Information on EC 4.1.1.15 - Glutamate decarboxylase

New: Word Map on EC 4.1.1.15
Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Search Reference ID:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.1.1.15
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
Glutamate decarboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-glutamate = 4-aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
oxidative deamination
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
-
-
beta-Alanine metabolism
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
Butanoate metabolism
-
-
GABA shunt
-
-
glutamate and glutamine metabolism
-
-
L-glutamate degradation IV
-
-
L-glutamate degradation IX (via 4-aminobutanoate)
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-glutamate 1-carboxy-lyase (4-aminobutanoate-forming)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, 3-sulfino-L-alanine and L-aspartate.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9024-58-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain L. Heynh. Ecotype Columbia, 2 isoenzymes: GAD1 and GAD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gadB
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gadB
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gad
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gad
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SSP
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SSP
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from traditional Korean fermented food kimchi, gene gad
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LVIS_0079; gene gadB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
single gene gadB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IFO12005, gene gadB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gadB; strain NFRI 7415, gene gadB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gadB; strain NFRI 7415, gene gadB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male monkeys
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform GAD65
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B6D2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus BALB/c
Balb/c mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6
C57BL/6 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
spleen from Dasypus novemcinctus infected with Mycobacterium leprae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene PH0937
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain LEW-1A and BB/OK
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gad
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serotypes Typhimurium and Enteritidis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ssp. thermophilus Y2, gene gadB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene gad
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Qidou 2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
inbred line DH4866
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
-
the 4-aminobutanoate shunt pathway possesses three enzymes encoded by genes gad, gabT, and gabD. Among the three, GAD is the key cytosolic-located enzyme which catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of L-glutamate to produce 4-aminobutanoate
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-alpha-Methylglutamate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-alpha-methylglutamate + O2
laevulinic acid + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Asp
?
show the reaction diagram
L-Cysteic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-Cysteine sulfinic acid
?
show the reaction diagram
L-Glu
4-Aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-Glu
?
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamate
4-aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-Glu
4-Aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid
-
-
?
L-Glu
?
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamate
4-aminobutanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Calmodulin
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
BaCl2
activates by 22% at 5 mM
CaCl2
potent activation
CoCl2
-
1 mM, activation to 128% of control
KBr
-
50 mM, enhances GAD activity in renal cortex homogenate
KCl
-
50 mM, enhances GAD activity in renal cortex homogenate
LiCl
-
50 mM, enhances GAD activity in renal cortex homogenate
Mn2+
-
the optimal concentration (7.5 mM) of Mn2+ can also improve the activity of recombinant enzyme (164%), but the co-effect of Ca2+ and Mn2+ exhibits antagonism effect when added simultaneously
MnCl2
-
1 mM, activation to 133% of control
NaBr
-
