Information on EC 3.1.1.47 - 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase

New: Word Map on EC 3.1.1.47
Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
3.1.1.47
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
stereochemistry
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
Arg29 and Arg22 in the one monomer contribute to the catalytic competence of the active site across the dimer interface, and complement the catalytic triad of Ser47, Asp192, and His195 in the second monomer
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
hydrolysis and inactivation of the lipid mediator platelet-activating factor PAF and/or oxidized phospholipids
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
isozyme II of the enzyme also performs platelet-activating factor-dependent transacetylation, transfer of an acetyl group from platelet-activating factor to endogenous acceptor lipids
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism, substrates can only bind in the aqueous phase to the active site of the plasma isozyme at the membrane-water interphase, catalytic triad is formed by Ser273, His351, and Asp296
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
the catalytic triad of the extracellular plasma enzyme form is of the alpha/beta-hydrolase type
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
the enzyme possesses both acetylhydrolase and transacetylase activities which remove PAF and its ether-linked analogues from LDL-particles upon LDL oxidation
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of carboxylic ester
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Ether lipid metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine acetohydrolase
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: acetylhydrolase
-
-
-
-
1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerophosphocholine esterase
-
-
-
-
1-alkyl-2-acetyllecithin deacetylase
-
-
-
-
2-acetyl-1-alkylglycerophosphocholine esterase
-
-
-
-
acetylhydrolase
-
-
-
-
alkylacetyl-GPC:acetylhydrolase
-
-
-
-
blood platelet-activating factor-acetyl hydrolase
-
-
-
-
deacetylase, 1-alkyl-2-acetyllecithin
-
-
-
-
HSD-PLA2
-
-
-
-
LDL-associated phospholipase A2
-
-
-
-
LDL-PLA(2)
-
-
-
-
Lissencephaly-1 protein
-
-
-
-
PAF 2-acylhydrolase
-
-
-
-
PAF acetylhydrolase
-
-
-
-
PAF-acetylhydrolase
-
-
-
-
PAF-AH
-
-
-
-
PAF-AH alpha
-
-
-
-
PAFAH alpha
-
-
-
-
phosphatide 2-acylhydrolase
-
-
-
-
platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase
-
-
-
-
platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolyase
-
-
-
-
Serine dependent phospholipase A2
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
76901-00-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
gamma-subunit and beta-subunit
Q29460 and P68401
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
german Holstein heifers
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Holstein-Frisian dairy cow
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Ib
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme Ib
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes I and II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
product of the paf-1 gene homologue; Bristol strain N2, two homologous PAF-AH (II) genes, named paf-1 and paf-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
product of the paf-2 gene homologue; Bristol strain N2, two homologous PAF-AH (II) genes, named paf-1 and paf-2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
1 extracellular, secreted plasma enzyme form and an intracellular form, devided into 4 isozyme types, differing in their primary sequences, tissue localizations, subunit compositions, and substrate preferences
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; Japanese patients with partial or complete plasma enzyme deficiency and control subjects
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
children with meningitis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform 1; isoform 2; isoform 3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme II
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Japanese patients with complete or partial platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
patients suffering from chronic kidney disease and control subjects, higher enzyme activity in the chronic kidney disease patients group compared with the control group, enzyme activity is increased as a function of disease state
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and control subjects, higher enzyme activity in the metabolic syndrome patients group compared with the control group
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and control subjects, higher enzyme activity in the fluid and plasma of bronchoalveolar lavage from patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with the control group, lower enzyme activity in the cells of bronchoalveolar lavage from patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with the control group
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
lysophospholipase and subunit beta and subunit gamma
A0JNU3 and Q61206 and Q61205
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus BL6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isozymes II and Ib of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase PAF-AH
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 months old Wistar rats
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
healthy and endotoxemic rats, plasma type enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
lysophospholipase and beta-subunit and gamma-subunit; male Wistar
O35264 and O35263
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
deletion of the plasma form of PAF-AH abolishes expression of serum and intestinal activities. Mortality rates are significantly lower in enzyme-deficient PAF-AH-/- pups compared to wild-type controls before 24 hours of life but surviving PAF-AH-/- animals are more susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis, NEC, development compared to wild-type controls
malfunction
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
deletion of the plasma form of PAF-AH abolishes expression of serum and intestinal activities. Mortality rates are significantly lower in enzyme-deficient PAF-AH-/- pups compared to wild-type controls before 24 hours of life but surviving PAF-AH-/- animals are more susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis, NEC, development compared to wild-type controls
-
metabolism
-
reducing the role for circulating, although perhaps not intracellular, PLA2G7 in in vivo PAF catabolism. In vivo PAF clearance is independent of the PAF receptor
physiological function
-
HpPAF-AH is a calcium-independent phospholipase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bond at the sn-2 position of phospholipid substrates
physiological function
-
PAF is cleared from murine circulation in seconds as an intact molecule through saturable uptake by endothelium. This disappearance is faster than PAF hydrolysis in human or murine blood, and ablation of PLA2G7 has no immediate effect on PAF clearance
physiological function
-
the enzyme inactivates platelet-activating factor, PAF. Protective role for endogenous PAF-AH in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis, NEC, and endogenous PAF-AH deficiency may place them at increased risk for disease
physiological function
-
type I platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase is a phospholipase A2 with selectivity for acetyl residues of PAF, and acts as aspirin acetylhydrolase. The intracellular erythrocyte PAF acetylhydrolase 1 inactivates aspirin in blood, and is the major aspirin hydrolase of human blood
physiological function
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
the enzyme inactivates platelet-activating factor, PAF. Protective role for endogenous PAF-AH in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis, NEC, and endogenous PAF-AH deficiency may place them at increased risk for disease
-
physiological function
Mus musculus BL6
-
PAF is cleared from murine circulation in seconds as an intact molecule through saturable uptake by endothelium. This disappearance is faster than PAF hydrolysis in human or murine blood, and ablation of PLA2G7 has no immediate effect on PAF clearance
-
metabolism
Mus musculus BL6
-
reducing the role for circulating, although perhaps not intracellular, PLA2G7 in in vivo PAF catabolism. In vivo PAF clearance is independent of the PAF receptor
-
additional information
-
glimepiride and glibenclamide reverse elevated plasma PAF-AH activity in plasma of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats, but have no effects in control rats, overview
additional information
-
higher expression of mouse compared with human PAF-AH is not due to variations in catalytic efficiency. A region located at the N-terminal end of PAF-AH regulates expression levels, the degree of hydrophobicity and polarity of the N-terminal region correlates with the level of PAF-AH expression
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycerol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1,2-dioctanoylethyleneglycol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-acetyl-2-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
2-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-acyl-2-linoleoyl-glycero-phosphocholine + H2O
2-linoleoyl-glycero-phosphocholine + acylic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-decanoyl-rac-glycerol + H2O
decanoate + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-decanoyl-rac-glycerol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + butanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-glutaryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glutarate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-glutaryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glutarate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-glutaryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glutarate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-glutaryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glutarate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-propionyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + propionate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-succinyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + succinate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-succinyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + succinate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-hexadecyl-2-succinyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine + succinate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-myristoyl-2-(4-nitrophenyl succinyl)phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1-myristoyl-phosphatidylcholine + 4-nitrophenyl succinate
show the reaction diagram
-
artificial substrate
4-nitrophenyl succinate spontaneously degrades and liberates 4-nitrophenol
?
1-myristoyl-2-(4-nitrophenylsuccinyl)-3-phosphatidylcholine + H2O
1-myristoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine + 4-nitrophenylsuccinate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
Q22943
-
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
Q29460 and P68401
-
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF, preferred substrate for alpha2/alpha2 homodimer of brain isoform I
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme from red blood cells is not involved in the degradation of platelet-activating factor accumulated in blood
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of platelet-activating factor, up-regulation of enzyme by pioglitazone reduces cell elongation
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
P83006
regulation of platelet-activating factor, anti apoptotic protein
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor, anti-inflammatory enzyme
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor, enzyme could play an important role in the development or down regulation of inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
Q22943
regulation of platelet-activating factor, essential for epithelial morphogenesis
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor, important role in inflammation and in atherosclerotic processes related to the metabolic syndrome
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor, protection against toxic effects of platelet-activating factor
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
intracellular PAF catabolism by PAF acetylhydrolase counteracts continual PAF synthesis
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
platelet-activating factor
lyso-platelet-activating factor
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
platelet-activating factor
lyso-platelet-activating factor
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate is a potent lipid mediator, involved in pathological responses, particularly in inflammation and allergy. Its level is regulated by hydrolysis
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme abolishes the inflammatory effects of the substrate on leukocytes and the vasculature
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of the substrate which represents a wide variety of bioactivities, including hypotension, platelat activation, bronchoconstriction
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate is a potent inflammatory mediator
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate mediates a wide spectrum of actions, including hypotension, changes in smooth muscle tone, vascular permeability, signalling in inflammation and allergy. The intracelluar form of the enzyme regulates the accumulation of the substrate, e.g. in macrophages and platelets
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoric acid + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoric acid + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate for the alpha1/alpha1 homodimer and the alpha1/alpha2 heterodimer
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + butanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-propionyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + propanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-O-hexadecyl-2-N-methylcarbamoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho(N,N,N-trimethyl)hexanolamine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol + H2O
octanoate + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol + H2O
1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 5-oxopentanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
plasma isozyme
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
5-oxopentanoate + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + arachidonate
show the reaction diagram
-
plasma isozyme
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + glutarate
show the reaction diagram
-
plasma isozyme
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-oxopentanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2-oxopentanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-[12-[(7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate activity assay
-
-
?
