Information on EC 1.1.1.34 - hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.1.34
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+ = (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
isoprene biosynthesis II (engineered)
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
mevalonate metabolism
-
-
mevalonate pathway I
-
-
mevalonate pathway II (archaea)
-
-
mevalonate pathway III (archaea)
-
-
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(R)-mevalonate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (CoA-acylating)
The enzyme is inactivated by EC 2.7.11.31 {[hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)] kinase} and reactivated by EC 3.1.3.47 {[hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH)]-phosphatase}.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9028-35-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
MZKI A561
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI A561
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI B802
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI B802
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cauliflower
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CBS 767
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CBS 767
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
dual-function enzyme with acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activities
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Oliver
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a triterpene-producing fungus, strain HG
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI B736
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Norin 1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
collected from Panzhihua, Sichuan province, China, gene hmgr
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
genes LcHMG1 and LcHMG2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
C57BL/6J mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI B741
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI B741
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
Sprague-Dawley
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI K86
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Irish Cobbler
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Rishiri, interspecific hybrid
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CL190
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CL190
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI B734
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MZKI B734
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
EXF 994
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
EXF 994
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-mevaldehyde + NADPH + H+
(R)-mevalonate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(R,S)-mevaldehyde + acetate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(R,S)-mevaldehyde + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
(R)-mevalonate + 2 NADP+ + CoA
show the reaction diagram
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
mevaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first step reaction
-
-
r
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
mevaldyl-CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
mevalonolactone + CoA + 2 NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH + H+
mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA
acetoacetyl-CoA + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
DL-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH + H+
mevalonate + NADP+ + CoA
show the reaction diagram
mevaldehyde + NADPH
(R)-mevalonate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
mevaldehyde + NADPH + H+
(R)-mevalonate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
mevaldyl-CoA + H2O
mevaldehyde + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
second step reaction
-
-
r
mevaldyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ + H2O
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
second step reaction
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
(R)-mevalonate + 2 NADP+ + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
HMGR is a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the sole route in haloarchaea for lipid and carotenoid production
-
-
?
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
mevaldyl-CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
first step reaction
-
-
?
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
mevalonolactone + CoA + 2 NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
rate-limiting step of cholesterol biosynthesis
-
-
r
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA
acetoacetyl-CoA + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + 2 NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
D-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH
mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH + H+
mevalonate + NADP+ + CoA
show the reaction diagram
mevaldyl-CoA + NADPH + H+ + H2O
(R)-mevalonate + CoA + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
second step reaction
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Hg2+
-
induces the enzyme in cut roots treated with HgCl2
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(3R,5R)-7-(1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-[(5-methyl-pyrazin-2-ylmethyl)-carbamoyl]-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-phenylcarbamoyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoicacid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzylcarbamoyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxycarbonyl-benzylcarbamoyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-5-phenylcarbamoyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-5-phenylcarbamoyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(3-methoxybenzyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[[4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl]carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[5-(4-carboxy-benzylcarbamoyl)-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoicacid disodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[5-benzylcarbamoyl-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoicacid
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[5-carbamoyl-1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[5-carbamoyl-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoicacid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[5-cyano-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoicacid sodium salt
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[5-[(3-carbamoylbenzyl)carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[5-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
(3R,5R)-7-[5-[[4-(dimethylcarbamoyl)benzyl]carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
(5S)-5-hydroxy-4-{2-[(1S,2R,4aR)-1,2,4a,5-tetramethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalen-1-yl]ethyl}furan-2(5H)-one
-
22.65% inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase at 0.001 mM concentration and maximum inhibition of 78.03% at 0.1 mM, the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, a clerodane diterpene from ethanolic extract of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula, is a potential lipid lowering agent, molecular docking analysis, overview
(E,3R,5S)-7-(4-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)pentan-3-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoic acid
-
competitive inhibitor, shows slight inhibitory activity
(R)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
-
competitive inhibitor
(S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxy-3-methylbutyryl-CoA
-
competitive inhibitor
(S)-4-carboxy-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA
-
competitive inhibitor
1,10-phenanthroline
-
-
3,3-dimethylglutaryl-CoA
-
competitive inhibitor
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
-
0.05 mM
3-Hydroxyglutaryl-CoA
-
competitive inhibitor
3-methylglutaryl-CoA
-
competitive inhibitor
4-[[([5-[(3R,5R)-6-carboxy-3,5-dihydroxyhexyl]-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]carbonyl)amino]methyl]benzoic acid
-
-
7-[3,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(3-methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-5-(propylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-5-[(4-sulfamoylphenyl)carbamoyl]-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-5-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)carbamoyl]-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-5-[[(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamoyl]-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-5-[[(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamoyl]-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-5-[[(5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)methyl]carbamoyl]-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(methylcarbamoyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(4-methoxybenzyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-(benzylcarbamoyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-(cyclopropylcarbamoyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-(ethylcarbamoyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-carbamoyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-ethylcarbamoyl-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoicacid sodium salt
-
-
7-[5-[(4-carbamoylphenyl)carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-[[(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)methyl]carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-[[3-(dimethylcarbamoyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]-3,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
7-[5-[[4-(dimethylcarbamoyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
-
-
8-hydroxygeraniol
-
competitive inhibition mechanism, binds at the catalytic site, docking experiments, overview
acetoacetyl-CoA
-
-
acetyl-CoA
-
-
adenosine-2'-monophospho-5'-diphosphoribose
-
competitive inhibitor for NADPH binding site
AFGYVAE
-
-
atorvastatin
brutieridin
-
i.e. hesperetin 7-(2''-alpha-rhamnosyl-6''-(3''''-hydroxy-3''''-methylglutaryl)-beta-D-glucoside), a flavonoid conjugate from bergamot fruit extract, structural analogue of statins, computational study, overview
ceramide
-
treatment with exogenous ceramides, or increasing the endogenous ceramide levels inhibits HMGCR by 6080%
cerivastatin
CoA disulfide
-
no inactivation in presence of NADPH 1 mM, or HMG-CoA 0.5 mM
Compactin
cycloheximide
daidzein
-
isoflavone, isolated and purified from korean soybean paste, structural analysis
deoxycholate
-
-
DFGYVAE
-
-
digitonine
-
2% digitonin, 80% inhibition
EFGYVAE
-
-
eicosapentaenoic acid
-
inhibits translation of the enzyme about 50% at 0.15 mM, downregulation, slightly increases downregulation of protein synthesis by cycloheximide
F(4-fluoro)VAE
-
HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
FFGYVAE
-
-
FFYVAE
-
-
FG-(4-fluoro)FVAE
-
-
FGYVAE
-
-
fluvastatin
FPYVAE
-
-
FVAE
-
HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
genistein
-
isoflavone, isolated and purified from korean soybean paste, structural analysis
GFGYVAE
-
-
GFPDGG
-
designed on the basis of the rigid peptide backbone, increases the inhibitory potency more than 300 times compared to the first isolated LPYP from soybean, overview
GFPEGG
-
HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
GFPTGG
GLPDGG
-
NADPH and HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
GLPEGG
-
NADPH and HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
GLPTGG
glycitein
-
isoflavone, isolated and purified from korean soybean paste, structural analysis
Hydroxymethylglutarate
IAVE
-
HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
IAVP
-
NADPH competitive inhibitor
IAVPGEVA
-
isolated from soybean by pepsin
IAVPTGVA
-
-
IFGYVAE
-
-
