Information on EC 6.2.1.3 - long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
6.2.1.3
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
mitochondrial long chain fatty acyl-CoA ligase, unlike short chain ligases and medium chain ligases, does not utilize an adenylate as an intermediate in the formation of fatty acyl-CoA
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Acid-thiol ligation
-
-
-
-
Phosphorylation
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
6-gingerol analog biosynthesis
-
-
alkane biosynthesis II
-
-
arachidonate biosynthesis
-
-
ceramide biosynthesis
-
-
docosahexaenoate biosynthesis I (lower eukaryotes)
-
-
fatty acid activation
-
-
fatty acid alpha-oxidation II
-
-
fatty acid alpha-oxidation III
-
-
fatty acid beta-oxidation (peroxisome, yeast)
-
-
fatty acid beta-oxidation I
-
-
fatty acid beta-oxidation II (peroxisome)
-
-
fatty acid beta-oxidation VI (peroxisome)
-
-
Fatty acid biosynthesis
-
-
Fatty acid degradation
-
-
fatty acid salvage
-
-
gamma-linolenate biosynthesis II (animals)
-
-
icosapentaenoate biosynthesis II (metazoa)
-
-
linoleate biosynthesis II (animals)
-
-
lipid metabolism
-
-
long chain fatty acid ester synthesis for microdiesel production
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
octane oxidation
-
-
octane oxidation
-
-
oleate biosynthesis I (plants)
-
-
phosphatidylcholine acyl editing
-
-
phytol degradation
-
-
stearate biosynthesis I (animals and fungi)
-
-
wax esters biosynthesis II
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
long-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
Acts on a wide range of long-chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, but the enzymes from different tissues show some variation in specificity. The liver enzyme acts on acids from C6 to C20; that from brain shows high activity up to C24.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ACS3
-
-
-
-
Acyl coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
Acyl-activating enzyme
-
-
-
-
Acyl-CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
Acyl-CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
Acyl-CoA synthetase 3
-
-
-
-
Acyl-coenzyme A ligase
-
-
-
-
FAA1
-
-
-
-
Fatty acid CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
Fatty acid thiokinase (long chain)
-
-
-
-
Fatty acyl-coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
Fatty-acyl-CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
LACS
-
-
-
-
LCFA synthetase
-
-
-
-
Long chain fatty acyl CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
Long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
Long-chain acyl CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase I
-
-
-
-
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase II
-
-
-
-
Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
Long-chain fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
mACS4
-
-
-
-
Oleoyl-CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
Palmitoyl coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
Palmitoyl-CoA ligase
-
-
-
-
Palmityl-coenzyme A synthetase
-
-
-
-
Pristanoyl-CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
Stearoyl-CoA synthetase
-
-
-
-
Thiokinase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9013-18-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Col-0, Ws-0, gene OPCL1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme LACS2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes LACS1-LACS9
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene faaB or AN8280.3 encoding isozyme FaaB
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme ACS-3, gene acs-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme dAcsl
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
multiple charge isoforms: 4.6, 5.0 and 5.6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type and mutant forms
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
heat inactivation does not distinguish between arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, EC 6.2.1.15, and palmitoyl-CoA synthetase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme ACSL5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme ACSL6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes ACSL1, ACSL3, and ACSL5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
palmitoyl-CoA synthetase and arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, EC 6.2.1.5, are not separate enzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1S-4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mortierella alpina 1S-4
strain 1S-4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
North American firefly
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
FadD1; gene FadD1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
FadD2; gene FadD2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B23, gene acsA
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas chlororaphis B23
strain B23, gene acsA
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ACS3, one of multiple form of the enzyme in brain
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme ACS1; isoenzyme ACS2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme ACSL3; isoenzyme ACSL6_v1; isoenzyme ACSL6_v2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme ACSL5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1; long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2; long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 4; long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Iberian Guadyerbas x Landrace cross breed
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HB8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
red flour beetle
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 427
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Trypanosoma brucei 427
strain 427
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ulmus sp.
elm
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 enzyme forms: long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase I and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
abdominal segmentation defects of dAcsl mutants resemble those of gap gene knirps. The central expression domain of Kni transcripts or proteins is reduced whereas the adjacent domains of another gap gene Hunchback are correspondingly expanded in these mutants. Consequently, the striped pattern of the pair-rule gene Even-skipped is disrupted, phenotype, overview
malfunction
-
lipid-induced up-regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 promotes hepatocellular apoptosis. High ACSL5 activity results in enhanced caspase-3/7 activity, but is not accompanied by up-regulation of death receptors, DR4, DR5 or TNF-R1
malfunction
-
loss of ACS-3, a long-chain acyl-CoA synthase, causes enhanced intestinal lipid uptake, de novo fat synthesis, and accumulation of enlarged, neutral lipid-rich intestinal depots. Acs-3 mutant phenotypes require the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-25, a key regulator of Caenorhabditis elegans molting
malfunction
O88813
suppression of ACSL5 expression significantly decreases fatty acid-induced lipid droplet formation. ACSL5 knockdown results in decreased oleic acid or acetic acid incorporation into intracellular triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters without altering fatty acid uptake or lipogenic gene expression. ACSL5 knockdown also decreases hepatic TAG secretion proportionate to the observed decrease in neutral lipid synthesis. ACSL5 knockdown does not alter lipid turnover or mediate the effects of insulin on lipid metabolism, phenotype, detailed overview
malfunction
-
when compared to the wild-type strain, the fadD2 mutant exhibits decreased production of lipase, protease, rhamnolipid and phospholipase, and retardation of both swimming and swarming motilities. Interestingly, fadD1 mutant shows only increased swarming motility. Growth analysis of the fadD mutants show noticeable deficiencies in utilizing fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine as the sole carbon source, altered swimming and swarming motility of fadD mutants
malfunction
-
knockdown of endogenous Acsl4 expression increases significantly the release of arachidonate metabolites, including prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin D2, and prostaglandin F2alpha, compared with replicated control cells, whereas knockdown of Acsl1 expression reduces the interleukin-1beta-induced release of arachidonate metabolites
metabolism
-
acyl-CoA synthetase 5 is involved in the activation of long-chain fatty acids for lipid biosynthesis, and it is the only ACSL isoform that is both, located on mitochondria and functionally involved in enterocyte apoptosis. Analysis of regulation of ACSL5 in hepatocellular fatty acid degeneration and its involvement in hepatocyte apoptosis using models of in vitro and in vivo steatosis as well as plasmid-mediated stable gene transfer and RNAi-mediated gene silencing
metabolism
-
acyl-CoA synthetase 5 plays a key role in fatty acid metabolism. Isoform ACSL5 plays a role in channelling fatty acids towards palmitoylation and other lipid functions with high relevance for cellular behaviour
metabolism
-
long chain acyl CoA synthetase 4 is a key enzyme in steroidogenesis. It participates in steroid synthesis through of arachidonic acid release and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein induction
physiological function
C8KHM6
a MALCE1 gene-silenced strain exhibits a low content of octadecanoic acid and a high content of hexadecanoic acid
physiological function
-
ACSL3 shRNA, but not ACSL1 shRNA, inhibits the induction of lipid accumulation
physiological function
O88813
ACSL5 may have an anabolic role in lipid metabolism
physiological function
-
ACSL5 plays a role in promoting fatty acid-induced lipoapoptosis in hepatocytes as important mechanism in fatty liver-related disorders
physiological function
-
dAcsl is the Drosophila homolog of human ACSL4 and their functions are highly conserved in the processes ranging from lipid metabolism to the establishment of visual wiring, both maternal and zygotic dAcsl are required for embryonic segmentation
physiological function
-
FACL3 is a critical enzyme for activation of long-chain fatty acids. FACL3-mediated 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 inhibition of fatty acid synthase is associated with many cancers, including prostate cancer
physiological function
-
isozyme LACS9 is the major LACS isoform involved in plastidial fatty acid export for triacylglycerol formation. Isozymes LACS1 and LACS9 have overlapping functions in triacylglycerol biosynthesis. LACS1 is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in cuticular lipid synthesis
physiological function
-
regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans fat uptake and storage by acyl-CoA synthase-3 is dependent on NR5A family nuclear hormone receptor nhr-25, overview. ACS-3-derived long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs, perhaps incorporated into complex ligands such as phosphoinositides, modulate NHR-25 function, which in turn regulates an endocrine program of lipid uptake and synthesis
physiological function
-
Acsl isozymes play distinct roles in the control of arachidonate remodeling in rat fibroblasts: isoform Acsl4 acts as the first step of enzyme for arachidonate remodeling following interleukin-1beta stimulation, and isoform Acsl1 is involved in the maintenance of some arachidonate-containing phosphatidylcholine species
physiological function
-
Arabidopsis long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms LACS1, LACS2, and LACS3 facilitate fatty acid uptake in yeast. Expression of each isoform in yeast results in uptake of the long-chain fatty acid analogue, C1-Bodipy-C12. Only expression of LACS1 results in uptake of the very-long-chain fatty acid analogue, Bodipy-C16
physiological function
-
isoform Acsl3 is required to support effective poliovirus replication
physiological function
-
the enzyme plays a dual role in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids
physiological function
Mortierella alpina 1S-4
-
a MALCE1 gene-silenced strain exhibits a low content of octadecanoic acid and a high content of hexadecanoic acid
-
metabolism
-
the expression of FATP2 slightly, but reproducibly, increases both C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA derived from exogenous fatty acids, the formation of acyl CoA from C18:3 and C22:6 is significant
additional information
-
Aspergillus nidulans contains six possible fatty acyl-CoA synthetases with FaaB being the major synthetase for fatty acid degradation. Deletion of faaB leads to growth defects on fatty acids but does not affect the induction of genes involved in boxidation
additional information
-
FACL3 protein expression and its regulation by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and its synthetic analogues EB1089 and CB1093 in prostate cancer cells, overview
additional information
-
fatty acid uptake rates in the organism, overview
additional information
-
isozyme ACSL4, EC 6.2.1.15, overexpression does not affect levels of ACSL3, ACSL1, and ACSL5
additional information
-
lacs9 null mutant do not show any detectable phenotype. Disruption of LACS8 in the lacs8 mutant and lacs8 lacs9 double mutant, and over-expression of LACS8, do not affect the seed fatty acid content
additional information
-
long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase member 6, ASCL6, is a form present in the plasma membrane of cells. Splicing events affecting the N-terminus and alternative motifs near the ATP-binding site generate different isoforms of ACSL6. Alternative fatty acid Gate-domain motifs are essential determinants for the activity of the human ACSL6 isoforms, which appear to act as homodimeric enzyme as well as in complex with other spliced forms. The diversity of these enzyme species can produce the variety of acyl-CoA synthetase activities that are necessary to generate and repair the hundreds of lipid species present in membranes. Oligomeric complex fomations and interactions between isoforms, overview. The N-terminal domain is not essential for oligomer formation
additional information
-
mutation of nhr-25 suppresses the fatty acid uptake phenotypes of acs-3(ft5) animals, overview
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
arachidonic acid + ATP + CoA
arachidonoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + (11Z)-eicosenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (11Z)-eicosenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (15Z)-tetracosenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (15Z)-tetracosenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (6Z)-octadecenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (6Z)-octadecenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (6Z,12Z, 15Z)-octadecatrienoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (6Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadecatrienoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadecatrienoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (9E)-octadecenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (9E)-octadecenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (9Z)-hexadecenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (9Z)-hexadecenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (9Z)-hexadecenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (9Z)-hexadecenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Mortierella alpina, Mortierella alpina 1S-4
C8KHM6
-
-
-
?