1-palmitoyl-2-[6-[(7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate activity assay
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
Q29460
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor PAF, hydrolysis of the acetyl ester at the sn-2 position, conversion to the inactive lysoPAF
i.e. lysoPAF
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
biological inactivation of the platelet-activation factor by hydrolysis of the acetyl group at sn-2 position which is essential for activity of PAF
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme plays an important role in inflammatory diseases and artherosclerosis, and is involved in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, the level of free, LDL- and/or HDL-associated enzyme is important, overview
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, a mediator of several vascular and inflammatory diseases
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, hydrolysis of sn-2 ester bond of platelet-activating factor PAF and related inflammatory phospholipids, attenuation of their bioactivity, the beta-subunit of intracellular isozyme type II is encoded by gene LIS1, mutations of which cause Miller-Dieker lissencephaly
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, hyperoxemic rats show reduced enzyme activity in bronchoalveolar lavage and slightly increased levels in the plasma
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, reaction leads to inactivation of the factor and therefore inhibits the initiation of inflammation processes
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, reaction leads to inactivation of the factor and therefore inhibitsthe initiation of inflammation processes
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, the enzyme converts the proinflammatory autocoid platelet-activating factor PAF into biologically inactive lyso-PAF, by the removal of the sn-2 acetyl group
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, the enzyme hydrolyzes and inactivates platelet-activating factor PAF and PAF-like phospholipids which are implicated in numerous pathological situations including bacterial endotoxemia and injury-induced oxidative damage
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is essential for metabolism of platelet-activation factor and phospholipids, i.e. bioactive lipids that are involved in the pathophysiology of arherosclerosis
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 1-O-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2-acetyl-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
show the reaction diagram
-
transacetylase activity, transacetylation
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
show the reaction diagram
-
transacetylase activity, the transacetylase activity may acetylate extracellular lyso-PAF into biologically active PAF
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor PAF, i.e. platelet-activation factor, biological inactivation by deacetylation
-
?
2-acetyl-1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, hydrolysis of sn-2 ester bond of platelet-activating factor PAF and related inflammatory phospholipids, no activity with the erythrocyte isozyme
-
?
2-acetyl-1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoric acid + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoric acid + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-3-octadecyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphocholine + H2O
3-octadecyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-butanoyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2-butanoyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
show the reaction diagram
-
transacetylase activity, 40% of the activity with PAF
-
?
2-hexadecyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-hexadecyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, substrate and enzyme play important roles in inflammation processes
-
?
2-propionyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2-propionyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
show the reaction diagram
-
transacetylase activity, 73% of the activity with PAF
-
?
2-thio platelet-activating factor + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate activity assay
-
-
?
2-thio-[platelet activating factor] + H2O
acetate + deacetylated 2-thio-[platelet activating factor]
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-valeroyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2-valeroyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
show the reaction diagram
-
transacetylase activity, 17% of the activity with PAF
-
?
3-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphocholine + H2O
3-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus, Mus musculus BL6
-
-
-
-
?
4-(phenylthio)-N-(4-phenyl-2-oxobutyl)azetidin-2-one + H2O
thiophenol + 3-oxopropanoic acid + 1-amino-4-phenyl-2-butanone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetylated platelet-activation factor + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
azelaoyl phosphatidylcholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
butyl acetate + H2O
butanol + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dibutyryl-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
didecanoyl-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dioctanoyl-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
F2-isoprostane phospholipid + H2O
F2-isoprostane + phospholipid
show the reaction diagram
-
plays key roles in the hydrolysis of F2-isoprostanes esterified on phospholipids in vivo, involved in oxidative stress response
-
-
?
lipoteichoic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
PAF-AH removes one acyl chain at the sn-2 position of pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid and produces a monoacyl-LTA that is inactive against mouse cells
-
-
?
octyl acetate + H2O
octanol + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
oxidized phosphatidylcholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q22943
-
-
-
?
oxidized phospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxidized phospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
degradation of oxidized phospholipids formed during the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein
-
-
?
oxidized phospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
protection against toxic effects of oxidized phospholipids
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
degradation of phospholipids produced by oxidative stress
-
-
?
phospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzes sn-2-ester bonds of fragmented or oxidized phospholipids, enzyme deficiency results in an increased risk of stroke, coronary artery disease, atherosclerotic occlusive disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm, hydrolyzes sn-2-ester bonds of fragmented or oxidized phospholipids
-
-
?
platelet activating factor + H2O
acetate + deacetylated platelet activating factor
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
platelet activating factor + H2O
acetate + deacetylated platelet activating factor
show the reaction diagram
-
erythrocyte and plasma PAF acetylhydrolases
-
-
?
platelet-activating factor + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
platelet-activating factor + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
platelet-activating factor + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q13093
-
-
-
?
platelet-activating factor + H2O
lyso-platelet-activating factor + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
triacetylglycerol + H2O
diacetylglycerol + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
tributyrylglycerol + H2O
dibutyrylglycerol + butyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
trioctanoylglycerol + H2O
dioctanoylglycerol + octanoate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
methyl butyrate + H2O
methanol + butyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
no activity against phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine, but hydrolysis of a phosphatidylcholine with an oxidatively fragmented acyl chain at the sn-2 position
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the erythrocyte enzyme has a marked selectivity for short-chain acyl chains at sn-2 position, the linkage at the sn-1 postion may be of the ester or ether type and does not influence the catalytic effeciency
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
cholesteryl acetate is inactive as acetyl donor in the transacetylation reaction
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme of melanoma cell line inhibits neoangiogenesis and endothelial tubulogenesis in vitro, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme of sarcoma cell line inhibits neoangiogenesis and endothelial tubulogenesis in vitro, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme II from cerebrospinal fluid does not degrade phospholipids with a long chain fatty acyl group at sn-2 position
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
lipoprotein-associated enzyme does not hydrolyse native phospholipids
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
plasma isozyme and isozyme II shows also transacetylase activity, broad substrate specificity, plasma isozyme and isozyme II prefer PAF analogues with sn-2 propionyl and butyroyl moieties, while isozyme Ib hardly hydrolyzes these phospholipids, plasma isozyme hydrolyzes preferentially phosphatidylcholine with C9 acyl chain, activity is increased in the presence of an aldehyde group at the omega-end of the acyl chain
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of isozymes, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of the enzyme forms and isoenzyme types
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of the enzyme forms and isoenzyme types, the isozyme Ib interacts with some plekstrin domains in vitro
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity, mammalian isozyme II possesses transacetylase activity as well
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme level in vivo is linked to the LDL-level, physiological functions of isozymes, overview, the beta-subunit of isozyme Ib interacts with tubulin and with microtubule-associated proteins
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q29460
enzyme plays a critical role in control of neuronal migration during cortex development
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
HDL-associated plasma isozyme may be involved in the protective role of HDL in artherosclerosis, plasma enzyme is associated to LDL, preferably LDL-5 and VLDL-1 particles, the enzyme contributes to the oxidation of LDL in increasing the content of lysoPAF, inflammatory and vascular diseases alter the plasma isozyme activity, enzyme is involved in several diseases and deficiencies, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
individuals with primary heterozygous or homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia show enhanced plasma enzyme activity compared to normolipidemic controls, thereby the level of plasma LDL, to which the enzyme is associated, is increased as well as the enzyme activity per LDL particle, level and activity of HDL-associated enzyme is unaltered
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme II activity is 3fold increased insubjects suffering meningitis
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
one of the physiological roles of isozyme II is to diversify the biological function of PAF by producing different lipid mediators such as analogues of PAF and C2-ceramide, mutations of the gene encoding the enzyme lead to severe diseases, e.g. brain impairment, mental retardation, or lymphoma development
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
physiological functions of isozymes, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
plasma isozyme is bound to LDL and HDL particles
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is associated mainly with LDL containing apolipoprotein B, a small portion is also associated with HDL particles which play a predominantly antiatherogenic role
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is associated to low-density lipoprotein LDL particles, both enzyme activities, acetylhydrolase and transacetylase, decrease during LDL oxidation
