Information on EC 4.1.1.28 - aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
4.1.1.28
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
-
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan = 5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-dopa = dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-dopa = dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
investigation of the mechanism by using the absorption spectrum of the bound coenzyme as an indicator of events
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
-
-
-
-
decarboxylation
-
-
decarboxylation
-
decarboxylation
-
decarboxylation
-
-
decarboxylation
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(S)-reticuline biosynthesis I
-
-
beta-carboline biosynthesis
-
-
betaxanthin biosynthesis
-
-
betaxanthin biosynthesis (via dopamine)
-
-
camptothecin biosynthesis
-
-
catecholamine biosynthesis
-
-
hydroxycinnamic acid serotonin amides biosynthesis
-
-
indole-3-acetate biosynthesis II
-
-
L-tryptophan degradation VI (via tryptamine)
-
-
L-tryptophan degradation X (mammalian, via tryptamine)
-
-
secologanin and strictosidine biosynthesis
-
-
serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis
-
-
catecholamine biosynthesis
-
-
tryptophan metabolism
-
-
Histidine metabolism
-
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
-
Phenylalanine metabolism
-
-
Tryptophan metabolism
-
-
Indole alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
Betalain biosynthesis
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
Aromatic-L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The enzyme also acts on some other aromatic L-amino acids, including L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine carboxylase
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase
-
5-Hydroxy-L-tryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
5-hydroxytryptophan hydroxylase
-
-
5HTP decarboxylase
-
-
AACD
-
-
AADC
-
-
-
-
AADC
-
-
AADC
Mus musculus C57B1/129SV
-
-
-
AADC
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
-
AADC393
-
isoform
AADC438
-
isoform
AADC486
-
isoform
Alt-DDC
-
alternative DDC protein isoform
aromatic acid acid decarboxylase
-
-
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
-
aromatic amino acid decarboxylase 1A
-
aromatic amino acid decarboxylase 1B
-
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
-
-
-
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
-
-
DDC
-
-
-
-
DDC
-
; human DDC gene undergoes complex processing leading to the formation of multiple mRNA isoforms. Alternative splicing within its 5'-untranslated region leads to the formation of two mRNA types, neural (N1 exon) and non-neural (L1 exon) type. Neural type DDC transcript which lacks exon 3 and the alternative 37 kD alt-DDC protein isoform which lacks exons 10-15 but includes an alternative exon 10 in human peripheral leukocytes.
Decarboxylase, aromatic amino acid
-
-
-
-
Dihydroxyphenylalanine-5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
DOPA DC
-
-
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
DOPA decarboxylase
-
DOPA-5-hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
DOPA/5HTP decarboxylase
-
-
EC 4.1.1.26
-
-
formerly
-
EC 4.1.1.26
formerly
EC 4.1.1.26
formerly
EC 4.1.1.26
formerly
EC 4.1.1.26
formerly
EC 4.1.1.26
formerly
EC 4.1.1.26
formerly
EC 4.1.1.26
formerly
EC 4.1.1.26
formerly
EC 4.1.1.27
-
-
formerly
-
EC 4.1.1.27
formerly
EC 4.1.1.27
formerly
Hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine decarboxylase
-
-
L-5-Hydroxytryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
L-amino-acid decarboxylase
-
-
L-Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
L-DOPA decarboxylase
-
-
L-Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
L-Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
L-Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
neural-type DDC
-
isoform
non-neural DDC
-
isoform
PP_2552
gene name
Tenebrio Dopa decarboxylase
-
-
Trp decarboxylase
-
-
Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
Tryptophan decarboxylase
-
-
tryptophan decarboxylase-1
-
tryptophan decarboxylase-2
-
TYDC
-
-
-
-
Tyrosine/Dopa decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9042-64-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
isoform 1, descended from accession number AF063021; strain G3, the strain has the ability to melanize malaria parasites
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform 2, descended from accession number AF063021; strain G3, the strain has the ability to melanize malaria parasites
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mediterranean fruit fly
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
filarial nematode, causative agent of heartworm disease in dogs and cats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
heterozygous for mutation G102S, mutation decreases the binding affinity for the substrate, clinical phenotype caused by aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
human
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
human
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Macaca mulatta with parkinsonian syndrome, infused with different doses of adeno-associated virus type 2 including human AADC gene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
migratory locust, subspecies migratorioides R.F.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Micrococcus percitreus
strain AJ1065
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Micrococcus percitreus AJ1065
strain AJ1065
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
immature and adult Swiss CD1 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male C57B1/129SV
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Swiss-Webster
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
parental allele identity is inferred via a G3A single-nucleotide polymorphism between the Mus musculus C57BL6 (B6) and Mus musculus castaneus CAST/Ei (CAST) strains in exon 6 at nucleotide 645
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57B1/129SV
male C57B1/129SV