ATP + (9Z)-octadecenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (9Z)-octadecenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (9Z)-tetradecenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (9Z)-tetradecenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + (9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Mortierella alpina, Mortierella alpina 1S-4
C8KHM6
-
-
-
?
ATP + (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Mortierella alpina, Mortierella alpina 1S-4
C8KHM6
-
-
-
?
ATP + (R)-ibuprofen + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (R)-ibuprofenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
9% of the activity with palmitate, (R)-ibuprofenoyl-CoA synthetase and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase are identical enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics
-
?
ATP + 1,12-dodecanedioic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 12-oxo-phytodienoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 16-hydroxypalmitic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 16-hydroxypalmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme LACS2
-
-
?
ATP + 3-oxo-2(2'-[Z]-pentenyl)cyclopentane-1-hexanoic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3-oxo-2(2'-[Z]-pentenyl)cyclopentane-1-hexanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 3-oxo-2(2'-[Z]-pentenyl)cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + 3-oxo-2(2'-[Z]-pentenyl)cyclopentane-1-octanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + acetate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acetyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits less than 10% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 20% activity
-
-
?
ATP + acylate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 40% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 60% activity
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q5FVE4
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9UKU0
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
-
-
-
-
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q924N5
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P33124
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9VCC6
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O60488
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
85% of the activity with palmitate
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O35547
the activity with arachidonate is twice as high as with palmitate
-
-
?
ATP + behenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + behenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 20% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 65% activity
-
-
?
ATP + Bodipy 500/510 C4-C9 + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + Bodipy-C16 + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + butyrate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + butyryl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 20% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 40% activity
-
-
?
ATP + C1-Bodipy-C12 + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + caproate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + caproyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
most preferred substrate for isoform Facl1 (100% activity)
-
-
?
ATP + capryloate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + capryloyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 50% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 45% activity
-
-
?
ATP + decanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + decanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + decanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + decanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + decanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + decanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + decanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + decanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + decanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + decanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9VCC6
-
-
-
?
ATP + decanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + decanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
ineffective
-
-
-
ATP + decenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + decenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + dinor-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + dinor-12-oxo-phytodienoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + docosahexaenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + docosahexaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + docosahexaneoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + docosahexaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + docosahexaneoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + docosahexaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + docosahexaneoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + docosahexaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + docosenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + docosenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + dodecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + dodecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + dodecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + dodecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + eicosapentaenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + eicosapentaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
-
-
-
-
ATP + eicosapentaenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + eicosapentaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + eicosapentaenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + eicosapentaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + eicosapentaenoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + eicosapentaenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
-
-
-
?
ATP + elaidate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + elaiodyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + fatty acid + 4'-phosphopantetheine
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-4'-phosphopantetheine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + fatty acid + 4'-phosphopantetheine
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-4'-phosphopantetheine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + fatty acid + dephospho-CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-dephospho-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + fatty acid + dephospho-CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-dephospho-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + fatty acid + dephospho-CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-dephospho-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + fatty acid + dephospho-CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-dephospho-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P33121
-
-
-
?
ATP + fatty acid + N6-etheno-CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-N6-etheno-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + fatty acid + pantetheine
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-pantetheine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + fatty acid + pantetheine
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-pantetheine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + heptadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + heptadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + heptadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + heptadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + hexacosanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexacosanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 8% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 23% activity
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + hexanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + hexanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
4% of the activity with palmitate
-
?
ATP + jasmonic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + jasmonyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
-
-
-
-
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
-
-
-
?
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9VCC6
-
-
-
?
ATP + laurate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lauryl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 90% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 55% activity
-
-
?
ATP + lignocerate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lignoceroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + lignocerate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lignoceroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q5FVE4
-
-
-
?
ATP + lignocerate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lignoceroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P38137, P38225, P39518
-
-
-
?
ATP + lignocerate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lignoceroyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O88561
-
-
-
?
ATP + lignocerate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lignoceryl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 20% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 30% activity
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q5FVE4
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lineoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + lineoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9VCC6
-
-
-
?
ATP + linoleic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + linolenate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linolenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + linolenate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + linolenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
optimal activity at 12:0 with saturated fatty acids as substrate, at 14:1 with mono-unsaturated fatty acids. The mono-unsaturated fatty acids from 14:1 to 22:1 give higher activity than the corresponding saturated fatty acids. Position of the double bond and the cis/trans configuration have little effect on the velocity values except for 22:1(11) (cis) which reveals a 2fold higher activity than 22:1(13)(cis) fatty acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acid 22:6(all cis) is a much better substrate than other C22 fatty acids
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
18:3(n-3)
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
active on fatty acids with chain length of 6 to 18 carbon atoms, and a maximum activity with laurate. Low affinity for the fatty acids C6 to C8
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
18:1
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
18:1
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
utilizes straight-chain fatty acids with 14-18 carbon atoms regardless of the degree of unsaturation. Straight-chain fatty acids containing more than 18 or fewer than 14 carbon atoms, as well as 16-hydroxypalmitic acid and hexadecanedioic acid are ineffective. Acyl-CoA synthetase II has a broader fatty acid specificity than acyl-CoA synthetase I. The effective substrates include long-chain dicarboxylic acids
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
trans-DELTA9-18:1 fatty acid
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate specificity of microsomal and mitochondrial enzyme are indistinguishable
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with 18:1 and 22:1 fatty acid
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
trans-DELTA9-16:1 fatty acid
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
among the saturated fatty acids highest activity is obtained with 12:0 fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acids (16:1, 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1) are equally good or slightly better substrates than the corresponding saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids are rather poor substrates
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
utilizes laurate and myristate most efficientyl among C8-C22 saturated fatty acids and arachidonate and eicosapentaenoate among the C16-C20 unsaturated fatty acids
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + long-chain acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
20:3(n-6)
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at 36C the enzyme is required for the utilization of exogenous myristate by the N-myristoyltransferase. This requirement is not apparent at 24C or 30C, suggesting that another acylCoA synthetase activity with differing chain length and/or temperature optima exists
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
essential role in animal cell proliferation
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
acyl-CoA synthetase I is responsible for the production of long-chain acyl-CoA that is utilized solely for the synthesis of cellular lipids, while the acyl-CoA synthetase II provides long-chain acyl-CoA that is exclusively degraded via beta-oxidation
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
physiological significance of enzyme in fatty acid metabolism
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is essential for both oxidation and esterification of fatty acids
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme plays a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, particular in lipid metabolism
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
activates exogenous long-chain fatty acids concomitant with their transport across the inner membrane into metabolically active CoA thioesters
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
the presence in the brain of multiple forms of enzyme with different fatty acid specificity is of considerable biological significance for controlling the synthesis of brain lipids. ACS3 mRNA is detectable 5 days after birth, increases to a maximum level at 15 days, and then decreases gradually to 10% of its maximum level in the adult
-
-
-
ATP + melissoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + melissoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 3% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 1% activity
-
-
?