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the plasma isozyme is associated with LDL, 80%, and HDL, 15-20%, and VLDL, below 5%, particles, where it seems to be independently regulated and to have distinct roles in artherosclerosis, LDL-associated enzyme has a protective role in artheriosclerosis, regulation of lipoprotein-associated enzyme in vivo, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme activity is suggested to be an important marker for atherogenicity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q22943
hydrolyzes also propionyl and butyloyl groups from phosphoglycerides, and truncated acyl chains derived from oxidative cleavage of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acyl groups, suggesting that they have a role in scavenging selectively oxidized phospholipid species without acting on structural membrane phospholipids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q22943
hydrolyzes also propionyl and butyryl groups from phosphoglycerides, and truncated acyl chains derived from oxidative cleavage of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acyl groups, suggesting that they have a role in scavenging selectively oxidized phospholipid species without acting on structural membrane phospholipids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q22943
no hydrolysis of long acyl chains attached to phosphatidylcholine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
blood plasma PAF-AH plays an antiinflammatory role in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as asthma and septic shock
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAF acetylhydrolases play key roles in the hydrolysis of F2-isoprostanes esterified on phospholipids in vivo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8VDG7
PAF-AH (II) is involved in the metabolism of esterified 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha and protects tissue from oxidative stress-induced injury
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q99487
PAF-AH II exerts strong neuroprotective effects against ischemic injury
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P68402
platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (paf-ah), a potent regulator of platelet activating factor activity, plays an important role in various physiological and pathophysiological functions including development, reproduction, inflammation, hemostasis, and apoptosis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase serves as a decapacitation factor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O35264 and O35263
recombinant platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase attenuates paracetamol-induced liver oxidative stress, injury, and regeneration
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the PAF-AH (I) catalytic subunits induces centrosomal amplification and microtubule disorganization by disturbing intracellular localization of LIS1 (a causative gene product for type I lissencephaly)
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAF-AH does not deacylate 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or lipoprotein
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q29460 and P68401
selectively hydrolyzes oxidatively modified phosphatidylcholine. The purified enzyme does not degrade phospholipids with a long chain fatty acyl group at the sn-2 position
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
catalyzes the removal of the acyl group at the sn-2 position of platelet-activating factor and truncated phospholipids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
group VII plasma and type II enzymes also hydrolyze unmodified sn-2 fatty acyl residues up to 5 or 6 carbon atoms long, but this length restriction is greatly relaxed when the omega-end of the sn-2 residue contains oxidized functions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Lp-PLA2 generates oxidized nonesterified fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine, both of which have demonstrated proinflammatory and proapoptotic activities
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Lp-PLA2 generates the proinflammatory mediators lysophosphatidylcholine and oxidized fatty acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Lp-PLA2 hydrolyzes oxidized phospholipids into oxidized fatty acids and lysophosphatidylcholine products
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAF-like oxidatively fragmented phospholipids produced during oxidative stress
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAF-AH catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl group esterifying the sn-2 position of PAF, thereby abolishing its biological activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the type 1 PAF acetylhydrolase is one of three mammalian family members of the group 7 phospholipase A2 family, a family that is unique in that all members require a short sn-2 ester such as the acetyl ester of PAF, recombinant PAFAH1B2, but not its family member plasma PAF acetylhydrolase, hydrolyzes acetylsalicylic acid to acetate and salicylate, activity of EC 3.1.1.55
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
PAF-AH catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl group esterifying the sn-2 position of PAF, thereby abolishing its biological activity
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme from red blood cells is not involved in the degradation of platelet-activating factor accumulated in blood
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of platelet-activating factor, up-regulation of enzyme by pioglitazone reduces cell elongation
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
P83006
regulation of platelet-activating factor, anti apoptotic protein
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor, anti-inflammatory enzyme
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor, enzyme could play an important role in the development or down regulation of inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
Q22943
regulation of platelet-activating factor, essential for epithelial morphogenesis
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor, important role in inflammation and in atherosclerotic processes related to the metabolic syndrome
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor, protection against toxic effects of platelet-activating factor
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
intracellular PAF catabolism by PAF acetylhydrolase counteracts continual PAF synthesis
-
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
platelet-activating factor
lyso-platelet-activating factor
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
platelet-activating factor
lyso-platelet-activating factor
-
?
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. PAF
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate is a potent lipid mediator, involved in pathological responses, particularly in inflammation and allergy. Its level is regulated by hydrolysis
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme abolishes the inflammatory effects of the substrate on leukocytes and the vasculature
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of the substrate which represents a wide variety of bioactivities, including hypotension, platelat activation, bronchoconstriction
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate is a potent inflammatory mediator
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the substrate mediates a wide spectrum of actions, including hypotension, changes in smooth muscle tone, vascular permeability, signalling in inflammation and allergy. The intracelluar form of the enzyme regulates the accumulation of the substrate, e.g. in macrophages and platelets
-
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of platelet-activating factor
-
-
?
1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
biological inactivation of the platelet-activation factor by hydrolysis of the acetyl group at sn-2 position which is essential for activity of PAF
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme plays an important role in inflammatory diseases and artherosclerosis, and is involved in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, the level of free, LDL- and/or HDL-associated enzyme is important, overview
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, a mediator of several vascular and inflammatory diseases
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, hydrolysis of sn-2 ester bond of platelet-activating factor PAF and related inflammatory phospholipids, attenuation of their bioactivity, the beta-subunit of intracellular isozyme type II is encoded by gene LIS1, mutations of which cause Miller-Dieker lissencephaly
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, hyperoxemic rats show reduced enzyme activity in bronchoalveolar lavage and slightly increased levels in the plasma
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, reaction leads to inactivation of the factor and therefore inhibits the initiation of inflammation processes
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, reaction leads to inactivation of the factor and therefore inhibitsthe initiation of inflammation processes
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, the enzyme converts the proinflammatory autocoid platelet-activating factor PAF into biologically inactive lyso-PAF, by the removal of the sn-2 acetyl group
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, the enzyme hydrolyzes and inactivates platelet-activating factor PAF and PAF-like phospholipids which are implicated in numerous pathological situations including bacterial endotoxemia and injury-induced oxidative damage
-
?
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is essential for metabolism of platelet-activation factor and phospholipids, i.e. bioactive lipids that are involved in the pathophysiology of arherosclerosis
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 1-O-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2-acetyl-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
show the reaction diagram
-
transacetylation
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + 2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
show the reaction diagram
-
the transacetylase activity may acetylate extracellular lyso-PAF into biologically active PAF
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor
-
?
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, biological inactivation by deacetylation
-
?
2-acetyl-1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoric acid + H2O
1-O-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoric acid + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-hexadecyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O
1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. platelet-activation factor, substrate and enzyme play important roles in inflammation processes
-
?
3-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphocholine + H2O
3-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphocholine + acetate
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus, Mus musculus BL6
-
-
-
-
?
oxidized phospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxidized phospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
degradation of oxidized phospholipids formed during the oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein
-
-
?
oxidized phospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
protection against toxic effects of oxidized phospholipids
-
-
?
phospholipid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
degradation of phospholipids produced by oxidative stress
-
-
?
phospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrolyzes sn-2-ester bonds of fragmented or oxidized phospholipids, enzyme deficiency results in an increased risk of stroke, coronary artery disease, atherosclerotic occlusive disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm
-
-
?
platelet activating factor + H2O
acetate + deacetylated platelet activating factor
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
platelet activating factor + H2O
acetate + deacetylated platelet activating factor
show the reaction diagram
-
erythrocyte and plasma PAF acetylhydrolases
-
-
?
platelet-activating factor + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
platelet-activating factor + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q13093
-
-
-
?