50 mM, enhances GAD activity in renal cortex homogenate
NaCl
-
50 mM, enhances GAD activity in renal cortex homogenate
NH4+
activates to 132% activity at 10 mM
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(4Z,7E)-N,N'-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-benzimidazole-4,7-diimine
(5Z)-2-amino-5-(2-nitrobenzylidene)-1,3-thiazol-4(5H)-one
(E)-pent-2-enoic acid
-
20% inhibition at 0.01 mg/ml
1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetylpentopyranoside
1-(2-nitrobenzyl)-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde
1-Methylimidazole
-
about 85% residual activity at 5 mM, about 77% residual activity at 10 mM, about 65% residual activity at 20 mM
10H-indeno[2,1-e]tetrazolo[1,5-b][1,2,4]triazin-10-one
2,4-bis[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]phenol
2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid
-
-
2-(benzylsulfanyl)-3-(morpholin-4-yl)-2,3-dihydronaphthalene-1,4-dione
2-chloro-N-[5-([2-oxo-2-[(4-sulfamoylphenyl)amino]ethyl]sulfanyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]acetamide
2-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-6-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-yl)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-dione
2-mercaptoethanol
2-Methyl-3,4-didehydroglutamic acid
-
-
2-oxoglutarate
2-thioxo-3-[(E)-(3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexylidene)amino]-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one
2-[(2-chloro-5-nitrobenzoyl)amino]-5-iodobenzoic acid
2-[(3-formyl-1H-indol-1-yl)methyl]benzonitrile
3,3'-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)bis(4-nitro-1,2,5-oxadiazole)
3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid
-
-
3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid
3-Bromopyruvate
-
-
3-Hydroxytyramine
-
-
3-Mercaptopropionic acid
3-[(2E)-2-[1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylidene]hydrazinyl]benzoic acid
3-[(E)-(2,6-difluorobenzylidene)amino]-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one
3-[(E)-(4-methoxybenzylidene)amino]-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one
4'-deoxypyridoxine-5'-phosphate
-
about 60% inhibition of GAD65 at 3.5 mM, GAD67 is hardly affected
4'-O-methylpyridoxine-5'-phosphate
-
decreases activity of GAD65 in unphysiologically high concentrations, about 60% inhibition at 3.5 mM. GAD67 activity is hardly affected
4,4'-(phenylmethanediyl)bis[2-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one]
4,4'-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanediyl]bis(2-heptyl-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one)
4,5-Dihydroxyisophthalic acid
4-(morpholin-4-yl)naphthalene-1,2-dione
4-(piperidin-1-yl)naphthalene-1,2-dione
4-aminobutanoate
-
-
4-Aminohex-5-ynoic acid
-
-
4-Bromoisophthalic acid
4-methylimidazole
-
about 75% residual activity at 5 mM, about 70% residual activity at 10 mM, about 58% residual activity at 20 mM
4-nitro-1,6-dihydrobenzo[1,2-d:3,4-d']bis[1,2,3]triazole
4-nitro-7-[[(1-phenyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)sulfanyl]methyl]-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
4-[(1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)sulfanyl]butanoic acid
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
5,6-dichloro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diol
5-[(E)-benzylideneamino]-6-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione
5-[(E)-[[1-(2-chlorobenzyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]methylidene]amino]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one
5-[[5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-(4-methylphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]methylidene]-1,3-diphenyl-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione
6,11-dioxo-5a,6,11,11a-tetrahydronaphtho[2',3':4,5][1,3]thiazolo[3,2-a]pyridin-12-ium
9H-indeno[1,2-b][1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-e]pyrazin-9-one
acetate
-
-
Ag+
58.3% residual activity at 2 mM
Al3+
91.2% residual activity at 2 mM
allylglycine
-
-
Aminoethylylisothiouronium bromide
-
-
aminooxyacetic acid
-
-
Aminoxyacetate
-
asiaticoside
-
-
ATP
-
in presence of leupeptin in freshly prepared homogenates. Inhibition of enzyme from homogenates stored without Triton X-100 for 24 h at 4C
Avidin
-
-
-
BaCl2
-
1 mM, 78% inhibition
beta-Methylene-DL-Asp
-
-
betulinic acid
-
27% inhibition at 0.01 mg/ml
bilobalide
-
-
biphenyl-3,3'-dicarbaldehyde
Ca2+
activates at 0.2 mM, slight inhibition above 1 mM
CaCl2
-
1 mM, 31% inhibition
Carbohydrazide
-
-
carboxymethoxylamine
CdCl2
-