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
-
-
-
-
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q924N5
-
-
?
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
-
-
-
?
ATP + myristate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 65% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 85% activity
-
-
?
ATP + myristic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + myristoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + n-tetracosanoic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + n-tetracosanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + nonanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + nonanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + o-succinyl-1-benzoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + o-succinyl-1-benzoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
a step in the bacterial biosynthesis of menaquinone from chorismate, pathway overview, a two-step reaction via o-succinyl-1-benzoyl-AMP intermediate
-
-
?
ATP + octacosanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octacosanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 5% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 3% activity
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O88813
-
-
-
?
ATP + octanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + octanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + octanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + octanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9VCC6
-
-
-
?
ATP + octanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
ineffective
-
-
-
ATP + octanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
20% of the activity with palmitate
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q5FVE4
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q924N5
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P33124
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O95573
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O88813
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9VCC6
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q6P1M0
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q91VE0
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q924N5
-
-
-
?
ATP + oleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform LACS7 has a much higher ratio of oleoyl-CoA to octanoyl-CoA synthetase activity compared to isoform LCS6
-
-
?
ATP + oleic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + oleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q924N5
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P33124
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P38137, P38225, P39518
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Ulmus sp., Brassica napus
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
P33124, Q63151
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O35547
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O88561
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q924N5
-
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
highest activity on palmitate
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q5FVE4
highest activity on palmitate
-
-
?
ATP + palmitate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
most preferred substrate for isoform Facl2 (100% activity)
-
-
?
ATP + palmitoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + palmitoleate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + palmitoleoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + pentadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + pentadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + pentadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + pentadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + pristanic acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + pristanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ATP + stearate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + stearoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + stearate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + stearoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + stearate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + stearoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + stearate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + stearoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + stearate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + stearyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform Facl1 exhibits about 45% activity and isoform Facl2 exhibits about 75% activity
-
-
?
ATP + tetradecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + tetradecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + tetradecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + tetradecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
Q9FNT6
-
-
?
ATP + tridecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + tridecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + tridecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + tridecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + undecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + undecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + undecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + undecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dATP + fatty acid + CoA
dAMP + diphosphate + acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dATP + fatty acid + CoA
dAMP + diphosphate + acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
decanoic acid + ATP + CoA
decanoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lauric acid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lauric acid + ATP + CoA
lauroyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
linoleic acid + ATP + CoA
linoleoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
linoleic acid + ATP + CoA
linoleoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
linolenic acid + ATP + CoA
linolenoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
luciferin + O2 + ATP
oxidized luciferin + CO2 + H2O + AMP + diphosphate + hv
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
myristic acid + ATP + CoA
myristoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oleic acid + ATP + CoA
oleoyl-CoA + AMP + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
luciferin + O2 + ATP
oxidized luciferin + CO2 + H2O + AMP + diphosphate + hv
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme in peroxisomes may keep the catalytic functions in bioluminescence and fatty acid metabolism
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q924N5
no activity for the very long chain fatty acid, lignoceric acid, and a medium chain fatty acid, decanoic acid
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
TbACS1 prefers saturated fatty acids in the range undecanoate to tetradecanoate, TbACS3 and 4, which have 95% sequence identity, have similar specificities favouring fatty acids between tetradecanoate and heptadecanoate. In addition TbACS1, 3 and 4 function well with a variety of unsaturated fatty acids
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q9FNT6
the enzyme ACS6 preferrs long-chain fatty acids that contain a cis-9 double bond
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
ACS1, ACS4 and ACS5 are regulated independently by fasting and refeeding. Fasting rats for 48 h results in a decrease in ACS4 protein and an increase in ACS5. ACS1 and ACS4 may be functionally channeled to specific metabolic pathways though different ACS isoforms in unique subcellular locations
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
lipidosin may mediate the link between adrenoleukodystrophy protein dysfunction and the impairment of fatty acid metabolism in Xlinked adrenoleukodystrophy
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays a central role in intermediary metabolism by catalyzing the formation of acyl-CoA. The enzyme functions in the vectorial movement of exogenous fatty acids across the plasma membrane by acting as a metabolic trap, which results in the formation of acyl-CoA esters
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
no fatty acyl-CoA synthetase activity with octanoic acid and palmitic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Acsl6 functions primarily in docosagexaenoic acid metabolism, its overexpression increases docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid internalization primarily during the first 24 h of neuronal differentiation to stimulate phospholipid and enhance neurite outgrowth
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
fatty acyl-CoA synthetase facilitates long chain fatty acid permeation of the inner membrane by a vectorial thioesterification
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
high glucose concentration and insulin induce ACS-5 expression. The effect of insulin is mediated by SREBP-1c. ACS-5 is involved in anabolism of fatty acids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
in vivo the loss of FATP4-mediated very long chain fatty acid uptake and/or esterification may underlie the null phenotype
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
inhibition of ACSL1 activity in adipocytes impairs fatty acid uptake, suggesting that esterification is essential for fatty acid transport. A constitutive interaction between the fatty acid transport protein FATP1 and ACSL1 contributes to efficient cellular uptake of long chain fatty acids in adipocytes through vectorial acylation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
it is hypothesized that the enzyme plays an important role in targeting free fatty acids to specific metabolic pathways or acylation sites in the cell, thus acting as an important control mechanism in fuel partitioning. Localization of the enzyme at the plasma membrane may serve to decrease free fatty acid efflux and trap free fatty acids within the cell as long-chain acyl CoA
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
lacs2-1 mutation results in a defective cutin layer
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase activity is essential for seedling development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the regulation of the FACL3/ACS3 expression by vitamin D3 is mediated by both androgen and androgen receptor, and suggests that increased FACL3/ACS3 expression by vitamin D3 is one of the components associated with antiproliferative effect of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer LNCaP cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
transcription of GR-LACS gene requires an Sp1/Sp3 binding element downstream of the transcriptional start sites which is essential for basal activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity for lignoceric acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q924N5
no activity for lignoceric acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
octanoate and decanoate are ineffective substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P08659
firefly luciferase has two catalytic functions, it can act as a monooxygenase, luciferase, EC 1.13.12.7, but can also synthesize a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA from various long-chain fatty acids in the presence of ATP, CoA and Mg2+
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
luciferase shows beetle luciferase may have arisen from a process of subfunctionalization as opposed to neofunctionalization early on in the evolution of the Elateroidea
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the acyl-CoA synthetase is involved in bacterial menaquinone biosynthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the OPC-8:CoA ligase catalyses an essential step in jasmonic acid biosynthesis by initiating the beta-oxidative chain shortening of the carboxylic acid side chain of its precursors, and, in accordance with this function, the protein is localized in peroxisomes, enzyme family members display activity towards different biosynthetic precursors of jasmonic acid, including 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, i.e. OPDA, dinor-OPDA, 3-oxo-2(2'-[Z]-pentenyl)cyclopentane-1-octanoic acid, i.e. OPC-8, and OPC-6, substrate specificity of protein At1g20510 readily converting OPDA, dnOPDA, OPC-8, OPC-6, and myristic acid, OPC-8 is the preferred substrate, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q5CD72
the enzyme also forms a carbon-nitrogen bond, reaction of EC 6.3.1 acid-ammonia (or amide) ligase, i.e. amide synthase, and EC 6.3.2 acid-amino acid ligase, i.e. peptide synthase, comprising the amino group of the cysteine and the carboxyl group of the acid, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9HYU3, Q9HYU4
FadD1 has a substrate preference for long-chain fatty acids, while FadD2 prefers shorter-chain fatty acids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Arabidopsis isoforms LACS1-3 display broad substrate specificities, ranging from saturated and monounsaturated C16, C18 and C20 fatty acids to saturated very-long-chain fatty acids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
unsaturated fatty acids such as 14:1, 16:1, 18:1, 22:1, 18:3(n-3), 20:3(n-6) fatty acids and arachidonic acid are no substrates of isoform Facl1 or Facl2
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Pseudomonas chlororaphis B23
Q5CD72
the enzyme also forms a carbon-nitrogen bond, reaction of EC 6.3.1 acid-ammonia (or amide) ligase, i.e. amide synthase, and EC 6.3.2 acid-amino acid ligase, i.e. peptide synthase, comprising the amino group of the cysteine and the carboxyl group of the acid, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
unsaturated fatty acids such as 14:1, 16:1, 18:1, 22:1, 18:3(n-3), 20:3(n-6) fatty acids and arachidonic acid are no substrates of isoform Facl1 or Facl2
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + (R)-ibuprofen + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + (R)-ibuprofenoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
(R)-ibuprofenoyl-CoA synthetase and long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase are identical enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of various xenobiotics
-
?
ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + acylate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + acyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
ATP + arachidonate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + arachidonoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + hexadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + hexadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at 36C the enzyme is required for the utilization of exogenous myristate by the N-myristoyltransferase. This requirement is not apparent at 24C or 30C, suggesting that another acylCoA synthetase activity with differing chain length and/or temperature optima exists
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
essential role in animal cell proliferation
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
acyl-CoA synthetase I is responsible for the production of long-chain acyl-CoA that is utilized solely for the synthesis of cellular lipids, while the acyl-CoA synthetase II provides long-chain acyl-CoA that is exclusively degraded via beta-oxidation
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
physiological significance of enzyme in fatty acid metabolism
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is essential for both oxidation and esterification of fatty acids
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme plays a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, particular in lipid metabolism
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
-
activates exogenous long-chain fatty acids concomitant with their transport across the inner membrane into metabolically active CoA thioesters
-
-
-
ATP + long-chain carboxylic acid + CoA
?
show the reaction diagram
Q63151
the presence in the brain of multiple forms of enzyme with different fatty acid specificity is of considerable biological significance for controlling the synthesis of brain lipids. ACS3 mRNA is detectable 5 days after birth, increases to a maximum level at 15 days, and then decreases gradually to 10% of its maximum level in the adult
-
-
-
ATP + o-succinyl-1-benzoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + o-succinyl-1-benzoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
a step in the bacterial biosynthesis of menaquinone from chorismate, pathway overview
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + octadecanoate + CoA
AMP + diphosphate + octadecanoyl-CoA
show the reaction diagram
O88813
-
-
-
?
luciferin + O2 + ATP
oxidized luciferin + CO2 + H2O + AMP + diphosphate + hv
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme in peroxisomes may keep the catalytic functions in bioluminescence and fatty acid metabolism
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
ACS1, ACS4 and ACS5 are regulated independently by fasting and refeeding. Fasting rats for 48 h results in a decrease in ACS4 protein and an increase in ACS5. ACS1 and ACS4 may be functionally channeled to specific metabolic pathways though different ACS isoforms in unique subcellular locations
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
lipidosin may mediate the link between adrenoleukodystrophy protein dysfunction and the impairment of fatty acid metabolism in Xlinked adrenoleukodystrophy
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays a central role in intermediary metabolism by catalyzing the formation of acyl-CoA. The enzyme functions in the vectorial movement of exogenous fatty acids across the plasma membrane by acting as a metabolic trap, which results in the formation of acyl-CoA esters
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
Acsl6 functions primarily in docosagexaenoic acid metabolism, its overexpression increases docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid internalization primarily during the first 24 h of neuronal differentiation to stimulate phospholipid and enhance neurite outgrowth
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
fatty acyl-CoA synthetase facilitates long chain fatty acid permeation of the inner membrane by a vectorial thioesterification
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
high glucose concentration and insulin induce ACS-5 expression. The effect of insulin is mediated by SREBP-1c. ACS-5 is involved in anabolism of fatty acids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
in vivo the loss of FATP4-mediated very long chain fatty acid uptake and/or esterification may underlie the null phenotype
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
inhibition of ACSL1 activity in adipocytes impairs fatty acid uptake, suggesting that esterification is essential for fatty acid transport. A constitutive interaction between the fatty acid transport protein FATP1 and ACSL1 contributes to efficient cellular uptake of long chain fatty acids in adipocytes through vectorial acylation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
it is hypothesized that the enzyme plays an important role in targeting free fatty acids to specific metabolic pathways or acylation sites in the cell, thus acting as an important control mechanism in fuel partitioning. Localization of the enzyme at the plasma membrane may serve to decrease free fatty acid efflux and trap free fatty acids within the cell as long-chain acyl CoA
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
lacs2-1 mutation results in a defective cutin layer
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase activity is essential for seedling development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the regulation of the FACL3/ACS3 expression by vitamin D3 is mediated by both androgen and androgen receptor, and suggests that increased FACL3/ACS3 expression by vitamin D3 is one of the components associated with antiproliferative effect of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer LNCaP cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
transcription of GR-LACS gene requires an Sp1/Sp3 binding element downstream of the transcriptional start sites which is essential for basal activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P08659
firefly luciferase has two catalytic functions, it can act as a monooxygenase, luciferase, EC 1.13.12.7, but can also synthesize a long-chain fatty acyl-CoA from various long-chain fatty acids in the presence of ATP, CoA and Mg2+
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
luciferase shows beetle luciferase may have arisen from a process of subfunctionalization as opposed to neofunctionalization early on in the evolution of the Elateroidea
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the acyl-CoA synthetase is involved in bacterial menaquinone biosynthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the OPC-8:CoA ligase catalyses an essential step in jasmonic acid biosynthesis by initiating the beta-oxidative chain shortening of the carboxylic acid side chain of its precursors, and, in accordance with this function, the protein is localized in peroxisomes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9HYU3, Q9HYU4
FadD1 has a substrate preference for long-chain fatty acids, while FadD2 prefers shorter-chain fatty acids
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
isoform Facl1 shows 156% activity and isoform Facl2 shows 193% activity at 1 mM
Co2+
-
isoform Facl2 shows 191% activity at 1 mM
Mg2+
-
high affinity triacsin C inhibition of both mitochondrial and microsomal enzyme form requires high concentrations of free Mg2+. Low affinity triacsin C inhibition is also enhanced by low Mg2+
Mg2+
-
required, 10 mM
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
Km: 1.554; required
Mg2+
-
Km: 0.555 mM; required
Mg2+
-
most effective activator of all cations
Mg2+
-
maximal activity at 15-20 mM MgCl2, no inhibition at higher concentrations; required
Mg2+
-
required
Salts
-
at low concentrations all salts, including the chaotropic salts, e.g. NaNO3, NaClO4 and KSCN, and thelyotropic salts, e.g. (NH4)2SO4 and potassium phosphate are equally effective in activation. At higher concentrations the chaotropic salts inhibit the enzyme activity. Activity can be recovered by dilution
Mn2+
-
divalent cation required, Mn2+ can replace Mg2+ in activation
additional information
-
K+, NH4+ and Na+ show no effects on the enzyme activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-icosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid
-
competitive inhibitor of palmitoleic acid activation
2-Bromopalmitate
-
inhibition can be overcome by addition of phospholipid vesicles
2-Bromopalmitoyl-CoA
-
inhibition can be overcome by addition of phospholipid vesicles
5'-deoxy-5'-[([(1E)-5-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-5-oxopent-1-en-1-yl]sulfonyl)amino]adenosine
-
mechanism of covalent inhibition
5'-deoxy-5'-[([(1E)-5-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]hexa-1,5-dien-1-yl]sulfonyl)amino]adenosine
-
mechanism of covalent inhibition
5'-deoxy-5'-[([4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-4-oxobutanoyl]sulfamoyl)amino]adenosine
-
mechanism of covalent inhibition
5'-deoxy-5'-[([4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]pent-4-enoyl]sulfamoyl)amino]adenosine
-
mechanism of covalent inhibition
5'-O-([4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-4-oxobutanoyl]sulfamoyl)adenosine
-
mechanism of covalent inhibition
5'-O-([4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]pent-4-enoyl]sulfamoyl)adenosine
-
mechanism of covalent inhibition
Ag+
-
isoform Facl1 shows 64% residual activity and isoform Facl2 shows 71% residual activity at 1 mM
arachidonate
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
inhibits palmitoyl-CoA synthesis at high concentrations
arachidonate
-
inhibition of palmitoyl-CoA synthesis
arachidonate
-
-
arachidonic acid
-
concentration above 10 microM
ATP
-
above 13.3 mM
ATP
-
above 15 mM
Brij 58
-
maximal inhibition at 4% detergent
cis-9,10-methylene octadecanoic acid
-
IC50: 0.025 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, 0.03-0.04 mM for ACS4-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS5-Flag fusion protein
Co2+
-
isoform Facl1 shows 50% residual activity at 1 mM
Cu2+
-
isoform Facl1 shows 64% residual activity and isoform Facl2 shows 33% residual activity at 1 mM
diphosphate
-
low inhibition of oleoyl-CoA synthesis
diphosphate
-
-
docosahexaenoate
-
unlabeled, inhibition of docosahexaenoate activation
EDTA
-
isoform Facl1 shows 12% residual activity and isoform Facl2 shows 26% residual activity at 1 mM