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Penicillium raistrickii
strain ATCC 46878
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 enzyme forms TYDC1 and TYDC2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
H10BA2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male sprague-dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
normotensive male Wistar-Han rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
rat, male Sprague-Dawley
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
rat, male Wistar albino
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AADC1B; cultivar M82
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar M82
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hog
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
red flour beetle
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
cultivar Vidal blanc
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency is characterized by oculogyric crises, paroxysmal dystonic attacks, and severe psychomotor retardation since early infancy
malfunction
-
AADC deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AADC gene leading to severely reduced AADC activity. The condition presents early in life and is characterized by axial hypotonia, hypokinesia, choreoathetosis, developmentaldelay and episodes of dystonia, limb hypertonia and oculogyric crises
physiological function
-
part of vindoline biosynthesis
physiological function
-
dopa decarboxylase is necessary for insect cuticular melanization
physiological function
DDC is involved in the Tribolium cuticle sclerotization and pigmentation pathway, and is a candidate for the gene that is mutated in black
physiological function
neuronal AAAD plays a role in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, indoleamines and trace amines in the nervous system
physiological function
DDC modulates the immune responses such as hemocytes encapsulation as well as the reactive oxygen species level through its catalytic activity, functioning as an indispensable immunomodulating enzyme in the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network of mollusk
physiological function
transgenic hairy root lines produce inceased amounts of tryptamine, but are unable to produce mitragynine
physiological function
-
the tyrosine or phenylalanine residue in the catalytic loop region could serve as a signature residue to reliably distinguish plant arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing aromatic amino acid decarboxylases
physiological function
the tyrosine or phenylalanine residue in the catalytic loop region could serve as a signature residue to reliably distinguish plant arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing aromatic amino acid decarboxylases
physiological function
-
RNAi-induced dopa decarboxylase expression obviously declines in the silkworm larvae, and the pupae show no pupation or incomplete pupation
physiological function
inhibition of dopa dearboxylase by inhibitor NSD-1015 or anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotides reduces brain volume and body length. Oligonucleotide-treated emryos display brain cell apoptosis and loss of dipencephalic catecholaminergic cluster neurons as well as seizure-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treated embroys have less sensitive touch response and impaired swimming activity that can be rescued by injection of plasmids carrying the dopa decarboxylase gene. In addition, eye movement is significantly impaired in treated embryos
physiological function
during bacillamide C biosynthesis, the decarboxylation of L-tryptophan to tryptamine is likely conducted first under aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase catalysis, followed by the amidation of tryptamine with the carboxylic product of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases gene cluster
physiological function
-
during bacillamide C biosynthesis, the decarboxylation of L-tryptophan to tryptamine is likely conducted first under aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase catalysis, followed by the amidation of tryptamine with the carboxylic product of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases gene cluster
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2,4-Dibromo-DL-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
75% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
2-Chloro-L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
77% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
2-fluoro-L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
4-(2-aminoethyl)-3-fluorobenzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-Methyl-L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
75% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3,4-Dibromo-DL-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
10% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
little stereospecificity between D-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. L-dopa
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. L-dopa, neuroprotective role for AADC against L-DOPA toxicity in primary striatal cultures. The protective effect is due primarily to AADC-dependent conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine, leading, in turn, to an increase in intracellular dopamine levels
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-DOPA, substrate exerts apoptotic cytotoxicity towards PC12 cells at a concentration of 0.1-0.2 mM for 24-48 h
major amine neurotransmitter
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
during the reaction with L-Dopa, monitored by stopped-flow spectrophotometry, a 420 nm band attributed to the 4'-N-protonated external aldimine first appears, and its decrease parallels the emergence of a 390 nm peak, assigned to the 4'-N-unprotonated external aldimine. The pH profile of the spectral change at 390 nm displays a pK of 6.4, which may represent the ESH(+) -> ES catalytic step
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of the ganglionic dopamine level
-
?
