Information on EC 4.3.1.24 - phenylalanine ammonia-lyase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.3.1.24
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-phenylalanine = trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C-N bond formation
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
benzoate biosynthesis II (CoA-independent, non-beta-oxidative)
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ephedrine biosynthesis
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phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, initial reactions
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suberin monomers biosynthesis
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trans-cinnamoyl-CoA biosynthesis
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phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
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Phenylalanine metabolism
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Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (trans-cinnamate-forming)
This enzyme is a member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family, other members of which are EC 4.3.1.3 (histidine ammonia-lyase) and EC 4.3.1.23 (tyrosine ammonia-lyase) and EC 4.3.1.25 (phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia-lyase). The enzyme contains the cofactor 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazol-4-one (MIO), which is common to this family [3]. This unique cofactor is formed autocatalytically by cyclization and dehydration of the three amino-acid residues alanine, serine and glycine [9]. The enzyme from some species is highly specific for phenylalanine [7,8].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9024-28-6
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
2 different enzyme forms are isolated after 68 h and after 116 h: PAL68 and PAL116
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
animal
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Bovista sp.
weak
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
var. integrifolia
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ssp. napus var. pekinensis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KM-1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCYC138
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Clavaria cristata
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
marrow
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
PRL155
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PRL155
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Dunaliella marina
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fomes subroseus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Gossypium hirsutum Zhongmian 35
Zhongmian 35
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lupinus sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
AAA Cavendish. cv. Brazil, banana, isozymes PAL1 and PAL2
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
strain ATCC 29133
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
variant crispa
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
cultivars Telia and Muktateshi
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Polyporus adustus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Quercus pedunculata
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Ramaria secunda
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Rhodococcus rubra
Genex 1983
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain AS2.102
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCYC61
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain RE4607095D
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCYC502
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PRL251
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodotorula texensis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
PAL is encoded by two genes, RiPAL1 and RiPAL2
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Steccherinum adustum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces verticillatus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCYC541
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NCYC541
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Appeldoorn
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Xanthium pennsylvanicum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
yeasts
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E)-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)acrylic acid + NH3
2-amino-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)acrylic acid + NH3
2-amino-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-3-(2-furyl)acrylic acid + NH3
(S)-2-amino-3-(2-furyl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-3-(2-thienyl)acrylic acid + NH3
2-amino-3-(2-thienyl)propanoic acid
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-4-amino-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-amino-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
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poor substrate
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r
(2E)-4-fluoro-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-4-formyl-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-formyl-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-4-hydroxycinnamate + NH3
L-tyrosine
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-4-methyl-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-methyl-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-4-nitro-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-nitro-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2E)-4-trifluoromethyl-cinnamic acid + NH3
4-trifluoromethyl-L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
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poor substrate
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r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-fluorophenyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-nitrophenyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2S)-2-amino-3-(pyridin-4-yl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(pyridin-4-yl)prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid
(2E)-3-phenylprop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
(2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]propanoic acid
(2E)-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]prop-2-enoic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
(E)-cinnamate + NH3
L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
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r
2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-L-phenylalanine
2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
2,6-difluoro-L-phenylalanine
2,6-difluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
2-amino-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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49% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
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r
2-amino-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(1-benzothien-2-yl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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14% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
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r
2-amino-3-(2-furyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(2-furyl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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34% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
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r
2-amino-3-(2-thienyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(2-thienyl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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101% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
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r
2-amino-3-(3-thienyl)propanoic acid
(2E)-3-(3-thienyl)acrylic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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16% of the rate with L-phenylalanine
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r
2-chloro-L-phenylalanine
2-chloro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
2-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
2-fluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
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r
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
29% of the activity with L-Phe
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?
3,5-difluoro-L-phenylalanine
3,5-difluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
3-chloro-L-phenylalanine
3-chloro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
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-
r
3-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
3-fluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
4-chloro-L-phenylalanine
4-chloro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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?
4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
4-fluoro-(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
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r
4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine
4-fluoro-trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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r
4-nitro-L-phenylalanine
4-nitro-(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
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r
4-trifluoromethyl-L-phenylalanine
4-trifluoromethyl-(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
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r
beta-(5-pyrimidinyl)-D,L-alanine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
chlorophenylalanine
?
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces verticillatus
-
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?
fluorophenylalanine
trans-(4-fluoro)cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Phe
(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Phe
trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Phe
trans-cinnamic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
(E)-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
assay at pH 8.5, 37°C, reaction terminated by addition of HCl
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?
L-phenylalanine methyl ester
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
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r
L-Tyr
(2E)-4-hydroxycinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
L-Tyr
p-coumarate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine
(2E)-4-hydroxycinnamate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
-
r
L-tyrosine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine
p-coumarate + NH3
show the reaction diagram
N-methyl-L-phenylalanine
trans-cinnamate + methylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
trans-cinnamic acid + NH3
L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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