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Information on EC 2.1.1.137 - arsenite methyltransferase

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EC Tree
     2 Transferases
         2.1 Transferring one-carbon groups
             2.1.1 Methyltransferases
                2.1.1.137 arsenite methyltransferase
IUBMB Comments
An enzyme responsible for synthesis of trivalent methylarsenical antibiotics in microbes or detoxification of inorganic arsenous acid in animals. The in vivo substrate is arsenic triglutathione or similar thiol (depending on the organism) , from which the arsenic is transferred to the enzyme forming bonds with the thiol groups of three cysteine residues via a disulfide bond cascade pathway [7, 8]. Most of the substrates undergo two methylations and are converted to dimethylarsinous acid . However, a small fraction are released earlier as methylarsonous acid, and a smaller amount proceeds via a third methylation, resulting in the volatile product trimethylarsane. Methylation involves temporary oxidation to arsenic(V) valency, followed by reduction back to arsenic(III) valency using electrons provided by thioredoxin or a similar reduction system. The arsenic(III) products are quickly oxidized in the presence of oxygen to the corresponding arsenic(V) species.
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Word Map
The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea
Synonyms
as3mt, arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase, n6amt1, has3mt, arsenite methyltransferase, cyt19, as(iii) s-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase, arsenic (iii) methyltransferase, arsenite s-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase, arsenic (+3) methyltransferase, more
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + arsenite = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + methylarsonate
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S-adenosyl-L-methionine + arsenic triglutathione + thioredoxin + 2 H2O = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + methylarsonous acid + 3 glutathione + thioredoxin disulfide
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2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + arsenic triglutathione + 2 thioredoxin + H2O = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + dimethylarsinous acid + 3 glutathione + 2 thioredoxin disulfide
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3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + arsenic triglutathione + 3 thioredoxin = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + trimethylarsane + 3 glutathione + 3 thioredoxin disulfide
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