3,5-Dibromo-DL-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
72% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3-Chloro-L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
81% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3-Hydroxy-DL-kynurenine
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
8% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3-Methyl-L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
80% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
4-fluoro-L-tryptophan
4-fluorotryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
4-methyl-L-tryptophan
4-methyltryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-Fluoro-DL-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
75% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
5-fluoro-L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
5-(2-aminoethyl)-3-fluorobenzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-fluoro-L-tryptophan
5-fluorotryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxytryptamine + O2
5-hydroxyindolacetaldehyde + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
side reaction, decarboxylation-dependent transamination
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
neurotransmitter
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
24% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
The biosynthesis of serotonin requires aromatic substrates to be bound in the active sites of the enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
?
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
serotonin
-
5-Methyl-DL-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
17% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
6-fluoro-L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
4-(2-aminoethyl)-5-fluorobenzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
6-fluoro-threo-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)serine
4-(2-aminoethyl)-5-fluorobenzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
7-Aza-DL-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
8% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
alpha-methyl-dopamine + O2
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetone + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
side reaction, decarboxylation-dependent transamination
-
?
alpha-methyl-L-Dopa
alpha-methyl-dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
carbidopa
?
show the reaction diagram
-
interaction of carbidopa with the Phe103 residue of the enzyme, the residue forms a displaced sandwich-type sigma-complex with carbidopa
-
-
?
Carboxyl-L-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
DOPA
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
His
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
His
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
DOPA, plays a role in the neuromodulation of behavior
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa, levodopa, AADC constitutes the last enzymatic step in the biosynthesis of dopamine
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa, levodopa, substrate alleviates the clinical symptoms of Parkinson disease
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the renal dopaminergic system is highly dynamic and the basic mechanisms for the regulation of this system mainly depends on the availability of L-dopa, its fast decarboxylation into dopamine, precise cell outward amine transfer mechanisms, dopamine interaction with specific receptor and accurate intracellular signal transduction
-
?
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
dopamine can serve as the catecholamine substrate for melanin production
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
dopamine has a neural role and is metabolized to produce melanin and sclerotin in epidermal tissues
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
clozapine modulates AAAD activity in striatum and enhances exogenous L-DOPA decarboxylation in intact mice and mice lesioned with1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Kinetic analysis of AAAD at 1 h showed an increase in the apparent Vmax for both the substrate L-DOPA and the cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with no changes for Km. Dopamine D4 and 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A antagonists also increase AAAD activity in striatum
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters and serotonin
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is central in the synthesis of biogenic monoamine neurotransmitters, these include serotonin as well as the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
production of neurotransmitters
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
second enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway that catalyzes the synthesis of important neurotransmitters
-
?
L-kynurenine
3-amino-1-(2-aminophenyl)propan-1-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
15% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
L-Phe
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Phe
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
L-Phe
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
no reaction
-
-
L-Phe
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
no reaction
-
-
L-Phe
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
m-DL-Tyr, 17% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
L-Phe
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
at 87% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
L-Phe
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
o-DL-Tyr, 17% of the activity with L-Trp, L-Tyr, 120% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
L-phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
L-phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
L-phenethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
2-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
2-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
2-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
2-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-threo-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)serine
4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]benzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
-
-
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
-
-
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
-
-
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
-
-
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
no reaction with D-Trp
-
-
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus AJ1065
-
-
-
-
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes an early step of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme responsible for the decarboxylation step in both the catecholamine and indoleamine synthetic pathway, second step enzyme for monoamine synthesis
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
implicated in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, also involved in the formation of the monoamine serotonin, and of simple alkaloids such as the beta-carbolines
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
implicated in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, also involved in the formation of the monoamine serotonin, and of simple alkaloids such as the beta-carbolines
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
implicated in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, also involved in the formation of the monoamine serotonin, and of simple alkaloids such as the beta-carbolines
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
implicated in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, also involved in the formation of the monoamine serotonin, and of simple alkaloids such as the beta-carbolines
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
-
-
-
?