platelet-activating factor + H2O
lyso-platelet-activating factor + acetate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
F2-isoprostane phospholipid + H2O
F2-isoprostane + phospholipid
show the reaction diagram
-
plays key roles in the hydrolysis of F2-isoprostanes esterified on phospholipids in vivo, involved in oxidative stress response
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity, mammalian isozyme II possesses transacetylase activity as well
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme level in vivo is linked to the LDL-level, physiological functions of isozymes, overview, the beta-subunit of isozyme Ib interacts with tubulin and with microtubule-associated proteins
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q29460
enzyme plays a critical role in control of neuronal migration during cortex development
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
HDL-associated plasma isozyme may be involved in the protective role of HDL in artherosclerosis, plasma enzyme is associated to LDL, preferably LDL-5 and VLDL-1 particles, the enzyme contributes to the oxidation of LDL in increasing the content of lysoPAF, inflammatory and vascular diseases alter the plasma isozyme activity, enzyme is involved in several diseases and deficiencies, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
individuals with primary heterozygous or homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia show enhanced plasma enzyme activity compared to normolipidemic controls, thereby the level of plasma LDL, to which the enzyme is associated, is increased as well as the enzyme activity per LDL particle, level and activity of HDL-associated enzyme is unaltered
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme II activity is 3fold increased insubjects suffering meningitis
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
one of the physiological roles of isozyme II is to diversify the biological function of PAF by producing different lipid mediators such as analogues of PAF and C2-ceramide, mutations of the gene encoding the enzyme lead to severe diseases, e.g. brain impairment, mental retardation, or lymphoma development
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
physiological functions of isozymes, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
plasma isozyme is bound to LDL and HDL particles
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is associated mainly with LDL containing apolipoprotein B, a small portion is also associated with HDL particles which play a predominantly antiatherogenic role
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is associated to low-density lipoprotein LDL particles, both enzyme activities, acetylhydrolase and transacetylase, decrease during LDL oxidation
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
the plasma isozyme is associated with LDL, 80%, and HDL, 15-20%, and VLDL, below 5%, particles, where it seems to be independently regulated and to have distinct roles in artherosclerosis, LDL-associated enzyme has a protective role in artheriosclerosis, regulation of lipoprotein-associated enzyme in vivo, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme activity is suggested to be an important marker for atherogenicity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q22943
hydrolyzes also propionyl and butyloyl groups from phosphoglycerides, and truncated acyl chains derived from oxidative cleavage of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acyl groups, suggesting that they have a role in scavenging selectively oxidized phospholipid species without acting on structural membrane phospholipids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q22943
hydrolyzes also propionyl and butyryl groups from phosphoglycerides, and truncated acyl chains derived from oxidative cleavage of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acyl groups, suggesting that they have a role in scavenging selectively oxidized phospholipid species without acting on structural membrane phospholipids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
blood plasma PAF-AH plays an antiinflammatory role in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as asthma and septic shock
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAF acetylhydrolases play key roles in the hydrolysis of F2-isoprostanes esterified on phospholipids in vivo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8VDG7
PAF-AH (II) is involved in the metabolism of esterified 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha and protects tissue from oxidative stress-induced injury
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q99487
PAF-AH II exerts strong neuroprotective effects against ischemic injury
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P68402
platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (paf-ah), a potent regulator of platelet activating factor activity, plays an important role in various physiological and pathophysiological functions including development, reproduction, inflammation, hemostasis, and apoptosis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase serves as a decapacitation factor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O35264 and O35263
recombinant platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase attenuates paracetamol-induced liver oxidative stress, injury, and regeneration
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the PAF-AH (I) catalytic subunits induces centrosomal amplification and microtubule disorganization by disturbing intracellular localization of LIS1 (a causative gene product for type I lissencephaly)
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PAF-AH catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl group esterifying the sn-2 position of PAF, thereby abolishing its biological activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the type 1 PAF acetylhydrolase is one of three mammalian family members of the group 7 phospholipase A2 family, a family that is unique in that all members require a short sn-2 ester such as the acetyl ester of PAF
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
PAF-AH catalyzes the hydrolysis of the acetyl group esterifying the sn-2 position of PAF, thereby abolishing its biological activity
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
influences the dimerization of the enzyme
Ca2+
-
1 mM CaCl2 required for maximal hydrolysis
additional information
-
enzyme from cerebrospinal fluid is Ca2+-independent
additional information
-
secretory isozyme is Ca2+-independent
additional information
-
no requirement for Ca2+
additional information
-
PAF-AH activity is a Ca2+-independent enzyme
additional information
-
no stimulation by Ca2+ or Mg2+
additional information
-
no stimulation by Ca2+ or Mg2+
additional information
-
no stimulation by Ca2+ or Mg2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-Alkyl-2,3-diacetyl-sn-glycerol
-
slight
1-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphodimethylethanolamine
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphomonomethylethanolamine
-
-
1-O-alkyl-2-propionyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
1-O-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
competitive inhibition of acetylhydrolase activity
1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol
-
-
1-O-hexadecyl-2-N-methylcarbamoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho(N,N,N-trimethyl)hexanolamine
-
-
1-O-hexadecyl-2-N-methylcarbamoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
1-O-hexadecyl-2-thioacetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
1-O-hexadecyl-2-thioacetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
1-oleyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol
-
-
2-acetyl-1-acyl-glycero-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
2-N-methylcarbamyl platelet-activating factor
-
weak inhibition
-
3-Hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-1-phosphocholine
-
-
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride
-
i.e. pefabloc, inhibits both acetylhydrolase and transacetylase activities completely at 0.05 mM for the native enzyme, and at 1 mM for the recombinant enzyme
4-(phenylthio)-N-(4-phenyl-2-oxobutyl)azetidin-2-one
-
-
4-bromophenacyl bromide
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid
P83006
-
atorvastatin
-
reduces LDL-associated enzyme activity by reduction of LDL amount, does not reduce enzyme secretion by macrophages
benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides
-
weak or no inhibition
-
benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides
-
decyl-derivative shows the strongest inhibition among the benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides tested
-
BN 50739
-
antagonists of lipopolysaccharides, inhibition of induction of plasma enzyme expression
Ca2+
-
18% inhibition at 10 mM
chlorpyrifos oxon
-
ethyl- and methyl-derivative
chlorpyrifos oxon
-
pentyl- ethyl- and methyl-derivative
corticoids
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from HL-60 cells
-
croton oil
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma
-
CV 3988
-
-
deoxycholate
-
-
diazoxon
-
weak inhibition
diethyldicarbonate
-
-
diisopropyl fluorophosphates
P83006
-
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
inhibits both acetylhydrolase and transacetylase activities completely at 20 mM for the native and the recombinant enzyme
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
plasma isozyme containing the GXSXG motif
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
-
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
intracellular enzyme form Ib from brain
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
10 mM, 80% inhibition of seminal plasma enzyme
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
-
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
-
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
-
diisopropylfluorophosphate
-
slightly inhibitory
dithioerythritol
-
-
DTNB
-
69% inhibition at 2 mM
Estrogens
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma
-
fenofibrate
-
decreases total plasma and LDL_associated enzyme activity but does not influence HDL-associated enzyme activity
IFN-gamma
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from monocyte-derived macrophages
-
interleukin-1alpha
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from decidual macrophages
-
Interleukin-1beta
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from decidual macrophages
-
interleukin-8
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from decidual and monocyte-derived macrophages
-
iodoacetamide
-
17% inhibition at 5 mM
iodoacetamide
Q29460 and P68401
-
lipopolysaccharides
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from decidual macrophages, monocyte-derived macrophages, and HL-60 cells
-
lipopolysaccharides
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from Kupffer cells, plasma, lung, liver, spleen, bile, kidney, thymus, peritoneal macrophages, and peripheral leukocytes
-
lyso-2-hexadecyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
22% inhibition at 0.05 mM
-
lyso-platelet-activating factor
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from hepatocytes
methoxy arachidonyl fluorophosphonate
-
type 1 PAF acetylhydrolase is irreversibly inhibited
methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate
-
potent inhibitor, IC50: 0.0003 mM, almost complete inhibition at 0.01 mM
n-alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates
-
derivatives with chain length C13-C18 are highly potent in vitro inhibitors
-
n-alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates
-
derivatives with chain length C8-C18 are highly potent in vitro inhibitors
-
N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone
-
-
N-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone
-
-
NaF
-
not inhibitory
p-bromophenacyl bromide
-
-
p-bromophenacyl bromide
-
intracellular enzyme form Ib from brain
p-bromophenacyl bromide
-
-
p-bromophenacylbromide
-
60% inhibition at 5 mM, isozyme II from cerebrospinal fluid
p-bromophenacylbromide
Q29460 and P68401
-
p-nitroguanidinobenzoate
-
-
Paraoxon
Q13093
-
pefabloc
-
-
pepstatin A
-
-
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
Q29460 and P68401
-
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
13 mM, 50% inhibition of seminal plasma enzyme
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
-
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
-
phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
-
-
phosphatidylcholine
-
from egg, long chain diacetyl type, slight
phosphocholine
-
25% inhibition at 0.05 mM
Platelet activating factor
-
competitive
PMSF
-
80% inhibition at 5 mM, complete inhibition at 10 mM, isozyme II from cerebrospinal fluid
PMSF
-
93% inhibition at 2 mM
SB-677116
-
-
-
SB222657
-
-
Sulfonyl fluorides
-
weak inhibition
tribufos
-
inhibition at 0.1 mM
tumor growth factor-beta
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from HL-60 cells
-
tumor necrosis factor-alpha
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from decidual macrophages
-
WEB 2170
-
antagonists of lipopolysaccharides, inhibition of induction of plasma enzyme expression
methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate
-
-
additional information
-
no inhibition of the isozyme II from cerebrospinal fluid by NaF, Mg2+, Ca2+, and EDTA