Ile-Ala-Val-Glu
-
-
Ile-Ala-Val-Pro-Gly-Glu-Val-Ala
-
-
Ile-Val-Ala-Glu
-
-
IVAE
-
HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
Leu-Pro-Tyr-Pro
-
-
LFGYVAE
-
-
lovastatin
LPYP
-
from soybean
melitidin
-
i.e. naringenin 7-(2''-alpha-rhamnosyl-6''-(3''''-hydroxy-3''''-methylglutaryl)-beta-D-glucoside), a flavonoid conjugate from bergamot fruit extract, structural analogue of statins, computational study, overview
mevastatin
Mevinolin
-
competitive with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
MgATP2-
myriocin
-
concomitant reduction of both HMGR activity and the sterol content by depletion of the sphingolipid pathway. At 0.01 mM myriocin decrease to ca. 55% of the HMGR activity in control plants. Myriocin-induced down-regulation of HMGR activity is exerted at the post-translational level, like the regulatory response of HMGR to enhancement or depletion of the flux through the sterol pathway
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
PFGYVAE
-
-
pravastatin
rosuvastatin
SFGYVAE peptide
-
most active inhibitory peptide; shows high ability to inhibit HMGR by competitive inhibition with respect to (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
simvastatin
small heterodimer partner nuclear receptor
-
directly regulates cholesterol biosynthesis through inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase
-
SMase C
-
treatment of fibroblasts with SMase C results in a 90% inhibition of HMGCR
-
SMase D
-
treatment of fibroblasts with SMase D inhibits by 29%
-
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-hept-6-enoate
-
has almost no effect on the activity
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(2-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-hept-6-enoate
-
-
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(2-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-hept-6-enoate
-
shows the most potent inhibitory activity among compounds comparable with that of clinically useful mevastatin
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(2-phenyl-4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoate
-
has almost no effect on the activity
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(4-(3-(2-fluorophenyl)pentan-3-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoate
-
-
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(4-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)pentan-3-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoate
-
-
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoate
-
-
squalestatin
-
mutant plants, not wild-type plants, become sterile
TFGYVAE
-
-
Tyr-Ala-Val-Glu
-
-
Tyr-Val-Ala-Glu
-
-
VFGYVAE
-
-
YAVE
-
HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
YVAE
-
HMG-CoA competitive inhibitor
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
dithiothreitol
-
2 mM
myristic acid
-
stimulates translation of the enzyme about 1.8fold at 0.15 mM, upregulation
squalestatin
-
leads to a significant concentration-dependent activation of HMGR of ca. 3fold the activity in untreated plants. Maximal HMGR activation at 0.06 mM squalestatin. No relevant changes in the level of expression of the HMG genes or in the amount of HMGR protein
supernatant protein factor
-
i.e. SPF, a 46 kDa cytosolic protein, stimulation of squalene monooxygenase and cholesterol biosynthesis in hepatoma cell culture, acts directly on the enzyme, not by increasing the enzyme amount
-
terbinafine
-
leads to a significant concentration-dependent activation of HMGR of ca. 3fold the activity in untreated plants. Maximal HMGR activation at 0.75 mM terbinafine. No relevant changes in the level of expression of the HMG genes or in the amount of HMGR protein
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.031 - 0.1
(R)-mevaldehyde
0.252 - 1
(R)-mevalonate
0.04 - 0.056
(R,S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
0.47 - 0.55
(R,S)-mevaldehyde
0.004 - 0.2
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
0.003 - 0.6
3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
0.03 - 0.23
CoA
0.00011 - 0.00015
CoASH
0.045 - 0.076
HMG-CoA
0.068
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA
-
-
0.0043 - 3.8
mevaldehyde
0.0015 - 0.0017
mevalonate
0.0009 - 0.67
NADP+
0.021 - 4.2
NADPH
additional information
additional information
-
kinetic analysis
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.023
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.000008 - 0.000014
atorvastatin
0.0000057 - 0.00001
cerivastatin
0.000028 - 0.027
fluvastatin
0.0064
GFPTGG
-
-
0.00000045
lovastatin
pH 7.4, recombinant isozyme HMGR1
0.081
mevalonic acid
pH 7.4, recombinant isozyme HMGR1
0.000005
Mevinolin
-
pH 5.5, 50C
0.000044 - 0.000103
pravastatin
0.0000023 - 0.0000035
rosuvastatin
0.000012
SFGYVAE peptide
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.000011
simvastatin
-
-
additional information
additional information
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00000035
(3R,5R)-7-(1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-[(5-methyl-pyrazin-2-ylmethyl)-carbamoyl]-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.00000029
(3R,5R)-7-[1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-5-phenylcarbamoyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoicacid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.00000024
(3R,5R)-7-[1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxybenzylcarbamoyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.00000028
(3R,5R)-7-[1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(4-methoxycarbonyl-benzylcarbamoyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.00000017
(3R,5R)-7-[3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-5-phenylcarbamoyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.00000043
(3R,5R)-7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-phenyl-5-phenylcarbamoyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.0000018