m-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
m-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
m-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
m-tyrosine
m-tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
N-methyl-L-dopa
N-methyldopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
in addition, enzyme catalyses the decarboxylation-dependent oxidative deamination of alpha-methyl-dopa, but the oxidative reaction is considerably slower than the decarboxylation reaction
?
o-fluorophenylalanine
o-fluorophenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
-
-
-
?
o-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
o-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
o-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
p-fluorophenylalanine
p-fluorophenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-tyrosine
p-tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Phe-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
? + 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Trp-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
? + 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Tryptophan
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
at 120% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
87% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with L-Tyr
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
L-Tyr
-
-
-
Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no reaction
-
-
-
Tyr-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
? + 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
tyrosine
tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Methylene-L-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with 3-methoxyphenylalanine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no significant activity towards aliphatic amino acids
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine and L-Dopa are not accepted as substrates
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine and L-Dopa are not accepted as substrates
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine and L-Dopa are not accepted as substrates
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine and L-Dopa are not accepted as substrates
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
exhibits half-transaminase activity toward D-aromatic amino acids and oxidative deaminase activity toward aromatic amines
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
no enzyme activity detected with D-phenylalanine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan or L-histidine
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Micrococcus percitreus
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
possible role in alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key enzyme in the production of biogenic amines
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
catalyzes the decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids into their corresponding amines
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is responsible for the decarboxylation step in both the catecholamine and the indolamine synthetic pathways. The enzyme is regulated by a short term mechanism that may involve activation of adenyl cyclase or protein kinase C
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
normal movement and behavior do not depend on complete recovery of enzyme function (after suicide inhibition), but likely on pre-synaptic and post-synaptic compensatory mechanisms
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AADC deficiency leads to severe floppiness, oculogyric crises, athetoid movement, prominent startle response, tongue thrusting, ptosis, paroxysmal diaphoresis, nasal congestion, diarrhea, irritability and sleep disorders, patients with AADC deficiency in Taiwan have particular clinical manifestations of small hands and feet
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AADC follows the initial and rate-limiting step of synthesis, which is the formation of levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan from tyrosine and tryptophan by specific tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent hydroxylases, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency is a disorder of biogenic amine metabolism resulting in generalized combined deficiency of serotonin, dopamine and catecholamines. Main clinical features are developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, dystonia, oculogyric crises and additional extraneurological symptoms
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency is a rare inborn error of neurotransmitter biosynthesis that leads to a combined deficiency of catecholamines and serotonin and is characterized by global developmental delay, involuntary movements, and autonomic dysfunction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Ddc activities are key regulatory components for haemocyte aggregation and melanization in the presence of bacteria
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DDC activity is required in the epidermis for the synthesis of dopamine that is metabolized to produce reactive quinones that exert killing effects on invading bacteria
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DDC is involved in the synthesis of dopamine, serotonin and acts as an androgen receptor co-regulator protein
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Ddc is involved in wound healing, parasite defense, cuticle hardening, melanization and in the behavior of insects
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DDC plays a role in the Drosophila innate immune response in larvae and adults
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
deficiency of the enzyme leads to a reduced level of downstream biogenic amines, including dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin, which plays a potential pathophysiological role in disorders of psychomotor modulation, maladjustment in sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DOPA cyclohexyl ester is an antagonist of DOPA
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
dopa decarboxylase plays an essential role in wound healing in the Drosophila embryo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
enzyme is involved in the production of melanin, a complex biochemical process in which several enzymes may play a role
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
L-dopa decarboxylase is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme involved in many malignancies