-
additional information
-
enzyme activity of the bronchoalveolar lavage is reduced in hyperoxia, but not in plasma
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by EGTA at 10 mM and acetylsalicylic acid at 0.2 mM
-
additional information
Q29460 and P68401
no inactivation by NaF or dithiothreitol
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by EGTA
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
corticoids
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from HL-60 cells
-
corticoids
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma
-
deoxycholate
-
activation
dithiothreitol
-
1.3fold increase in activity, isozyme II from cerebrospinal fluid
dithiothreitol
-
slightly acivating
dyslipidemia
-
induces an increase in total plasma enzyme activity and alters the enzyme distribution between proatherogenic apoB- and antiatherogenic apo L-containing lipoproteins by increasing the enzyme activity associated with apoB-containing lipoproteins, atorvastin and fenofibrate can restore the normal level by reduction of LDL amount
-
GM-CSF
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from monocyte-derived macrophages
-
interleukin-beta
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma, liver and spleen
-
lipopolysaccharides
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma, liver, spleen, lung, and small intestine
-
lipopolysaccharides
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma
-
lipopolysaccharides
-
induce plasma enzyme expression in several tissues, overview, induction is 50% inhibited by administration of antagonists BN 50739 and WEB 2170
-
Platelet-activating factor
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from HepG2 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages, no effect on erythrocytes and erythrocyte isozyme
Platelet-activating factor
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from hepatocytes
progestin
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from HL-60 cells
progestin
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma
tumor necrosis factor-alpha
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma, liver and spleen
-
turpentine
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma
-
zymosan
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from plasma
-
M-CSF
-
regulatory function on the enzyme form from monocyte-derived macrophages
-
additional information
-
3fold increase in activity in subjects with meningitis
-
additional information
-
the enzyme is associated with low-density lipoprotein LDL and high-density lipoprotein HDL particles
-
additional information
-
dose-dependent induction of enzyme expression by pioglitazone
-
additional information
-
membrane binding of HpPAF-AH increases the activity of enzyme, by interfacial activation. The lipid composition of membrane vesicles, by changing the physicochemical properties, differentially modulates the binding, partial membrane penetration and the activity of the enzyme, detailed overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.011
1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycerol
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.005
1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol
-
below, plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.005
1,2-dioctanoylethyleneglycol
-
below, plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.005
1-acetyl-2-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
below, plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.086
1-decanoyl-rac-glycerol
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.0031
1-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine
-
-
0.0052
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
purified recombinant plasma enzyme, 37C
0.0074
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
0.0075
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme associated with VLDL + IDL
0.0084
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme associated with LDL-1 and LDL-2
0.0095
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme associated with LDL-3
0.0103
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme associated with LDL-4
0.0135
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
purified recombinant PAF-acetylhydrolase, 37C
0.014
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
0.0184
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme associated with HDL-3
0.0192
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme associated with HDL-2
0.0348
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme associated with VLDL-1
0.052
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme from vas deferens fluid
0.054
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme from seminal vesicle fluid
0.081
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme from prostatic fluid
0.0876
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
Q29460 and P68401
-
0.0897
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme associated with LDL-5
0.175
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme from serum
0.392
1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
enzyme from seminal plasma
1.4
1-octanoyl-rac-glycerol
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.0193
1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
purified recombinant plasma enzyme, 37C
0.0431
1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
purified recombinant PAF-acetylhydrolase, 37C
0.0049
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
pH 7.2, 37C
0.012 - 0.0137
2-acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
-
0.005
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
below, plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.005
2-acetyl-1-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
below, plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.006
2-acetyl-1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.082
acetylated platelet-activation factor
-
mutant T103S, pH 7.4, 37C
-
0.092
acetylated platelet-activation factor
-
mutant L48A, pH 7.4, 37C
-
0.135
acetylated platelet-activation factor
-
mutant L194A, pH 7.4, 37C
-
0.206
acetylated platelet-activation factor
-
wild-type enzyme, pH 7.4, 37C
-
63
butyl acetate
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
4.7
dibutanoyl-phosphocholine
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.005
didecanoyl-phosphocholine
-
below, plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.047
dioctanoyl-phosphocholine
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.0000045
F2-isoprostane-phosphocholine
-
purified recombinant plasma enzyme, 37C
0.000057
F2-isoprostane-phosphocholine
-
purified recombinant PAF-acetylhydrolase, 37C
0.055
octyl acetate
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
2.1
Platelet activating factor
-
native enzyme, pH 7.2, 37C
131
triacetylglycerol
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.136
tributyryl-glycerol
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
143
methyl butyrate
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
additional information
additional information
-
the recombinant enzyme shows allosteric kinetics in the transacetylation reaction
-
additional information
additional information
-
kinetics
-
additional information
additional information
-
Michaelis-Menten kinetics
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.1
1-acetyl-2-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha2)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
8.1
1-acetyl-2-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.34
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha1)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
3.2
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha2)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
24.6
2-acetyl-1-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.68
2-acetyl-1-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha2)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
4.8
2-acetyl-1-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
6.08
2-acetyl-1-octadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha2)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
0.25
2-acetyl-1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha2)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
3
2-acetyl-1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.28
octyl acetate
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
0.69
octyl acetate
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha1)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
1.9
octyl acetate
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha2)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
6.08
octyl acetate
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha1)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
1.7
triacetylglycerol
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha1)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
16.5
triacetylglycerol
-
plasma isozyme, pH 7.5, 22C
37
triacetylglycerol
-
isozyme Ib, (alpha2)2 subunit, pH 7.5, 22C
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.29
Platelet activating factor
-
recombinant catalytic subunit PAFAH1B2, pH 7.2, 37C
0.47
Platelet activating factor
-
native enzyme, pH 7.2, 37C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0000001
-
acetylhydrolase activity mg tissue, mammary artery, plus Pefablok
0.0000003
-
acetylhydrolase activity mg tissue, aorta, plus Pefablok
0.0000005
-
mutant S257A, substrate azelaoyl phosphatidylcholine
0.0000014
-
acetylhydrolase activity mg tissue, mammary artery
0.0000028
-
acetylhydrolase activity mg tissue, aorta
0.000008
-
cytosolic fraction, nonpregnant uterus
0.00001
-
wild type, substrate azelaoyl phosphatidylcholine
0.000012
-
PAF-AH isozyme Ib alpha2 subunit, transacetylase activity
0.000073
-
cytosolic fraction, pregnant uterine myometrium
0.000221
-
cytosolic fraction, myoma
0.00028
-
PAF-AH isozyme Ib alpha1 subunit, acetylhydrolase activity
0.00123
-
-
0.00236
-
PAF-AH isozyme Ib alpha2 subunit, acetylhydrolase activity
0.015
-
transacetylase activity
0.015
Q29460 and P68401
-
0.01572
-
-
0.02
-
partially purified enzyme
0.022
-
acetylhydrolase activity
0.038
-
-
0.0408
-
PAF-AH isozyme II, transacetylase activity
0.0445
-
plasma enzyme
0.105
-
PAF-AH isozyme II, acetylhydrolase activity
0.114
-
plasma PAF-AH, transacetylase activity
0.131
-
plasma PAF-AH, acetylhydrolase activity
0.176
-
purified enzyme, 37C, pH 7.0
0.47
-
supernatant fraction
0.55
-
alveolar type II cells and 1000 x g fraction
0.77
-
macrophages
0.805
-
purified from erythrocytes
0.85
-
100000 x g fraction
1.32
-
60000 x g fraction
1.45
-
intracellular enzyme form Ib from brain
3.7
-
bronchoalveolar lavage
4.2
-
purifed enzyme using 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine as substrate
4.5
-
Ca2+-dependent PLA2, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with blood plus dexamethasone
6.7
-
Ca2+-dependent PLA2, control, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus after regular blood feeding
7.2
-
cytosolic isoform II from liver
9.46
-
plasma enzyme
10.7
-
Ca2+-dependent PLA2, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes
12
-
Ca2+-independent PLA2, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with blood plus dexamethasone
14
-
Ca2+-independent PLA2, control, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus after regular blood feeding
17
-
total PLA2, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with blood plus dexamethasone
21
-
total PLA2, control, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus after regular blood feeding
24
-
PAF-AH, control, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus after regular blood feeding
27.1
-
plasma
32
-
Ca2+-independent PLA2, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes
34
-
PAF-AH, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with blood plus dexamethasone
43
-
total PLA2, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes
119
-
Ca2+-independent PLA2, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes
140
-
Ca2+-independent PLA2, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with blood plus dexamethasone
186
-
Ca2+-independent PLA2, control, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus after regular blood feeding
203
-
PAF-AH, cell-free hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes
381
-
Ca2+-dependent PLA2, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with blood plus dexamethasone
427
-
Ca2+-dependent PLA2, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes
529
-
total PLA2, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with blood plus dexamethasone
570
-
total PLA2, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus feeding with Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes
702
-
Ca2+-dependent PLA2, control, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus after regular blood feeding
915
-
total PLA2, control, hemocyte of Rhodnius prolixus after regular blood feeding
additional information
-
hyperoxemic rats show reduced activity in bronchoalveolar lavage, but not in plasma
additional information
-
PAF-AH isozyme Ib alpha1 subunit shows no transacetylase activity
additional information
-
activity of free, LDL-, and HDL-associated enzyme in healthy and diabetic persons