(3R,5R)-7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(3-methoxybenzyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000007
(3R,5R)-7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[[4-(methoxymethyl)benzyl]carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.00000011
(3R,5R)-7-[5-(4-carboxy-benzylcarbamoyl)-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoicacid disodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.00000015
(3R,5R)-7-[5-benzylcarbamoyl-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoicacid
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.000032
(3R,5R)-7-[5-carbamoyl-1-ethyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoic acid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.0000049
(3R,5R)-7-[5-carbamoyl-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoicacid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.0000021
(3R,5R)-7-[5-cyano-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoicacid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.0000012
(3R,5R)-7-[5-[(3-carbamoylbenzyl)carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000002
(3R,5R)-7-[5-[(4-cyanobenzyl)carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000012
(3R,5R)-7-[5-[[4-(dimethylcarbamoyl)benzyl]carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
2.2 - 26
(E,3R,5S)-7-(4-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)pentan-3-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoic acid
0.0000022
4-[[([5-[(3R,5R)-6-carboxy-3,5-dihydroxyhexyl]-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]carbonyl)amino]methyl]benzoic acid
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000018
7-[3,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000007
7-[3,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(3-hydroxyphenyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000066
7-[3,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(3-methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000124
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-5-(phenylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.000015
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-5-(propylcarbamoyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000029
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-5-[(4-sulfamoylphenyl)carbamoyl]-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000008
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-5-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)carbamoyl]-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000015
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-5-[[(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamoyl]-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000034
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-5-[[(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamoyl]-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000026
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-5-[[(5-methyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)methyl]carbamoyl]-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000088
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(methylcarbamoyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000004
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000008
7-[3-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-[(4-methoxybenzyl)carbamoyl]-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
0.0000038
7-[5-(cyclopropylcarbamoyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.00002
7-[5-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.000012
7-[5-(ethylcarbamoyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.000003
7-[5-carbamoyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000051
7-[5-ethylcarbamoyl-3-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-1-isopropyl-4-pyridin-2-yl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxy-heptanoicacid sodium salt
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.0000003
7-[5-[(4-carbamoylphenyl)carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
0.0000006
7-[5-[[(1,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)methyl]carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000003
7-[5-[[3-(dimethylcarbamoyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]-3,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
0.0000014
7-[5-[[4-(dimethylcarbamoyl)phenyl]carbamoyl]-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-phenyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]-3,5-dihydroxyheptanoate
Mus musculus
-
inhibition of purified enzyme
1.2
8-hydroxygeraniol
Phaedon cochleariae
-
pH 6.8, 30C, recombinant catalytic domain
0.00049
AFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0000017
cerivastatin
Rattus norvegicus
-
37C, hepatocytes
0.00016
DFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.00024
EFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0038
F(4-fluoro)VAE
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.00032
FFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0025
FFYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0085
FG-(4-fluoro)FVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0004
FGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.00022 - 0.003
fluvastatin
0.0014
FPYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0438
FVAE
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.00027
GFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0015
GFPDGG
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.0017
GFPEGG
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.0169
GFPTGG
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.0223
GLPDGG
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.0272
GLPEGG
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.0194
GLPTGG
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.0752
IAVE
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.097
IAVP
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.152
IAVPGEVA
0.00035
IFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.075
Ile-Ala-Val-Glu
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.201
Ile-Ala-Val-Pro-Gly-Glu-Val-Ala
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.052
Ile-Val-Ala-Glu
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0441
IVAE
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.484
Leu-Pro-Tyr-Pro
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.00037
LFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.484
LPYP
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.04
mevastatin
Rattus norvegicus
-
DL-[3-14C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (0.37 MBq) and 10 mg protein of microsomal fraction incubated at 37C for 30 min
0.00043
PFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.00000023 - 0.0000031
rosuvastatin
0.000033
SFGYVAE peptide
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0000013 - 0.000049
simvastatin
0.82
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(2-(2-fluorophenyl)-4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-hept-6-enoate
Rattus norvegicus
-
DL-[3-14C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (0.37 MBq) and 10 mg protein of microsomal fraction incubated at 37C for 30 min
1.2
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(2-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-hept-6-enoate
Rattus norvegicus
-
DL-[3-14C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (0.37 MBq) and 10 mg protein of microsomal fraction incubated at 37C for 30 min
0.15
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(2-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxy-hept-6-enoate
Rattus norvegicus
-
DL-[3-14C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (0.37 MBq) and 10 mg protein of microsomal fraction incubated at 37C for 30 min
0.85
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(2-phenyl-4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)phenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoate
Rattus norvegicus
-
DL-[3-14C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (0.37 MBq) and 10 mg protein of microsomal fraction incubated at 37C for 30 min
7.4
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(4-(3-(2-fluorophenyl)pentan-3-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoate
Rattus norvegicus
-
DL-[3-14C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (0.37 MBq) and 10 mg protein of microsomal fraction incubated at 37C for 30 min
92
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(4-(3-(3-fluorophenyl)pentan-3-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoate
Rattus norvegicus
-
DL-[3-14C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (3.7 MBq) and 10 mg protein of microsomal fraction incubated at 37C for 30 min
1.8
sodium (E,3R,5S)-7-(4-(3-phenylpentan-3-yl)-2-isopropylphenyl)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoate
Rattus norvegicus
-
DL-[3-14C]3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (0.37 MBq) and 10 mg protein of microsomal fraction incubated at 37C for 30 min
0.00026
TFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.044
Tyr-Ala-Val-Glu
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.041
Tyr-Val-Ala-Glu
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.00045
VFGYVAE
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0526
YAVE
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
0.0418
YVAE
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.0006
about, native cells
0.69
-
native enzyme in cell extract soluble fraction
3.9
-
50C, mutant L403R/G404R/A406S
17.5
50C, pH 5.5, recombinant enzyme
28
-
purified recombinant enzyme
60
recombinant Sf9 cells
7800
-
purified enzyme
additional information
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.7 - 6.3
-
reduction of (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
6
-
reduction of (R,S)-mevaldehyde
6.5
-
(S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reduction
6.5 - 7.5
-
-
6.6 - 6.9
-
-
8
-
oxidative acylation of (R,S)-mevaldehyde
8.7 - 9.6
-
oxidation of (R)-mevalonate
10.5
-
acetoacetyl-coenzyme A synthesis
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
22
-
assay at room temperature
25
-
assay at
35 - 60
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
15 - 60
-
-
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.9
-
sequence calculation
6.14
sequence calculation
7.63
-
sequence calculation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
samples of patients with cardiovascular disorders
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
recombinant enzyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subcutaneous, high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
unfertilized female flowers
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
genes LcHMG1 and LcHMG2 exhibit distinct expression patterns during litchi fruit development. LcHMG1 expression is highest in the early stage of fruit development, correlated with the high level of cell division. Absolute levels of LcHMG1 expression vary among fruits of different pheno- or genotypes, with expression in large-fruited types reaching higher levels for longer duration compared to that in small-fruited types. LcHMG2 is most highly expressed in the late stage of fruit development, in association with biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds required for later cell enlargement
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
colon cancer cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
medium expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
medium expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
longissimus, low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
medium expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
-
enzyme undergoes endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation which is physiologically regulated by sterol pathway signals
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team