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Mutations that decrease substrate binding can result in a decrease in serotonin production and thus can lead to depression and related disorders
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulating factor of the proliferation and differentiation of different leukocyte subtypes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
the imprinting and developmental regulation of Ddc_exon1a expression in the heart suggests fundamental roles in cardiogenesis and cardiac function
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the key step in the formation of the aromatic amines dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine is catalyzed by a single enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and DDC mRNA in plasma of children with neuroblastoma are highly correlated
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
enzyme is essentially inactive towards other aromatic amino acids such as 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, Lphenylalanine, L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
no substrate: L-tyrosine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
under all reaction conditions tested, the enzyme fails to catalyze thyroid hormone decarboxylation. The enzyme is responsible for Thyronamine biosynthesis via decarboxylation of thyroid hormone
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
-
no enzyme activity detected with D-phenylalanine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan or L-histidine
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
no substrate: L-tyrosine
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
neuroprotective role for AADC against L-DOPA toxicity in primary striatal cultures. The protective effect is due primarily to AADC-dependent conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine, leading, in turn, to an increase in intracellular dopamine levels
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of monoamine neurotransmitters
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-DOPA, substrate exerts apoptotic cytotoxicity towards PC12 cells at a concentration of 0.1-0.2 mM for 24-48 h
major amine neurotransmitter
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of the ganglionic dopamine level
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P80041
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O45216
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
C0SQJ0
-
-
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
neurotransmitter
?
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
The biosynthesis of serotonin requires aromatic substrates to be bound in the active sites of the enzymes tryptophan hydroxylase and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase
-
?
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
serotonin
-
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
DOPA, plays a role in the neuromodulation of behavior
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa, levodopa, AADC constitutes the last enzymatic step in the biosynthesis of dopamine
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-dopa, levodopa, substrate alleviates the clinical symptoms of Parkinson disease
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the renal dopaminergic system is highly dynamic and the basic mechanisms for the regulation of this system mainly depends on the availability of L-dopa, its fast decarboxylation into dopamine, precise cell outward amine transfer mechanisms, dopamine interaction with specific receptor and accurate intracellular signal transduction
-
?
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P80041
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O45216
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
A7U8C8
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O61717, O61718
-
dopamine can serve as the catecholamine substrate for melanin production
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
dopamine has a neural role and is metabolized to produce melanin and sclerotin in epidermal tissues
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
clozapine modulates AAAD activity in striatum and enhances exogenous L-DOPA decarboxylation in intact mice and mice lesioned with1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Kinetic analysis of AAAD at 1 h showed an increase in the apparent Vmax for both the substrate L-DOPA and the cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with no changes for Km. Dopamine D4 and 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A antagonists also increase AAAD activity in striatum
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O88533
biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters and serotonin
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is central in the synthesis of biogenic monoamine neurotransmitters, these include serotonin as well as the catecholamines dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
C0SQJ0
production of neurotransmitters
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
second enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthetic pathway that catalyzes the synthesis of important neurotransmitters
-
?
L-phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
L-phenylalanine
2-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
2-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
-
-
?
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P20711
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes an early step of the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme responsible for the decarboxylation step in both the catecholamine and indoleamine synthetic pathway, second step enzyme for monoamine synthesis
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
implicated in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, also involved in the formation of the monoamine serotonin, and of simple alkaloids such as the beta-carbolines
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P17770
implicated in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, also involved in the formation of the monoamine serotonin, and of simple alkaloids such as the beta-carbolines
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
implicated in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, also involved in the formation of the monoamine serotonin, and of simple alkaloids such as the beta-carbolines
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P93082
implicated in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, also involved in the formation of the monoamine serotonin, and of simple alkaloids such as the beta-carbolines
-
?