Eicosa-11,14,17-trienoic acid
-
competitive inhibitor of palmitoleic acid activation
Eicosa-8,11,14-trienoic acid
-
competitive inhibitor of palmitoleic acid activation
Eicosa-8,14-dienoic acid
-
competitive inhibitor of palmitoleic acid activation
eicosapentanoate
-
inhibition of palmitoyl-CoA synthesis
-
fatty acids
-
saturated fatty acids do not inhibit activation of docosahexaenoate or palmitate. Unsaturated fatty acids, except nervonic acid, inhibit the activation of docosahexaenoate acid. Moderate inhibition by oleate, linoleate, eicosapentanoate, and palmitate
fatty acids
-
palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate are competitive inhibitors of the activation of each other
Fe2+
-
isoform Facl1 shows 57% residual activity and isoform Facl2 shows 36% residual activity at 1 mM
GW1929
-
IC50: above 0.05 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, 0.05 mM for ACS4-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS5-Flag fusion protein
Ketoprofen
-
non-competitive inhibition of the high affinity isoform
linoleate
-
inhibition of palmitoyl-CoA synthesis
linoleic acid
-
concentration above 10 microM
linolenate
-
inhibition of palmitoyl-CoA synthesis
Naproxen
-
non-competitive inhibition of the high affinity isoform
NEM
-
strongly inhibits ACS5 and weakly inhibits ACS1, no effect on ACS5
Ni2+
-
isoform Facl1 shows 1.3% residual activity and isoform Facl2 shows no activity at 1 mM
oleate
-
inhibition of palmitoyl-CoA synthesis
oleic acid
-
concentration above 10 microM
oleoyl-CoA
-
inhibition of oleoyl-CoA synthesis
palmitate
-
linolenic acid activation
Perfluorodecanoic acid
-
no inhibition by short-chain perfluorinated fatty acids
Perfluorononanoic acid
-
no inhibition by short-chain perfluorinated fatty acids
Perfluorooctanoic acid
-
no inhibition by short-chain perfluorinated fatty acids
pioglitazone
-
IC50: 0.0015 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS4-Flag fusion protein and ACS5-Flag fusion protein
R-Fenoprofen
-
mixed inhibition of the high affinity isoform
R-Ibuprofen
-
mixed inhibition of the high affinity isoform
rosiglitazone
-
IC50: 0.0005 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS4-Flag fusion protein and ACS5-Flag fusion protein
Salts
-
at higher concentrations the chaotropic salts inhibit the enzyme activity, activity can be recovered by dilution. At low concentrations all salts, including the chaotropic salts and thelyotropic salts are equally effective in activation
-
SDS
-
isoform Facl1 shows 1.3% residual activity and isoform Facl2 shows 2.6% residual activity at 0.05% (w/v)
Sodium cholate
-
maximal inhibition at 1% detergent
Sodium deoxycholate
-
-
thiazolidinediones
-
specific inhibitors of ACS4
thiazolidinediones
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
-
triacsin
-
competitive inhibitor of both ACS1 and ACS4
Triacsin A
-
isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. SK-1894, the anti-atherosclerotic agent acts as selective enzyme inhibitor, it inhibits the synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol in peritoneal macrophages
Triacsin A
-
non-competitive with respect to ATP and coenzyme A
Triacsin C
-
in intact cultured cells the inhibition of arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, EC 6.2.1.15, is much greater than the inhibition of nonspecific acyl-CoA synthetase
Triacsin C
-
strongly inhibits ACS1 and ACS4, no effect on ACS5
Triacsin C
P33124
IC50: 0.0055 mM
Triacsin C
-
competitive inhibitor of palmitate binding for microsomal and mitochondrial enzyme, uncompetitive inhibitor versus CoA. Biphasic Dixon plot, a high-affinity site with a Ki of 0.0001 mM accounts for a maximum of 70% of the inhibition. A low affinity site with a Ki of 0.006 mM accounts for a maximum of 30% inhibition
Triacsin C
-
no effect on FATP4 acyl-CoA synthetase activity towards n-tetracosanoic acid, inhibits activity with palmitate with IC50 of 0.03 mM
Triacsin C
-
90% inhibition at 0.02 mM
Triacsin C
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
;
Triacsin C
-
significant inhibition
Triacsin C
-
0.02 mM
Triacsin C
O95573
95% inhibition at 0.005 mM
Triacsin C
-
isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. SK-1894, the anti-atherosclerotic agent acts as selective enzyme inhibitor, it inhibits the synthesis of cholesteryl ester and triacylglycerol in peritoneal macrophages
Triacsin C
-
-
Triacsin C
-
i.e. 1-hydroxy-3-(E,E,E-2',4',7'-undecatrienylidine)triazene, potent competitive inhibitor
Triacsin C
-
-
Triacsins
-
hierarchy of inhibitory potency in decreasing order: triacsin C, triacsin A, triacsin D/ triacsin B
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
Inhibition of acyl-CoA formation, inhibits ACSL6 isoform 2 (F-Gate) and its N-terminus truncated version, DELTAN-(F-Gate)
Triton X-100
-
slight inhibition when incubated with microsomes at 0C for 30 min
Triton X-100
-
maximal inhibition at 4% detergent
troglitazone
-
IC50: 0.0015 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS4-Flag fusion protein and ACS5-Flag fusion protein
troglitazone
-
ACS4
troglitazone
-
no effect on FATP4 acyl-CoA synthetase activity towards n-tetracosanoic acid up to 0.05 mM, inhibits activity with palmitate with IC50 of 0.02 mM
troglitazone
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
0.05 mM, 5% inhibition
Tween 80
-
maximal inhibition at 4% detergent
Zn2+
-
isoform Facl1 shows 13% residual activity and isoform Facl2 shows 0.36% residual activity at 1 mM
Zwittergent 3-12
-
inhibition below the critical micellar concentration, 0.12%. below this concentrations no inhibition
Mn2+
-
isoform Facl1 shows 28% residual activity and isoform Facl2 shows 40% residual activity at 1 mM
additional information
-
3-phenoxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid, ibuprofen, ferulic acid and firefly luciferin, at concentrations up to 0.05 mM have no effect on three ACS isoenzymes
-
additional information
P33124
isoenzyme ACSL3 maintains activity in presence of 2-3 mM Triton X-100. Isoenzyme ACSL6_v1 is insensitive to rosiglitazone; isoenzyme ACSL6_v1 maintains activity in presence of 2-3 mM Triton X-100. Isoenzyme ACSL6_v1 is insensitive to rosiglitazone and is not affected by triacsin C up to concentrations of 0.05 mM; isoenzyme ACSL6_v2 maintains optimal activity up to 4 mM Triton X-100. Isoenzyme ACSL6_v2 is insensitive to rosiglitazone and is not affected by triacsin C up to concentrations of 0.05 mM
-
additional information
Q8JZR0, Q91WC3, Q9CZW4, Q9QUJ7
not inhibited by thiazolidinediones; not inhibited by thiazolidinediones; not inhibited by triacsin C; not inhibited by triacsin C; not inhibited by triacsin C
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 4,4,10 beta-trimethyl-trans-decal-3 beta-ol
-
additional information
-
design and construction of mechanism-based inhibitors of MenE
-
additional information
-
an ACSL6 construct with a tag at its C-terminus has a far lower activity than a construct with a tag fused to its N-terminus
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
phosphatidylcholine
-
absolute requirement, acyl-CoA synthetase II
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
slight stimulation, acyl-CoA synthetase II
phosphatidylserine
-
slight stimulation, acyl-CoA synthetase II
Triacsin C
-
ACSL activity is 17fold higher in the presence of 0.02 mM triacsin C
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
P38137, P38225, P39518
-
Triton X-100
-
isoform Facl1 shows 1.3% activity and isoform Facl2 shows 232% activity at 1% (v/v)
Triton X-100
-
enhances activity
alpha-synuclein
-
0.0063-0.634 mM
-
additional information
-
the enzyme is inducible by wounding
-
additional information
-
specific Gate-domain residues are essential for activity, detailed overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.167
(11Z)-eicosenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.253
(15Z)-tetracosenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.222
(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosahexaenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.017
(5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z)-eicosatetraenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.048
(6Z)-octadecenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.02
(6Z,12Z, 15Z)-octadecatrienoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.009
(6Z,9Z,12Z)-octadecatrienoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.109
(9E)-octadecenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.009
(9Z)-hexadecenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.024
(9Z)-octadecenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.009
(9Z)-tetradecenoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.021
(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.0314
16-hydroxypalmitic acid
-
isoenzyme LACS2
0.0375
18:3(n-3) fatty acid
-
-
-
0.06
20:3(n-6) fatty acid
-
-
-
0.41 - 0.43
4'-phosphopantetheine
-
-
3.3
4'-phosphopantetheine
-
-
0.0065
arachidonate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v2
0.0089
arachidonate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL3
0.0193
arachidonate
-
-
0.0337
arachidonate
-
-
0.059
arachidonate
-
-
9.7
arachidonate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v1
0.025
ATP
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6
0.033
ATP
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
0.033
ATP
-
nonanoate
0.034
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS4
0.05
ATP
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6
0.05
ATP
-
CoA
0.0516
ATP
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, at 30C
0.06
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme G219A
0.087
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl, at pH 7.4
0.11
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme G216A
0.125
ATP
-
mutant L399M, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl at pH 7.4
0.13
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme T214A; pH 7.5, 37C, wild-type enzyme
0.185
ATP
-
-
0.242
ATP
-
mutant Q525K, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl, at pH 7.4
0.402
ATP
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL3
0.44
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme K222A
0.5
ATP
Q63151
-
0.5
ATP
-
N6-etheno-CoA
0.502
ATP
-
mutant S291Y, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl, at pH 7.4
0.53
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme T217A
0.649
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS1
0.666
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS5