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
0.1309 U/ml, early puerperium; 0.1309 U/ml, late puerperium; 0.1418 U/ml, dry period; 0.1827 U/ml, mid-lactation; 0.2177 U/ml, second trimester of pregnancy; 0.2345 U/ml, first trimester of pregnancy; 0.2345 U/ml, lactation, infertility
additional information
-
without inhibitor SB-677116, 24.64 nmol/min per ml, 0.3 microM SB-677116 added, 2.05 nmol/min per ml, 3.0 microM SB-677116 added, 0.63 nmol/min per ml
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7
-
intracellular enzyme forms from brain
7
-
plasma enzyme
7.2
-
assay at
7.2
-
assay at
7.4
-
broad optimum
7.4
-
PBS, assay at
7.4
-
assay at
7.4
-
activity assay
7.5 - 8.5
-
-
7.5
-
assay at
7.5
-
assay at
7.6
-
assay at
7.8
-
activity assay
7.8
-
plasma enzyme
8
-
activity assay
8
-
assay at
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4 - 11
-
broad range, inactivation below pH 4.0
5 - 7.4
-
inactivation below pH 5.0, active to mild alkaline range
additional information
-
-
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
22
-
assay at
25
-
assay at
37
-
assay at
37
-
assay at
37
-
activity assay
37
-
activity assay
37
-
activity assay
37
-
activity assay
37
-
assay at
37
-
assay at
37
-
enzyme assay
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
atherogenic aorta
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
nonatherogenic mammary artery
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
melanoma cell line, implanted in syngenic C57BI/6J mice which then show reduced vascularization and growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
increased level in subjects with chronic cholestasis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
red blood cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme associated with low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
main part of enzyme associated with low-density lipoprotein, small portion of enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pPAF-AH activity is significantly lower in HCV patients than in controls. Patients who cleared HCV after antiviral treatment show a complete restoration of pPAF-AH activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
platelets contain the plasma type as well as the intracellular type II PAF-AH. Platelets contain high levels of the mRNA of plasma PAF-AH, whereas only a small quantity of the type II PAF-AH mRNA is detected. Platelets secrete the plasma type of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase primarily associated with microparticles
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
no statistical differences in PAF-AH activity between serologically negative horses, with 740 U/l, and those with residual, 735 U/l, and high antibody titre on leptospirosis, 790 U/l, respectively
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isoform Ib
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme Ib
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
neonatal and adult, isozyme I
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of PAFAH2 mRNA, robust expression of PLA2G7 mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
higher activity in fluid and plasma than in cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme II, of children with meningitis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q29460 and P68401
the greatest PAF-AH activity is detected on the day of parturition (day 0), after which its activity dramatically decreases and by day 5, the enzyme activity is less than 7% of the level at parturition
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
monocyte-derived cells show very low enzyme expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme in endometrium is of the plasma enzyme type, enzyme activity decreases on day 20 in pregnant cows compared to cyclic cows on the same day, which show no changes in enzyme activity level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
erythrocyte isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
erythrocyte aspirin hydrolysis varies among individuals
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secretion of plasma isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secretion of plasma isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
epidermal, isozyme II, lower amount compared to sebaceous gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme II
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
platelet-activating factor-dependent transacetylase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8VDG7
proximal and distal tubules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of PAFAH2 mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Kaposi's sarcoma cell line, implanted into SCID mice which then show reduced vascularization and growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
only after induction of plasma isozyme expression by lipopolysaccharides
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme II
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme II, reduced enzyme amount after liver transplantation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
lobule, Kupffer cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O35264 and O35263
recombinant platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase attenuates paracetamol-induced liver oxidative stress, injury, and regeneration
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of PAFAH2 mRNA, the type II liver isoform is found in several soft tissues
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, isozymes II and Ib with alpha1 or alpha2 subunit
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
decidual and monocyte-derived
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
increased enzyme expression in artheriosclerosis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
resident ones of the liver, and peritoneal
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secretion of plasma isozyme after cleavage of the signal peptide at Ala17/Val18, high enzyme activity during differentiation of monocytes to macrophages
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
no significant modifications of pPAF-AH mRNA in macrophages or in ApoB100 values is observed in hepatitis C virus patients compared with controls
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secretion of plasma isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
outside the bone marrow
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
at least 2 isozymes I and II, increased amount of isozyme I beta-subunit
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
at least 2 isozymes I and II
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P83006
clonal derivative of PC12 cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
robust expression of PLA2G7 mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
associated with LDL and HDL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
associated with LDL and VHDL-1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma isozyme is not associated with low-density lipoprotein LDL, but with high-density lipoprotein HDL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma isozyme pPAF-AH, and isozyme Ib
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma isozyme, two third or more of the enzymatic activity is associated with low-density lipoprotein LDL, involving Trp115, Leu116, and Tyr205, the remainder is associated with high-density lipoprotein HDL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J, Mus musculus BL6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
PAF-AH activity in the salivary gland homogenates is lower than in the saliva
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
PAF-AH activity in the salivary gland homogenates is lower than in the saliva
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme II, high amount
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secreted protein that circulates in plasma in activated form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the activity is significantly and negatively correlated with sperm motility. Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase serves as a decapacitation factor
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme II
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P68402
SpV-2 is predominantly expressed in testis, SpV-3 is predominantly expressed in testis, SpV-4 SpV-4 has its highest expression in testis, SpV-5 is expressed only in testis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of PAFAH2 mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme I activity is lower in pregnant uterus compared to the nonpregnant one
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
robust expression of PLA2G7 mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme activity increases during differentiation, only monocyte-derived dendritic cells show highly reduced enzyme expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
wide tissue distribution
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
distribution of hetero- and homdimer of the alpha-subunit
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
P68402
only trace amounts of SpV-2 in leukocytes, heart, and pancreas, SpV-1 is ubiquitously expressed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
brain enzyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme II
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
at least 2 isozymes I and II
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
erythrocyte isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
platelet-activating factor-dependent transacetylase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the majority of the enzyme activity (75.1% of total) is found in the cytosol, whereas 24.9% is associated with the membranes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma enzyme type, secretion, physiological functions, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secretion, association to membranes, plasma
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secretion, plasma
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
most circulating protein is bound to low-density lipoprotein, the rest is bound to high-density lipoprotein
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secreted enzyme
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secereted enzyme
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
secreted plasma PAF acetylhydrolase
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus BL6
-
secreted plasma PAF acetylhydrolase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
4 isozymes, i.e. isozyme Ia, Ib, II, and the erythrocyte form, physiological functions, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozymes Ib and II
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
membrane associated
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
bound, plasma isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
platelet-activating factor-dependent transacetylase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
membrane binding of HpPAF-AH increases the activity of enzyme, by interfacial activation. The lipid composition of membrane vesicles, by changing the physicochemical properties, differentially modulates the binding, partial membrane penetration and the activity of the enzyme, detailed overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
activity in subcellular fractions
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
treatment of epidermal cells with tert-butyl-hydroperoxide or ultraviolet B radiation results in isozyme II translocation from the cytosol to membranes
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
expressed in and secreted by macrophages and monocytes
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
28000
-
gel filtration
715827
35000
P68402
-
682621
40000
-
isoform II from liver, gel filtration
80948
43000 - 67000
-
plasma isozyme, gel filtration
653695
43000
-
propeptide, predicted from cDNA sequence
80953
43400
Q13093
residues 47-429
693171
45000
-
-
691655
45000
-
plasma enzyme, gel filtration
80958
45390
-
sequence of cDNA
80951
45400
-
-
691929
55000
-
determined by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analysis; predicted
692443
58000 - 63000
-
plasma isozyme, gel filtration
653695
60000
-
gel filtration
669150
60000
-
PAGE, SDS-PAGE
80949
63000
-
gel filtration
80946
64000
-
gel filtration
80952
70000
-
native enzyme, gel filtration
715638
100000
-
intracellular enzyme form Ib from brain, gel filtration
80943
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Q29460 and P68401
1 * 45000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 25000 + x * 31000, the 25000 Da component represents the catalytic unit, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 46000 + x * 63000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 44000-45000 + x * 65000-67000, Kupffer cell, x * 30000-32000, hepatocytes, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 14000, secretory isozyme
?
-
x * 40000, cytosolic and membraneous PAF-TA, SDS-PAGE, x * 43491, PAF-AH isozyme II, amino acid sequence calculation
?
-
x * 40000, isozyme II, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 45000, plasma and endometrial enzyme, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 66000, major part, + x * 37000, mino part, SDS-PAGE
?