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
-
-
-
?
p-tyrosine
p-tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Tryptophan
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
tyrosine
tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
m-tyrosine
m-tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Micrococcus percitreus
-
constitutive enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
possible role in alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
key enzyme in the production of biogenic amines
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
catalyzes the decarboxylation of aromatic amino acids into their corresponding amines
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is responsible for the decarboxylation step in both the catecholamine and the indolamine synthetic pathways. The enzyme is regulated by a short term mechanism that may involve activation of adenyl cyclase or protein kinase C
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
normal movement and behavior do not depend on complete recovery of enzyme function (after suicide inhibition), but likely on pre-synaptic and post-synaptic compensatory mechanisms
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AADC deficiency leads to severe floppiness, oculogyric crises, athetoid movement, prominent startle response, tongue thrusting, ptosis, paroxysmal diaphoresis, nasal congestion, diarrhea, irritability and sleep disorders, patients with AADC deficiency in Taiwan have particular clinical manifestations of small hands and feet
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AADC follows the initial and rate-limiting step of synthesis, which is the formation of levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan from tyrosine and tryptophan by specific tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent hydroxylases, Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency is a disorder of biogenic amine metabolism resulting in generalized combined deficiency of serotonin, dopamine and catecholamines. Main clinical features are developmental delay, muscular hypotonia, dystonia, oculogyric crises and additional extraneurological symptoms
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency is a rare inborn error of neurotransmitter biosynthesis that leads to a combined deficiency of catecholamines and serotonin and is characterized by global developmental delay, involuntary movements, and autonomic dysfunction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O45216
Ddc activities are key regulatory components for haemocyte aggregation and melanization in the presence of bacteria
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DDC activity is required in the epidermis for the synthesis of dopamine that is metabolized to produce reactive quinones that exert killing effects on invading bacteria
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DDC is involved in the synthesis of dopamine, serotonin and acts as an androgen receptor co-regulator protein
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O45216
Ddc is involved in wound healing, parasite defense, cuticle hardening, melanization and in the behavior of insects
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DDC plays a role in the Drosophila innate immune response in larvae and adults
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
deficiency of the enzyme leads to a reduced level of downstream biogenic amines, including dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin, which plays a potential pathophysiological role in disorders of psychomotor modulation, maladjustment in sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DOPA cyclohexyl ester is an antagonist of DOPA
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
dopa decarboxylase plays an essential role in wound healing in the Drosophila embryo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O61717, O61718
enzyme is involved in the production of melanin, a complex biochemical process in which several enzymes may play a role
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
L-dopa decarboxylase is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme involved in many malignancies
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Mutations that decrease substrate binding can result in a decrease in serotonin production and thus can lead to depression and related disorders
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulating factor of the proliferation and differentiation of different leukocyte subtypes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O88533
the imprinting and developmental regulation of Ddc_exon1a expression in the heart suggests fundamental roles in cardiogenesis and cardiac function
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the key step in the formation of the aromatic amines dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine is catalyzed by a single enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and DDC mRNA in plasma of children with neuroblastoma are highly correlated
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Micrococcus percitreus
-
cofactor
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Micrococcus percitreus
-
covalently bound cofactor, 2 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate bound per mol of enzyme
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
dependent on
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
contains 1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate per mol of enzyme
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
0.0032-0.32 mM, enhances activity greater than 2fold
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate increases activity towards 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, o-Tyr, m-Tyr, but not towards 5-hydroxytryptophan
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
contains 1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate per mol of enzyme, nearly complete decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in absence of added coenzyme, existence of at least 4 coenzyme-apoenzyme complexes, three of them are active
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
5-hydroxytryptophan can be decarboxylated without exogenous addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate substantially increases enzyme activity. Excess of coenzyme, above 0.06 mM, induces inhibition in adrenals and liver but not in the central nervous system
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
1 mol of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is bound to the epsilon-amino group of a lysyl residue of the apoenzyme
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
stimulates, high concentrations inhibit
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
enhances activity
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
stimulates after dialysis
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
contains 1 mol of coenzyme per dimer
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
0.001-0.1 mM, stimulates 2fold to 3fold
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
dependent
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
(vitamin B6), patients with AAAD deficiency receives a therapeutic trial with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, individual dosage varies between 150 and 4800 mg/day (20-160 mg/kg per day). 4 of 9 patients improved slightly on vitamin B6 (3 of them are siblings with a special L-dopa responsive mutation). There is no change in CSF neurotransmitter findings in all investigated patients. Side effects are predominantly gastrointestinal, such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain.
