8, 30C
0.076
2-amino-3-(2-furyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.8, 30C
0.134
2-amino-3-(2-thienyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.8, 30C
0.018
2-amino-3-(3-thienyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 8.8, 30C
0.05
2-chloro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
0.065
2-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
0.159
3,5-difluoro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
0.094
3-chloro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
0.079
3-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
0.045
4-chloro-L-phenylalanine
-
-
0.01 - 0.4
4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
2 - 2.2
4-nitro-L-phenylalanine
2.5 - 3.1
4-trifluoromethyl-L-phenylalanine
0.0065 - 75.6
L-Phe
0.028 - 5.7
L-phenylalanine
0.097 - 7.8
L-Tyr
0.4 - 2.4
L-tyrosine
0.022 - 42.4
L-[3-H1]-Phe
6.6
N-methyl-L-phenylalanine
-
-
2.6 - 4.4
NH3
0.05
phenylalanine
-
C503S/C565S mutant PAL
additional information
additional information