Information on EC 3.2.1.15 - polygalacturonase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.2.1.15
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
polygalacturonase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Random hydrolysis of (1->4)-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
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-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
homogalacturonan degradation
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Metabolic pathways
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Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(1->4)-alpha-D-galacturonan glycanohydrolase
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9032-75-1
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
isolated from a desert sand sample of Ningxia, China, gene pg I
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from a desert sand sample of Ningxia, China, gene pg I
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Acrocylindrium sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NRRL 1894
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NRRL 1894
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFO 4033
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CCT 3232
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CCT 3232
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IFO 4308
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
RH5344
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 20235
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N12
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N12
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 350.80
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolate PFH N7
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
No. P-4-N
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus sp. No. P-4-N
No. P-4-N
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacterium aroideae
-
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B05-10
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
E-200 PERS
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pers.
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
line Rs1046A/B
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subspecies Brassica campestris chinensis, synonym Brassica rapa chinensis
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC33617 and strain AU6208
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
‘Hard Pick’ line and ‘Easy Pick’ line
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Golden
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ceratostomella ulmi
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fomitopsis cytisina
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; synonym Gibberella fujikuroi
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIM 1276
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain L
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain L
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CECT1043
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain P2-R
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain P2-R
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Golden Delicious
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus sp.
strain N8
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Monascus sp. N8
strain N8
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
genes MpPG1, MpPG2 and MpPG3. Isozymes MpPG1and MpPG3 corresponds to exo-polygalacturonases, EC 3.2.1.67, while isozyme MpPG2 corresponds to endo-polygalacturonase
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain URM 3087
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain URM 3087
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. albidus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N6
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain N6
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from acidic wastewater sample (pH 3.0) collected from a tin mine in Yunnan province, China
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from acidic wastewater sample (pH 3.0) collected from a tin mine in Yunnan province, China
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Anjou
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NBRC 4707
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene PGU1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain L2323
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces fragilis
gene PGU1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene PGU1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Tetracoccosporium sp.
-
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CECT 2413
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain T34
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
QM9414
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from the citrus fruit peels in the province of Misiones, Argentina
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
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antisense RNA transgenic plants that display decreased expression of MF9 show pollen morphological defects that result in reduced pollen germination efficiency. Inhibition of MF9 also results in break-up of the previously formed tectum and baculae from the beginning of the binucleate stage as a result of premature degradation of tapetum
metabolism
isozyme protein-protein interaction network analysis, overview
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
digalacturonic acid + galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-D-galacturonate + D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
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no production of pentagalacturonate
-
?
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + H2O
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + galacturonate
show the reaction diagram
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-
59.3% alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate + 38.7% galacturonate
-
?
amylopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
cellulose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
37.8% activity compared to polygalacturonic acid
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-
?
citrus pectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
dextrose agar + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
galacturonosyl-galactonic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
homogalacturonan + H2O
oligogalacturonide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methyl digalacturonoside + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
oligogalacturonate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Fomitopsis cytisina
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?
oligogalacturonic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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affinity of OGHs increase with increasing degree of polymerization of the substrate, but the increase of the maximal rate is stopped by OGH when polymeric substrate is used. Form with pH optimum 4.6 prefers higher oligogalacturonates
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-
?
oligogalacturonide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
with a degree of polymerization of 5 and above are hydrolyzed in an endo-fashion and the enzyme appear s to possess 6-7 sugar binding sites in its active site
-
-
?
pectate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
pectic acid + H2O
galacturonic acid oligomers
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
galacturonic acid oligomers
show the reaction diagram
pectin + H2O
oligogalacturonates
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme rapidly decreases the viscosity of polygalacturonate and 89% esterified pectin, but the amount of reducing sugars released from polygalacturonic acid is double that of the 89% esterified pectin. Activity on pectin decreases with an increase in degree of esterification
the concentration of oligogalacturonates with degree of polymerization 5 and above is initially high and decreases with time
-
?
pectin + H2O
oligogalacturonides
show the reaction diagram
poly-D-galacturonic acid + H2O
D-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
polygalacturonan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonate + H2O
oligogalacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
polygalacturonate + H2O
oligogalacturonates
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonate + H2O
oligogalacturonides
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
D-galacturonic acid + di-galacturonic acid + tri-galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
digalacturonic acid + galacturonic acid + trigalacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
galacturonic acid
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
galacturonic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
oligogalacturonate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
oligogalacturonates
show the reaction diagram
polypectate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
polyuronide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
protopectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protopectin + H2O
highly polymerized pectin
show the reaction diagram
sodium polypectate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
xylan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
11% activity compared to polygalacturonic acid
-
-
?
xylogalacturonan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
about 50% of the extracted xylogalacturonan from watermelon fruit cell walls can be converted. All of the oligosaccharides have three unsubstituted GalA residues at their reducing ends
-
-
?
[beta-D-GalA(1-4)]10 + H2O
[beta-D-GalA(1-4)]3-7
show the reaction diagram
-
-
with degree of polymerizations of 3-7
-
?
[beta-D-GalA(1-4)]3 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
[beta-D-GalA(1-4)]4 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
[beta-D-GalA(1-4)]5 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
PG1 and PG2
-
-
?
[beta-D-GalA(1-4)]6 + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
is not a good substrate, no complete hydrolysis
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?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
pectate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
Q2M4X6
the pollen-specific protein LLP-PG digests the 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans and may function during pollen development, germination or tube growth by pectin depolymerization. It may degrade the walls of the stylar cells to allow penetration of the pollen tube
-
-
?
pectin + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonan + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonate + H2O
oligogalacturonates
show the reaction diagram
polygalacturonic acid + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
polyuronide + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ba2+
30% activation
BaCl2
-
maximal activity at 0.1 mM
CaCl2
-
maximal activity at 0.15 mM
K+
-
slightly stimulates
MgCl2
-
maximal activity at 0.25 mM
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide
-
50 mM, 70% inhibition
2,3-Butanedione
-
10 mM, 90% inhibition
2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzylbromide
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
2-mercaptoethanol
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate
-
inhibition of pectic acid liquefying activity, no inhibition of protopectinase activity
alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonosyl-(1,4)-O-alpha-D-galacturonate
-
inhibition of pectic acid liquefying activity, no inhibition of protopectinase activity
antisense RNA
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inhibits BcMF2 expression, which results in abnormal pollen tube growth and consequent reduction in male fertility. BcMF2 inhibition leads to pollen deformities with abnormal intine development and in early degradation of the anther tapetum
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apple polygalacturonase inhibiting protein 1
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ascorbic acid
-
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auxin
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either in tobacco PG or wild-type plants treated with oligogalacturonides, resistance to fungal infection is suppressed by exogenous auxin, whereas sensitivity to auxin of PG plants is reduced in different bioassays. Altered auxin sensitivity in PG plants may be due to an increased accumulation of oligogalacturonides and subsequent antagonism of auxin action
CaCl2
-
probably by calcium chelation of polygalacturonic acid
Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide
-
67% inhibition at 0.5%
chlorogenic acid
-
-
Cinnamic acid
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-
Citric acid
-
64% inhibition at 5 mM
diethyl dicarbonate
diethyldicarbonate
-
ferulic acid
-
-
galacturonate
gluconic acid delta-lactone
-
compeptitive
iodoacetamide
-
1 mM, 20% inhibition
iodoacetic acid
L-cystine
-
-
Mercuric chloride
-
-
Mersalyl acid
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-