0.73
ATP
-
-
1.4
ATP
-
-
1.48
ATP
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v2
2.3 - 2.4
ATP
-
-
4.1
ATP
-
at 20 mM MgCl2
12.21
ATP
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v1
0.0064
caproate
-
isoform Facl1, at pH 7.5 and 60C
0.00053
CoA
Q63151
-
0.0024
CoA
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS5
0.0024
CoA
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v2
0.003
CoA
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL3
0.0041
CoA
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS4
0.00488
CoA
-
-
0.0064
CoA
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS1
0.0064
CoA
-
mutant S291Y, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl, at pH 7.4
0.0067
CoA
-
wild type enzyme, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl, at pH 7.4
0.0068
CoA
-
mutant Q525K, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl at pH 7.4
0.0072
CoA
-
activation of palmitic acid
0.0088
CoA
-
mutant L399M, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl at pH 7.4
0.0094
CoA
-
activation of oleic acid
0.0183
CoA
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, at 30C
0.026 - 0.028
CoA
-
-
0.034
CoA
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6
0.035
CoA
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
0.042
CoA
-
-
0.047
CoA
-
-
0.048
CoA
-
-
0.053
CoA
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6
4.7
CoA
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v1
1.93
coenzyme A
-
oleate activation
12.5 - 13.3
dATP
-
-
0.004
Decanoate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
0.0043
Decanoate
-
-
0.0063
Decanoate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6
0.0083
Decanoate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6
0.11
dephospho-CoA
-
-
0.23 - 0.29
dephospho-CoA
-
-
0.1
dodecanoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.0155
eicosapentaenoate
-
-
0.0102
heptadecanoate
-
-
0.026
Heptanoate
-
-
0.014
hexadecanoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.0112
hexanoate
-
-
0.00051
laurate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6
0.0016
laurate
-
-
0.0019
laurate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6
0.002
laurate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
0.00168
lauric acid
-
-
0.00741
lauric acid
-
-
0.0163
lauric acid
-
-
0.00222
linoleate
-
-
0.0128
linoleate
-
-
0.041
linoleate
-
-
0.041
linoleate
-
ATP, , oleate activation
0.00188
linoleic acid
-
-
0.00164
linolenate
-
-
0.0002
myristate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6
0.0012
myristate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6
0.0021
myristate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
0.0024
myristate
-
palmitate
0.0048
n-tetracosanoic acid
-
-
0.061
octadecanoate
-
pH 7.5, 30C
0.072
octadecanoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.00072
Octanoate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6
0.0059
Octanoate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6
0.0125
Octanoate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
0.0408
Octanoate
-
-
0.00139
oleate
-
-
0.0051
oleate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL3
0.0053
oleate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v2
0.0085
oleate
-
-
0.0229
oleate
-
-
0.03
oleate
-
-
0.0711
oleate
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 10 mM MgCl2, at 30C
3
oleate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v1
0.101
oleic acid
-
-
0.00021
palmitate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6
0.00278
palmitate
-
-
0.0029
palmitate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6
0.0036
palmitate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v2
0.0043
palmitate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL3
0.005
palmitate
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS1
0.0054
palmitate
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS4
0.0086
palmitate
-
pH 7.5, 37C, ACS5
0.011
palmitate
-
-
0.013
palmitate
-
-
0.0143
palmitate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
0.02
palmitate
-
mutant Q525K, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl at pH 7.4
0.0211
palmitate
-
mutant S291Y, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl at pH 7.4
0.0238
palmitate
-
mutant L399M, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl at pH 7.4
0.0281
palmitate
-
wild type enzyme, at 37C, in 175 mM Tris-HCl at pH 7.4
0.032
palmitate
-
isoform Facl2, at pH 7.5 and 60C
0.0455
palmitate
-
-
0.0814
palmitate
-
isoenzyme LACS2
6
palmitate
P33124
pH 7.4, isoenzyme ACSL6_v1
0.0015
palmitoleate
-
-
0.00204
palmitoleate
-
-
1.1 - 1.2
pantetheine
-
-
2.5
pantetheine
-
-
0.0022
Pentadecanoate
-
-
0.00017
stearate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6
0.00028
stearate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6
0.0089
stearate
-
-
0.0091
stearate
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
0.028
stearate
-
-
0.12
stearate
-
-
0.01
tetradecanoate
Q9FNT6
pH 8.5, 30C
0.0034
tridecanoate
-
-
0.0013
Undecanoate
-
-
0.0073
linolenate
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
Michaelis-Menten kinetics
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.003
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme T214A
0.008
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme G216A; pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme K222A; pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme T217A
0.017
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, mutant enzyme G219A
0.029
ATP
-
pH 7.5, 37C, wild-type enzyme
0.278
lauric acid
-
-
0.651
lauric acid
-
-
0.5
tetradecanoate
-
enzyme TbACS1
1.1
tetradecanoate
-
enzyme TbACS3
1.2
tetradecanoate
-
enzyme TbACS4
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
37.5
caproate
-
isoform Facl1, at pH 7.5 and 60C
3991
9.6
palmitate
-
isoform Facl2, at pH 7.5 and 60C
517
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
additional information
-
biphasic Dixon plot with the inhibitor triacsin C. A high-affinity site with a Ki of 0.0001 mM accounts for a maximum of 70% of the inhibition. A low affinity site with a Ki of 0.006 mM accounts for a maximum of 30% inhibition
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0057
5'-deoxy-5'-[([(1E)-5-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-5-oxopent-1-en-1-yl]sulfonyl)amino]adenosine
-
-
0.2
5'-deoxy-5'-[([(1E)-5-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]hexa-1,5-dien-1-yl]sulfonyl)amino]adenosine
-
above
0.034
5'-deoxy-5'-[([4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-4-oxobutanoyl]sulfamoyl)amino]adenosine
-
-
0.2
5'-deoxy-5'-[([4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]pent-4-enoyl]sulfamoyl)amino]adenosine
-
above
0.038
5'-O-([4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-4-oxobutanoyl]sulfamoyl)adenosine
-
-
0.2
5'-O-([4-[2-(methoxycarbonyl)phenyl]pent-4-enoyl]sulfamoyl)adenosine
-
above
0.025
cis-9,10-methylene octadecanoic acid
-
IC50: 0.025 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, 0.03-0.04 mM for ACS4-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS5-Flag fusion protein
0.05
GW1929
-
IC50: above 0.05 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, 0.05 mM for ACS4-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS5-Flag fusion protein
0.0015
pioglitazone
-
IC50: 0.0015 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS4-Flag fusion protein and ACS5-Flag fusion protein
0.0005
rosiglitazone
-
IC50: 0.0005 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS4-Flag fusion protein and ACS5-Flag fusion protein
0.00016
Triacsin A
-
inhibition of triacylglycerol synthesis
0.00018
Triacsin A
-
inhibition of cholesteryl ester synthesis
0.0001
Triacsin C
-
inhibition of triacylglycerol synthesis
0.00019
Triacsin C
-
inhibition of cholesteryl ester synthesis
0.0055
Triacsin C
P33124
IC50: 0.0055 mM
0.03
Triacsin C
-
no effect on FATP4 acyl-CoA synthetase activity towards n-tetracosanoic acid, inhibits activity with palmitate with IC50 of 0.03 mM
0.0015
troglitazone
-
IC50: 0.0015 mM for ACS1-Flag fusion protein, no effect on ACS4-Flag fusion protein and ACS5-Flag fusion protein
0.02
troglitazone
-
no effect on FATP4 acyl-CoA synthetase activity towards n-tetracosanoic acid up to 0.05 mM, inhibits activity with palmitate with IC50 of 0.02 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.00094
-
oleoyl-CoA formation, pH 7.5, 30C
0.017
-
formation of (R)-ibuprofenoyl-CoA
0.121
-
in the presence of 10 mM MnCl2, at pH 8.0
0.145
-
in the presence of 10 mM MgCl2, at pH 8.0
0.28
-
formation of palmitoyl-CoA
0.723
-
-
1.103
-
-
2.8
-
isoform Facl1, using caproate as substrate, at pH 7.5 and 60C
4.62
Q63151
-
8.7
-
isoform Facl2, using palmitate as substrate, at pH 7.5 and 60C
26.2
-
mitochondrial enzyme
28.7
-
microsomal enzyme
additional information
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7.1 - 9.6
-
-
7.4 - 9.1
-
-
7.5 - 8.3
-
-
7.5 - 8.5
Q63151
-
7.5 - 8.5
-
-
7.5
-
substrate: palmitate
7.5
Q5CD72
assay at
7.5
-
assay at
7.8 - 8.9
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-5.0
8
-
assay at
8.1
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6 and acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6. Acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6 has a second optimum at pH 8.5-9.4
8.4
-
pristanoyl-CoA formation
8.5 - 9.4
-
acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6 has a second optimum at pH 8.1
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6 - 9
-
about 60% of maximal activity at pH 6.0 and pH 9.0
6 - 9.8
-
pH 6: about 50% of maximal activity, pH 8.9: about 60% of maximal activity
6.5 - 8.8
-
6.5: about 50% of maximal activity, 8.8: about 70% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7.4 - 8
-
ACS5
7.4 - 9
-
ACS1 and ACS4
20
Q5CD72
assay at
30
-
assay at
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
-
estimated from amino acid sequence
7.58
P38137, P38225, P39518
calculated from amino acid sequence
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
P33124
gonadal and inguinal adipose tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q63151
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expressed exclusively in brain, adrenal gland and testis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
tissue expression patterns of acs-3, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highly expressed in vascular endothelium
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
coronary microvessel, cell culture