P68402
x * 22800, calculated from sequence
dimer
P83006
-
dimer
-
1 * 38000 + 1 * 25000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 25000, erythrocyte isozyme, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
1 * 26000 + 1 * 28000, dimer consisting of alpha1 and alpha2 subunit, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration, 2 * 28000, dimer consisting of two alpha2 subunits, SDS-PAGE, native mass by gel filtration
dimer
P68402
2 * 17800, SpV-1 forms higher molecular weight complexes ranging from 65000 Da to 110000 Da in addition to the 35000 Da complex calculated from sequence
monomer
-
1 * 63000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 43000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 60000, plasma enzyme SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 42700, plasma enzyme, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 45000, isozyme II, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 45000, plasma isozyme, 1 * 40000, isozyme II
trimer
-
1 * 45000 + 1 * 30000 + 1 * 29000, intracellular enzyme form Ib from brain, SDS-PAGE
trimer
-
the enzyme consists of two catalytic subunits alpha1 and alpha2 which form a catalytic dimer and a non-catalytic subunit beta. In addition the enzyme can aggregate to homodimers consisting of alpha1/alpha1 or alpha2/alpha2. The three forms differ in substrate specificity. The beta subunit accelerates the activity of the alpha2/alpha2 homodimer, suppresses the activity of the alpha1/alpha1 homodimer and has little influence on the activity of the alpha1/alpha2 heterodimer
trimer
-
1 * 29000, alpha1-subunit, + 1 * 30000, alpha2-subunit, + 1 * 45000, beta-subunit, fetal brain enzyme, SDS-PAGE, 1 * 20000-25000, alpha1-subunit, + 1 * 30000, alpha2-subunit, + 1 * 45000, beta-subunit, kidney and uterus enzyme, SDS-PAGE
trimer
-
isozyme Ib, 2 * 26000, subunits alpha1 and/or subunit alpha2, + 1 * 45000, beta-subunit
trimer
-
the intracellular G-protein-like isozyme Ib consists of two catalytic subunits alpha1 and alpha2 and one regulatory subunit beta
trimer
-
1 * 45000, noncatalytic subunit, + 1 * 29000, subunit alpha1 or PAFAH1B3, + 1 * 30000, subunit alpha2 or PAFAH1B2, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
intracellular isozyme II, and plasma enzyme form
additional information
-
determination of structure-function relationship, dimerization of the brain isozyme is essential for both catalytic activity and stability, the monomeric enzyme is unstable, the alpha1 and alpha2 are catalytic subunits, the beta-subunit is a regulatory one
additional information
-
isozyme I exists of alpha1 and alpha2 subunits, catalytic subunits, tertiary structure, as well as of a beta-subunit, the beta-subunit is a regulatory one, isozyme II is a monomer
additional information
-
isozyme I is a trimer of 2 alpha-subunits and one beta-subunit, isozyme II is a monomer
additional information
Q29460
the enzyme exists as a trimer of a beta-subunit and a dimer of alpha-subunits, which can consist of a homodimer of 2 alpha1 or 2 alpha2-subunits or of a alpha1/alpha2 heterodimer
additional information
-
type I PAF acetylhydrolase is a trimer of a noncatalytic 45 kDa protein subunit associated with two catalytic subunits, PAFAH1B3 and PAFAH1B2 as homo- or heterodimers
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
side-chain modification
-
glycoprotein
glycoprotein
-
N-glycosylation is essential
glycoprotein
-
plasma isozyme, extensive N-glycosylation at Asn423 and Asn433
no modification
-
no glycoprotein, no sialic acid
glycoprotein
-
-
side-chain modification
-
N-linked glycosylation
additional information
-
isozyme II contains a myristoylation signal at the N-terminus
additional information
-
N-myristoylated at the N-terminus
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
12 mg/ml purified recombinant alpha1/alpha2 heterodimer, hanging-drop vapour diffusion method, 21C, 17% PEG-MME 2000, 0.1 M sodium acetate, pH 6.4, 10 mM CaCl2, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at resolution 2.1 A
Q29460
crystal structure determination and analysis of the alpha1 subunit in complex with acetate at 1.7 A resolution
-
purified recombinant R22K mutant, X-ray structure determination at 1.2 A resolution
-
a 1.5 A ligand-free crystal structure and a 2.1 A diethyl phosphoryl complex crystal structure of a 43.3 kDa construct, residues 47-429, of PAF acetylhydrolase are reported
Q13093
data are collected to a resolution of 1.47 A
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3
-
complete inactivation
80944
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
-
stable for 24 h
80949
37
-
30 min, stable
653094
37
-
salivary PAF-AH is stable at least for 4 h at 37C
715827
40
-
30 min, stable up to, gradually decrease at temperatures above 40C
649522
47.5
-
unfolding and irreversible denaturation at pH 9.5
653704
52.3
-
unfolding and irreversible denaturation at pH 6.5
653704
60
-
60 min, complete inactivation of both activities, acetylhydrolase and transacetylase
649713
60
-
10 min, almost complete inactivation
653094
60
-
30 min, complete inactivation
80944
70
-
30 min, inactivation
649522
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
stable to several cycles of freezing and thawing
-
highly sensitive to proteolysis
-
human PAF-AH protein is rapidly degraded after cycloheximide treatment of cells, a large portion of immunoreactive precursors are inactive and short-lived
-
mouse PAF-AH species displays remarkable stability, and enzymatic activity continues to increase after cycloheximide addition due to processing of inactive precursors to fully active protein
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
catalytic activity of PAF-AH is sensitive to oxidants. Peroxynitrite mediates oxidative inactivation of PAF-AH. M117, and to a smaller contribution Y307 and Y335 are targets of oxidant attack. M117 is adjacent to W115 and L116, which are essential for association of PAF-AH with low-density lipoproteins. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein-associated PAF-AH partially dissociates the enzyme from the particles. Oxidation of the purified enzyme in the absence of lipoproteins prevents subsequent association with low-density lipoproteins
-
679726
catalytic activity of PAF-AH is sensitive to oxidants. Peroxynitrite mediates oxidative inactivation of PAF-AH. M117, and to a smaller contribution Y307 and Y335 are targets of oxidant attack. Oxidation of the purified enzyme in the absence of lipoproteins prevents subsequent association with low-density lipoproteins
A0JNU3 and Q61206 and Q61205
679726
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-
Q29460 and P68401
cytosolic isoform II from liver
-
from endometrium and plasma
-
from seminal plasma
-
His-tagged alpha1/alpha2 heterodimer or alpha1 homodimer as maltose-binding fusion proteins from Escherichia coli XL1-Blue, removal of tags
Q29460
intracellular enzyme from brain, isoform Ib
-
isozyme II from liver, and isozyme I from brain
-
recombinant protein; recombinant protein
Q22943
from plasma
-
from erythrocytes
-
from plasma
-
native enzyme 1400fold from erythrocytes by two different steps of anion exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration, recombinant PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3 subunits from HEK-293T cells
-
native enzyme from plasma
-
plasma isozyme to homogeneity, solubilization from LDL
-
recombinant protein using FLAG-tag
-
the erythrocyte isozyme from the soluble fraction of erythrocytes
-
using anti-FLAG affinity beads
-
using anti-FLAG affinity beads
-
from adipocyte, 45.9fold
-
PAF-transacetylase from kidney cytosol, to homogeneity, recombinant PAF-AH isozyme II from Escherichia coli
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
active enzyme expressed in HEK 293 cells
-
brain isoform I, expression of alpha1 and alpha2 subunits in Escherichia coli, expression of the beta subunit in Sf9 cells
-
expression of the alpha1/alpha2 heterodimer or alpha1 homodimer as His-tagged maltose-binding fusion protein in Escherichia coli XL1-Blue using a bi-citronic expression vector
Q29460
expression of the catalytic subunit alpha1-homodimer and alpha1-alpha2-heterodimer in Escherichia coli as GST-fusion protein, expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes as GST-fusion proteins in Escherichia coli
-
cloning of paf-1 gene homologue, expression in Escherichia coli; cloning of paf-2 gene homologue, expression in Escherichia coli
Q22943
expression in Escherichia coli
-
;
P68402
expressed as FLAG-tag fusion protein in COS-7 cells, construction of transgenic mice; expression in COS7 cells
-
expressed in Xenopus laevis
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli and in COS cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli BL-21
-
expression in Escherichia coli BL21 cells
-
expression of a fragment, corresponding to nucleotides 599-1123 of the human PAF-AH cDNA, quantitative realtime RT-PCR expression analysis in MM6 cells
-
expression of mutant proteins in COS-7 cells
-
expression of N- and C-FLAG-tagged wild-type mouse PAF-AH, expression of FLAG-tagged human wild-type PAF-AH and of the engineered PAF-AH mutant in Escherichia coli. A region located at the N-terminal end of PAF-AH regulates expression levels
-
expression of PAFAH1B2 or PAFAH1B3 subunits in HEK-293T cells
-
gene maps to chromosome 6q12.p21.1
-
overexpression of isozyme II in HaCaT cells, protects cells against apoptosis induced by tert-butylhydroperoxid, C2-ceramide or ultraviolet B radiation
-
plasma isozyme, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene maps at chromosome 6q12-21.1
-
residues 47-429, expression in Escherichia coli cells
Q13093
transgenic mice overexpressing human PAF-AH II in neurons are generated. Human PAF-AH II expression is found throughout the central nervous system, especially in neurons of neocortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia
Q99487
expression in Escherichia coli BL-21
A0JNU3 and Q61206 and Q61205
expression in Escherichia coli BL21 cells
-
expression of N- and C-FLAG-tagged wild-type human PAF-AH, expression of FLAG-tagged human wild-type PAF-AH and of the engineered PAF-AH mutant in Escherichia coli. A region located at the N-terminal end of PAF-AH regulates expression levels
-
overexpression of the catalytic subunits, especially alpha2, in cultured COS cells induced dramatic phenotypical changes including nuclear shape change, centrosomal amplification and microtubule disorganization
-