1 mM, 38% inhibition
CH3COOH
57.4% residual activity at 2 mM
Chelidamic acid
Chelidonic acid
Chloroacetamide
-
no inhibition at pH 4.6, marked inhibition at pH 6.0 or higher
CoCl2
62% inhibition at 5mM
CuSO4
93% inhibition at 5mM
Cycloglutamates
-
-
-
cyclosporin A
-
up to 0.3 mM, partial inhibition of activity in homogenate, but not in the supernatant obtained after centrifuging the homogenate
Cys
-
enzyme from embryos
D-erythro-4-fluoroglutamate
-
-
dithiothreitol
DL-4-Amino-4-phosphonobutyrate
-
-
DL-alpha-Aminoadipic acid
-
-
DL-alpha-Methylglutamate
-
-
DL-Penicillamine
FeCl3
-
1 mM, 65% inhibition
FeSO4
92% inhibition at 5mM
ginsenosides
-
23% inhibition at 0.01 mg/ml, ethanol extract of Panax quinquefolius, different glycoside derivatives, overview
-
Glutamate gamma-hydroxamate
-
weak
Glutarate
glutathione
-
-
hydroxylamine
-
-
isoniazide
isoniazide-induced seizures are mediated primarily through competition with the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate resulting in the inhibition of GAD activity
Isonicotinic acid hydrazide
-
-
Isophthalic acid
L-Asn
-
inhibits 4% at 1 mM
L-Asp
-
inhibits 20% at 1 mM
L-aspartate beta-hydroxamate
-
weak
L-cysteine
-
L-Cysteine hydrochloride
-
-
L-cysteine sulfinic acid
-
-
L-erythro-4-fluoroglutamate
-
-
L-Thiomalic acid
-
-
malate
-
weak
Mercaptosuccinic acid
methyl 2-amino-3-oxo-3H-phenothiazine-1-carboxylate
methyl 2-[[(2-methylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl)carbonyl]amino]benzoate
MgCl2
-
1 mM, 46% inhibition
Mn2+
92.6% residual activity at 2 mM
MnSO4
88% inhibition at 5mM
N-(2-hydroxy-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)benzamide
N-[4,7-dioxo-6-(phenylamino)-4,7-dihydro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl]acetamide
N-[4,7-dioxo-6-(piperidin-1-yl)-4,7-dihydro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-5-yl]acetamide
Na2SO4
naphtho[2',3':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-6,11-dione
oxaloacetate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
Pb(CH3COO)2
-
1 mM, 37% inhibition
PCMB
-
0.1 mM, 68.5% inhibition at pH 4.6, irreversible
Phenylglyoxal
-
-
reduced glutathione
-
enzyme from embryos
Semicarbazide
-
-
Substituted dicarboxylic acids
-
-
-
Thiocarbohydrazide
-
-
Thioglycollic acid
-
-
Thiomalate
-
-
Thiosemicarbazide
-
-
ursolic acid
-
; 11.2% inhibition at 0.01 mg/ml
valerenic acid
-
20% inhibition at 0.01 mg/ml
Zinc acetate
-
-
ZnSO4
80.4% inhibition at 5mM
[(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)oxy]acetic acid
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
-
activates
2-oxoglutarate
-
stimulates
3-Mercaptopropionic acid
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
stimulates
ADP
-
2 mM, activation to about 170% of control without detergent. Activation to about 210% of control in presence of 1% Triton X-100
aminooxyacetic acid
-
-
ammonium sulfate
at 1.8 M
AMP
-
2 mM, activation to about 125% of control without detergent. Activation to about 140% of control in presence of 1% Triton X-100
apocalmodulin
-
isoform GAD65, up to 60% activation, truncated isoform DAD67, up to 141% activation, no significant activation of GST-GAD67. Activation is due to an increase in affinity for cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
asiaticoside
-
20% activation at 0.01 mg/ml; an increase in GAD65 activity by 22% is observed with asiaticoside; an increase in GAD65 activity by 4.5% is observed with asiaticoside
ATP
-
2 mM, activation to about 150% of control in presence of 1% Triton, inhibition to 20% of control without detergent
bilobalide
-
20% activation at 0.01 mg/ml; an increase in GAD65 activity by 17.8% is observed with bilobalide; an increase in GAD65 activity by approximately 18% is observed with bilobalide
Br-
-
activates
CaCl2
-
0.5 mM, pH 5.6, 45% increase in activity
Calmodulin
Cl-
-
activates
CTP
-
2 mM, activation to about 110% of control without detergent. Activation to about 200% of control in presence of 1% Triton X-100
EDTA
-
2 mM, stimulates
F-
-
activates
Glutarate
-
stimulates
GTP
-
2 mM, activation to about 125% of control without detergent. Activation to about 190% of control in presence of 1% Triton X-100
I-
-
activates
L-Gln
-
activates 18% at 1 mM
PCMB
-
-
UTP
-
2 mM, activation to about 140% of control without detergent. Activation to about 190% of control in presence of 1% Triton X-100
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5.2
cysteine sulfinic acid
-
-
1.04
L-alpha-Methylglutamate
-
pH 4.6, 25C
5.4
L-cysteic acid
-
-
0.174 - 22
L-Glu
0.0274 - 32.3
L-glutamate
additional information
additional information