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q63151
most abundant in
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expressed exclusively in brain, adrenal gland and testis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P33124
ACSL3 and ACSL6 are the predominant isoforms in brain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low FACT3 expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FNT6
strong enzyme expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme LACS8 shows the highest expression level in the embryo
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highly expressed in vascular endothelium of heart and aorta
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest expression level in enterocytes at the villus tip
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of Macaca mulatta or Macaca fascicularis infected with Plasmodium knowlesi
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FNT6
strong enzyme expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P33124
gonadal adipose tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highly expressed in vascular endothelium
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P33124
inguinal adipose tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q63151
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
tissue expression patterns of acs-3, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression is limited to cells of the adaxial and abaxial epidermal layers, isoenzyme LACS2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression levels of OPCL1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
hepatic ACS-5 mRNA is poorly expressed during fasting and diabetes and strongly induced by carbohydrate refeeding and insulin treatment
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
FACL3/ACS3 is the dominant isoform of FACL/ACS expressed in LNCaP cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low FACT3 expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
FACL3 protein expression and its regulation by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and its synthetic analogues EB1089 and CB1093 in prostate cancer cells, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
LACS1, LACS2, LACS4, LACS8, and LACS9
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
aortic, levels of isozymes ACSL1, ACSL3, and ACSL5, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expressed exclusively in brain, adrenal gland and testis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q5FVE4
exclusively found in testis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
expressed in young, rapidly expanding tissues, isoenzyme LACS2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
tissue distribution of isozyme expression, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
P33124
not detected in liver
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
O88813
ACSL5 is expressed predominantly in tissues with high rates of triacylglycerol synthesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
only LACS9 resides in the plastid, the site of de novo fatty acid synthesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P38137, P38225, P39518
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Ad-ACSL-5, long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 5 overexpressed in rat hepatoma McRrdle-RG7777 cells mediated by adenovirus colocalizes to both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P38137, P38225, P39518
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mitochondria-associated membrane, ACS1, ACS4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FNT6
most highly active in light membrane fraction
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme form acyl-CoA synthetase II
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme form acyl-CoA synthetase I
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme form acyl-CoA synthetase I
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mitochondrial membrane, ACS5. ACS1 is not detected in mitochondria
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cytoplasmic side of the peroxisomal membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
fatty acyl-CoA synthetase facilitates long chain fatty acid permeation of the inner membrane by a vectorial thioesterification
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ACSl5 is the only isoform of long chain acyl-CoA synthetase partly located on mitochondria. Ad-ACSL-5, long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 5 overexpressed in rat hepatoma McRrdle-RG7777 cells mediated by adenovirus colocalizes to both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
subcellular localization of isozymes, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q6P1M0
not found at the plasma membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q91VE0
not found at the plasma membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
not localized in mitochondrion or plasma membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
subcellular localization study
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain CDC 1551 / Oshkosh)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain CDC 1551 / Oshkosh)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain CDC 1551 / Oshkosh)
Rhodopseudomonas palustris (strain ATCC BAA-98 / CGA009)
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
45000 - 47000
-
gel filtration
753
50000
-
sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation
753
52500
-
SDS-PAGE
672684
64000
Q924N5
SDS-PAGE, only in the ovary
675688
64000
-
SDS-PAGE, only in the brain
675688
72000
Q9UKU0
predicted molecular mass
672807
75000
-
SDS-PAGE
673484
77870
P38137, P38225, P39518
calculated from amino acid sequence
672419
78000
Q6QLU3
SDS-PAGE
675867
79000
Q924N5
SDS-PAGE
675688
79000
-
SDS-PAGE
675688
80000
-
SDS-PAGE
675554
118000
-
gel filtration
728248
130000
-
gel filtration, gradient PAGE
761
145000
-
gel filtration
672418
150000
-
gel filtration
726876
150000
-
gel filtration
728689
250000
-
aggregates quite readily to form species with MW of over 1 million, gel filtration
763
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 62028, calculation from nucleotide sequence
?
-
x * 78177, liver enzyme, caculation from nucleotide sequence
?
-
SDS-PAGE results in 4 protein components with MW 135000, 115000, 65000 and 55000
?
-
x * 76000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 42000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 84000, SDS-PAGE, enzyme form acyl-CoA synthetase I
?
Q9FNT6
x * 76000, calculation from nucleotide sequence
?
-
x * 81516, calculation from nucleotide sequence
dimer
-
SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * or 3 * 47000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
-
2 * 74000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
-
2 * 75000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
-
2 * 59000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
-
2 * 72500, gel filtration
trimer
-
3 * or 2 * 47000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
-
2 * 59000, SDS-PAGE
-
additional information
-
fatty acid transport protein FATP1 and ACSL1 participate in an oligomeric complex in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The interaction between ACSL1 and FATP1 is constitutive
additional information
-
FadDs contain ATP/AMP signature and FA-binding motifs
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
-
the phosphorylation of the enzyme by protein kinase A and protein kinase C is hormone-dependent. Phosphorylation occurs after active dimer formation
additional information
-
enzyme does not contain carbohydrate, phospholipid and fatty acid
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, crystallization of apoenzyme, enzyme in complex with adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate and enzyme in complex with myristoyl-AMP
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5 - 11
-
at pH levels from 5.0 to 11.0, isoform Facl activity increases along with an increase of pH, with the maximum activity obtained at pH 7.5, and about 40% of the highest activity still remains at pH 10.0 for isoform Facl1, and about 40% of the highest activity still remains at pH 9.5 for isoform Facl2
728248
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
complete inactivation within 24 h
761
35
-
2.5 min: 17-20% loss of activity, 5 min: 33-37% loss of activity, 15 min: 58-59% loss of activity
764
37
-
half-life is 26.5 min
755
43
-
half-life: about 10 min for ACS1, shorter thah 1 min fpr ACS4 and about 4 min for ACS5
652138
43
P33124
half-life of isoenzyme ACSL6_v1 is 5 min; half-life of isoenzyme ACSL6_v2 is 5 min
661181
45
-
half-life of palmitoyl-CoA synthetase activity: 18 min, half-life of oleoyl-CoA synthetase activity: 4 min, half-life of arachidonyl-CoA synthetase activity: 49 min
747
45
-
half-life: 3.3 min
755
45
-
half-life: 15 min
765
46
-
5 min: 22% loss of acyl-CoA synthetase-4.6 activity, 38% loss of acyl-CoA synthetase-5.6 activity, 80% loss of acyl-CoA synthetase 5.0 activity
751
60
-
about 40% of the highest activity of isoform Facl1 still remains after incubation at 60C for 16 h, and above 50% of the highest isoform Facl2 activity still remains after incubation at 60C for 8 h
728248
additional information
-
heat inactivation does not distinguish between arachidonoyl-CoA synthetase, EC 6.2.1.15, and palmitoyl-CoA synthetase
637
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
100 mM potassium phosphate stabilizes at 4C
-
ATP, stabilizes at 4EC
-
36% loss of activity after freezing and thawing
-
stable to 24 h dialysis at 0EC, against 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, containing 2 mM Triton X-100, 2 mM DTT, 1 mM EDTA
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-70C, indefinitely stable
-
4C, 10 mM potassium phosphate, 12 h, 70% loss of activity. 100 mM potassium phosphate or ATP stabilizes
-
-70C, stable for at least 4 months
-
-70C, stable for at least 1 month
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
partial, recombinant enzyme
Q9FNT6
Ni-chelate affinity column chromatography
-
nickel chelating Sepharose column chromatography
-
partial
-
recombinant N-terminally His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by metal affinity chromatography
-
recombinant His-tagged AcsA by nickel affinity chromatography
Q5CD72
ACS3, one of multiple forms of enzyme in brain
Q63151
M2-anti-FLAG agarose column chromatography