PAF-AH isozyme II, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression of wild-type enzyme in Escherichia coli, expression of isozyme II mutant enzymes in CHO-K1 cells
-
into pYES-DEST52 using the pENTR/D-TOPO cloning kit, expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
no effect by lyso-PAF on PAF-AH expression
-
lipopolysaccharide and PAF strongly upregulate PAF-AH expression, the stimulation is susceptible to partial inhibition by p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-2033580 and PAF receptor antagonists WEB 2170 and BN50739, inhibition of the ERK1/2 portion of the MAPK pathway with PD98059 consistently increases PAF-AH expression relative to administration of lipopolysaccharide alone, overview. PAF-induced up-regulation of PAF-AH levels is solely mediated via the PAF receptor and is p38 MAPK-independent, lipopolysaccharide induce expression of the PAF receptor by 6-8fold
-
hyperglycemia increases in plasma PAF-AH activity
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
D20N
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant is not efficiently expressed
D20R
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant is not efficiently expressed
H149R
-
brain isoform I, beta subunit, mutant has no ability to associate with the catalytic alpha-complexes
L194A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, decreased Km and Vmax compared to the wild-type enzyme
L26A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, 60% reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
L48A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, decreased Km and Vmax compared to the wild-type enzyme
R22E
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant is not efficiently expressed
R22K
-
site-directed mutagenesis, inactive mutant
R29K
-
site-directed mutagenesis, slightly reduced activity compared to the wild-type enzyme
A379V
-
nonsynonymous polymorphism
I198T
-
nonsynonymous polymorphism
I317N
-
naturally occurring mutation, creation of a new N-linked glycosylation site, enzyme is not expressed in transfected COS-7 cells
Q281R
-
naturally occurring mutation in japanes population, inactive mutant enzyme, associated with asthma
Q281R
-
reduced enzyme expression and activity when expressed in transfected COS-7 cells
Q281R
-
inactivating mutation
R92H
-
nonsynonymous polymorphism
V279F
-
naturally occurring mutantion, ecspecially in Japanese population, loss of enzyme activity, associated with increased risk of stroke and of coronary artery disease
V279F
-
naturally occurring mutation, no enzyme detected in homozygous subjects, half of normal enzyme level detected in heterozygous subjects, enzyme is not expressed in transfected COS-7 cells
V279F
-
inactivating mutation
V297F
-
common naturally occurring mutation in japanese population, inactive mutant enzyme, prevalence of the mutant allele is significantly higher in patients with asthma, stroke, myocardial infraction, brain hemorrhage, and nonfamilial cardiomyopathy
N59Q
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant and wild-type mouse PAFAH expression levels are similar
N75Q
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant and wild-type mouse PAFAH expression levels are similar
C120S
-
site-directed mutagenesis, residue is involved in transacetylase reaction mechanism, mutant shows 35% reduced transacetylase activity but unaltered acetylhydrolase activity
G2A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, residue is involved in transacetylase reaction mechanism, mutant shows 50% reduced transacetylase activity but unaltered acetylhydrolase activity
G2A/C120S
-
site-directed mutagenesis, residues are involved in transacetylase reaction mechanism, mutant shows 80% reduced transacetylase activity but unaltered acetylhydrolase activity
S234C
-
site-directed mutagenesis, inactive mutant
S257A
-
serine 257 is predicted to be the active site serine
T103S
-
site-directed mutagenesis, decreased Km and Vmax compared to the wild-type enzyme
additional information
Q22943
loss of function mutants of the two homologous PAF-AH (II) genes, mutant organisms show defects in epithelial sheet formation, resulting in unsuccessful subsequent morphogenesis with complete penetrance
additional information
Q22943
loss of function mutants of the two homologous PAF-AH (II) genes, mutant organisms show defects in epithelial sheet formation, resulting in unsuccessful subsequent morphogenesis with complete penetrance, disruption of paf-2 results in severe impairment of embryonic development, embryos are found to be arrested in the bean stage and fail to elongate
I317N
-
inactivating mutation
additional information
-
4% naturally occurring deficiency of plasma isozyme in Japanese population can be complemented by the other isozymes
additional information
-
several naturally occurring mutations of different populations are connected with diseases in humans, overview
additional information
-
naturally occurring mutation, insertion of adenine at nucleotide 191 results in the creation of a stop codon at position 63 and hence in a truncated protein
additional information
-
the murine form of PAF-AH is more resistant to inactivation than the human ortholog: studies on chimeric constructs
additional information
-
different human-mouse chimeric constructs are generated
additional information
-
replacement of human PAF-AH residues 42-100 with mouse PAF-AH amino acids 41-99, resulting in construct m41-99H, dramatically increases protein and enzymatic activity expression. Conversely, when mouse cDNA N-terminal residues are replaced with the equivalent human sequences, resulting in construct h42-100M, the levels of expression are significantly decreased
V379F
-
nonsynonymous polymorphism
additional information
A0JNU3 and Q61206 and Q61205
the murine form of PAF-AH is more resistant to inactivation than the human ortholog: studies on chimeric constructs
additional information
-
different human-mouse chimeric constructs are generated
additional information
-
generation of enzyme-deficient PAF-AH-/- mice by targeted disruption of the mouse PAF-AH gene. Mortality rates are significantly lower in PAF-AH-/- pups compared to wild-type controls before 24 hours of life but surviving PAF-AH-/- animals are more susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis, NEC, development compared to wild-type controls
additional information
-
replacement of human PAF-AH residues 42-100 with mouse PAF-AH amino acids 41-99, resulting in construct m41-99H, dramatically increases protein and enzymatic activity expression. Conversely, when mouse cDNA N-terminal residues are replaced with the equivalent human sequences, resulting in construct h42-100M, the levels of expression are significantly decreased
S61P/P63S
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant and wild-type mouse PAFAH expression levels are similar
additional information
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
-
generation of enzyme-deficient PAF-AH-/- mice by targeted disruption of the mouse PAF-AH gene. Mortality rates are significantly lower in PAF-AH-/- pups compared to wild-type controls before 24 hours of life but surviving PAF-AH-/- animals are more susceptible to necrotizing enterocolitis, NEC, development compared to wild-type controls
-
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
medicine
-
the gene for the beta subunit of brain enyzme isoform I is identical to a causative gene for Miller-Dieker lissencephaly
diagnostics
-
potential role of PAF-AH and PON1 as prognostic markers of the leptospirosis outcome
diagnostics
-
the enzyme is a positive risk factor for coronary disease and measurements of its amount may contribute to the prediction of coronary heart disease risk, especially in individuals with low LDL cholesterol levels
diagnostics
-
the plasma enzyme is an important risk marker for endothelial dysfunction in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
diagnostics
-
the ratio of the HDL-associated enzyme to total plasma enzyme activity is a useful marker for atherogenicity in subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia
medicine
-
plasma isozyme is a target of many clinical studies in inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, sepsis, and vascular diseases
medicine
-
recombinant plasma enzyme form can prevent or attenuate pathological inflammation in a number of animal models, it may have pharmacological potential in human inflammatory disease as well, overview
medicine
-
in human neither in asthma nor in sepsis the recombinant enzyme shows sufficient efficiacy. In numerous animal models of inflammation or sepsis rPAF-AH is efficient, pointing out the extreme difficulty to extrapolate from small animal models to human beings
medicine
Q99487
PAF-AH II exerts strong neuroprotective effects against ischemic injury. This results suggest a possibility for clinical use of this enzyme in cerebral ischemia
medicine
-
an altered location of PAF-AH correlates with diseases such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and chronic kidney disease
medicine
-
elevated Lp-PLA2 levels are correlated to increased risk for cardiovascular events
medicine
-
lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 is a cardiovascular risk marker, in addition, its inhibition reduces the generation of oxidized fatty acids
medicine
-
lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 is a biomarker that can be used to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease and events, in addition several studies suggest that the enzyme has a pathological role in the atherosclerotic disease process
medicine
-
lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 is among the multiple cardiovascular biomarkers that have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk
medicine
-
lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease
medicine
-
plasma platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase functions as a general anti-inflammatory scavenger by reducing the levels of the signaling molecule platelet activating factor
medicine
-
serum platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase is a potential inflammatory marker in type 1 diabetes
medicine
P83006
potential use of PAF-AH alpha2 as pharmacologically active protein to promote cell survival
medicine
O35264 and O35263
the use of PAF inactivator enhances the livers recovery from paracetamol intoxication and attenuates the severity of experimental liver injury, providing important means of improving liver function following paracetamol intoxication