-
Ni-NTA resin column chromatography and Sephacryl S-200 HR gel filtration
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in a yeast fat1DELTA mutant which is deficient in both very-long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity and exogenous fatty acid uptake
-
gene faaB or AN8280.3, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis. The faaBD strain is complemented by transformation with a plasmid containing the original gene and its flanking region as well as an Aspergillus fumigatus riboB marker gene, pKR7320, and riboflavin prototrophic transformants are selected. Expression of GFP-fusion proteins GFP-FaaA and GFPFaaB
-
expression in Escherichia coli
Q9FNT6
gene acs-3, expression as GFP-tagged protein in worm embryos
-
dACS1, genotyping
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
ACSL6 isoforms and truncated constructs, splicing variants, sequence organization, overview, expression of His-tagged full-length ACSL6 isoform 2 (F-Gate) and DELTAN-truncated version of isoform 1 (DELTAN-(Y-Gate)) in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) membranes
-
expressed in COS-7 cells
Q5FVE4
expressed in Escherichia coli
Q9UKU0
expressed in Pt-K2 cells
Q6P1M0
FACL3, quantitative real-time quantitative PCR expression analysis
-
gene acs-3, quantitative reverse transcription PCR expression analysis
-
expressed in COS cells
Q924N5
expressed in COS-7 cells
-
expressed in MDCK cells; expression in COS-7 cells
Q91VE0
expression in COS1 cells
-
menE, expression of N-terminally His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, overview
P08659
gene fadD1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination, genetic organization, complemention of Escherichia coli strain fadD-/fadR- strain E2011. SMART mapping of the transcriptional start site for fadD1; gene fadD2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination, genetic organization, complemention of Escherichia coli strain fadD-/fadR- strain E2011. SMART mapping of the transcriptional start site fadD1
Q9HYU3, Q9HYU4
gene acsA, expression of His-tagged enzyme
Q5CD72
ACS3, one of multiple forms of enzyme in brain, expression in COS cells
Q63151
ACSl5, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis
O88813
ectopical overexpression of ACSL5 in rat hepatoma McArdle-RH7777 cells
-
expressed in COS cells
-
expressed in rat primary hepatocytes
-
expression in Cos-1 cells
Q924N5
expression of ACS-Flag fusion proteins in Escherichia coli
-
expression of isoenzyme ACS1 in PC12 cells. Overexpression of ACS1 increases the rate of oleic acid internalization by 55%, and arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid uptake is increased by 25%, but there is no significant change in neurite outgrowth; expression of isoenzyme ACS2 in PC12 cells. Overexpression of ACS2 increases the rate of oleic acid internalization by 90%, arachidonic acid by 115%, docosahexaenoic acid by 70%. ACS2 enhances neurote outgrowth by promoting polyunsaturated fatty acid internalization
P33124
expression of isoenzyme ACSL6_v1 in Escherichia coli; expression of isoenzyme ACSL6_v2 in Escherichia coli
P33124
isoforms 1-5 of Rattus norvegicus long chain acyl-CoA synthetase are expressed in Escherichia coli. Specific activities are 1.6-20fold higher than wild-type control strain expressing FadD. Only ACS5 restores growth on oleate as the sole carbon source in Escherichia coli; isoforms 1-5 of Rattus norvegicus long chain acyl-CoA synthetase are expressed in Escherichia coli. Specific activities are 1.6-20fold higher than wild-type control strain expressing FadD. Only ACS5 restores growth on oleate as the sole carbon source in Escherichia coli; isoforms 1-5 of Rattus norvegicus long chain acyl-CoA synthetase are expressed in Escherichia coli. Specific activities are 1.6-20fold higher than wild-type control strain expressing FadD. Only ACS5 restores growth on oleate as the sole carbon source in Escherichia coli fad
Q63151
liver enzyme
-
overexpression in PC12 cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
heterologous expression of TplacsA in yeast fatty acid activation depletion strain faa4DELTA. TplacsA transformants are able to incorporate more docosahexaenoic acid in triacylglycerols than the control yeast
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, luciferase-like paralogues are located in close proximity on a chromosome, overview
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
FaaB but not FaaA is induced in the presence of both sort-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids
-
there is a 6.7fold increase and a 10.8fold increase in the mRNA levels of isoforms facl1 and facl2, respectively, when crude oil is used as a sole carbon source instead of sucrose
-
there is a 6.7fold increase and a 10.8fold increase in the mRNA levels of isoforms facl1 and facl2, respectively, when crude oil is used as a sole carbon source instead of sucrose
-
-
GSK-3beta inhibitors attenuate ACSL3 expression and the lipid accumulation induced by ER stress in HuH-7 cells. shRNA that target GSK-3beta also inhibits the upregulation of ACSL3 and lipid accumulation in HuH-7 and HepG2 cells
-
adenocarcinomas with an invasive phenotype and enhanced proliferation show decreased levels of isoform ACSL5
-
expression of ACSL3 is induced by ER stress in HuH-7 cells. shRNA that target GSK-3beta also inhibits the upregulation of ACSL3 and lipid accumulation in HuH-7 and HepG2 cells
-
FACL3 is upregulated by 1alpha, 25(OH)2D3 at an mRNA and enzyme activity levels in prostate cancer cells, overview
-
lipid-induced up-regulation of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 promotes hepatocellular apoptosis. ACSL5 expression is enhanced in steatotic liver
-
long chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity is upregulated in poliovirus-infected cells
-
functional expression in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in the accumulation of 18-, 19-, and 20-carbon monounsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoic acid. The transformant efficiently elongates exogenous 9-hexadecenoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
C8KHM6
functional expression in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in the accumulation of 18-, 19-, and 20-carbon monounsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoic acid. The transformant efficiently elongates exogenous 9-hexadecenoic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
Mortierella alpina 1S-4
-
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
C343S
-
no luminescence enhancement
C343S/G344T
-
no luminescence enhancement
C343S/G344T/L345S
-
increase of luminescence activity to 100%
C343S/L345S
-
increase of luminescence activity
G344T
-
no luminescence enhancement
G344T/L345S
-
increase of luminescence activity to 27%
L216R
-
no luminescence enhancement
Q419R
-
naturally occuring mutant of dAcs1
W685stop
-
naturally occuring mutant of dAcs1, W685stop removes the last 33 amino acids
E361A
-
inactive mutant enzyme
G216A
-
the ratio of turnover number to Km-value for the reaction with oleate is 32.7% of the wild-type ratio
G219A
-
the ratio of turnover number to Km-value for the reaction with oleate is 1.3fold higher than the wild-type ratio
K222A
-
the ratio of turnover number to Km-value for the reaction with oleate is 8% of the wild-type ratio
N431A
-
18 site-directed mutantions within the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase structural gene fadD corresponding to the FACS signature. Only one substitution results in wild-type fatty acyl-CoA synthetase activity profiles, 10 substitutions with abolished or greatly diminished enzyme activity, and seven substitutions with altered fatty acid chain length specificity. Of these seven, five also have reduced activity compared with the wild-type enzyme
T214A
-
the ratio of turnover number to Km-value for the reaction with oleate is 10.3% of the wild-type ratio
T217A
-
the ratio of turnover number to Km-value for the reaction with oleate is 6.7% of the wild-type ratio
Y213A
-
inactive mutant enzyme
F319A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
F319W
-
site-directed mutagenesis
F319Y
-
site-directed mutagenesis
H316L
-
site-directed mutagenesis
Y319A
-
site-directed mutagenesis
G401L
-
inactive enzyme
Q525K
-
reduced activity
S291Y
-
mutant prefers 20:5 and 22:6 substrates and has an increased Km for ATP
L345S
-
enhancement of luminescence
additional information
-
construction of opcl1 mutant, At1g20510-KO-1, plants, which show no induction of jasmonate by wounding in contrast to the wild-type plants, jasmonate profiles in leaves, overview
additional information
-
generation of fatA, fatB, fatC and fatD deletion strains. Deletion of faaB leads to growth defects on fatty acids but does not affect the induction of genes involved in beta-oxidation, phenotype, overview
K294E
-
naturally occuring mutant of dAcs1, K294E is located in the AMP-binding domain
additional information
-
chimeric protein with firefly luciferase, EC 1.13.12.7, 4% of luminescence activity from Photinus pyralis luciferase activity
L316H
-
site-directed mutagenesis
additional information
-
mutants of full-length ACSL6 isoform 2 (F-Gate) and DELTAN-truncated version of isoform 1 (DELTAN-(Y-Gate)) are obtained by site-directed mutagenesis of the H/L residue pair at position 316 and of the F/Y residue pair at position 319. An ACSL6 construct with a tag at its C-terminus has a far lower activity than a construct with a tag fused to its N-terminus
additional information
-
overexpression of ACSL1 results in a less marked increase in arachidonoyl-CoA synthesis
additional information
-
overexpression of ACSL5 decreases HepG2 cell viability and increases susceptibility to TRAIL- and TNFalpha-, but not FAS- induced apoptosis, whereas knockdown of ACSL5 reduces apoptosis susceptibility
Y319F
-
site-directed mutagenesis
additional information
-
specific knockout of ACSL1 in mice leads to 30% increased fat mass when fed a low-fat diet, and normal fat mass with high-fat diet. The mutants incorporate oleate into fatty acids normally, but show 50-90% reduced fatty acid oxidation rates compared to the wild-type. The mutant mice are cold-intolerant and insensitive to beta3-adrenergic agonist activation, phenotype, overview
additional information
-
construction of fadD1 mutants, phenotype, overview
L399M
-
no significant alteration of activity compared to the wild type enzyme
additional information
O88813
siRNA knockdown of ACSL5 in rat primary hepatocytes