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
essential cofactor, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate deficiency causes a loss of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
the essential cofactor stabilizes and enhances enzymatic activity
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
one pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor per dimer structure
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
dependent on
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
binding site is located at the amino acid position 313-334
additional information
-
no absolute requirement for exogenous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Al3+
-
activates
Fe2+
-
stimulation
Na+
-
inverse correlation between DDC activity and sodium reabsorption in the kidney, confirming the hypothesis that dopamine inhibits sodium absorption
Mn2+
-
stimulation
additional information
-
increasing concentrations of Zn2+ result in a raise in the solubilization of the membrane-associated enzyme, while the presence of increasing concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ inhibits enzyme release from the MF sample
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
-
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
-
(S)-alpha-(fluoromethyl)tryptophan
-
the suicide substrate effectively inhibits TDC activity extracted from rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae and the inhibition rate increases dependent on preincubation time
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
-
MPTP, after 7 days of treatment, AAAD activities are decreased by more than 50% in the mouse striatum
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
weak
2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzylhydrazine
-
-
2-[1-[4-hydroxy-5-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-2-methoxyphenyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-5-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
inhibitor isolated from Euonymus glabra Roxb.
-
2-[[(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)sulfonyl]amino]-N-phenylbenzamide
-
competitive. Inhibitor is unable to bind free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier
3'-hydroxybenzylhydrazine
-
NSD-1015, a central aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
inhibitory effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydrazino-2-methyl propionic acid
-
carbiDOPA, addition of 10 microM inhibitor to reaction mixtures (Y332F mutant with L-dopa) in the presence or in the absence of catalase or superoxide dismutase, immediately stops the O2 consumption.
3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine
-
-
3-Indoleacetamide
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
3-Indolealdehyde
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
3-iodo-L-tyrosine
-
-
3-methyl-L-tyrosine
-
-
3-[2-hydroxy-5-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-oxopropyl]-5-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
inhibitor isolated from Euonymus glabra Roxb., structural analogue of dopamine. Compound is able to suppress the activity of dopa decarboxylase and dopamine levels in purified enzyme and cell-based assays
4-Bromo-3-hydroxy-benzyloxyamine
-
-
4-[(E)-[(3-phenyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino]methyl]benzene-1,2,3-triol
-
mixed type inhibition. Inhibitor is unable to bind free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier
4-[(E)-[(3-phenyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino]methyl]benzene-1,2-diol
-
competitive. Inhibitor is unable to bind free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier
4-[(E)-[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]imino]methyl]benzene-1,2-diol
-
competitive. Inhibitor is unable to bind free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier
5-hydroxy indole acetic acid
-
the conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan is 20% inhibited by 0.33 mM 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
-
strong inhibitory effect of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan on the conversion of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
-
substrate inhibition
5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor agonist
Al3+
-
enzyme from pharate pupae, no effect on the enzyme from white prepupae
alpha-Allenyldopa
-
-
alpha-methyl-2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
alpha-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
alpha-Methyl-D,L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
alpha-Methylhydrazinodopa
-
-
alpha-monofluoromethyl-DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
suicide inhibitor
alpha-synuclein
-
significantly reduces AADC activity
-
Amino-oxyacetate
-
-
annexin 5
-
endogenous inhibitor, identified and purified from human placenta presented in the membrane function, shows 30.4% inhibition by incubation of the human placenta samples in the presence of 0.34 unit ddc from mouse kidney homogenate. The inhibitor exhibits an optimum activity at 50 mM NaCl, pH 6.5, is heat labile and is deactivated by boiling. After incubation of the placental homogenate with proteinase K, inhibitory activity is partially abolished, suggesting that a population of inhibitor molecules is embedded in the membrane.
-
apomorphine
-
inhibition in rat striatum
Benserazide
-
-
Benserazide
-
-
Benserazide
-
levels of intracellular dopamine after L-DOPA treatment (0.02 and 0.1 mM) are significantly decreased by the AADC inhibitor benserazide (0.02 mM) for 6-24 h exposure prior to L-DOPA treatment in PC12 cells, the 230%-350% increases in dopamine levels by L-DOPA are reduced to 187%-284% by benserazide for 6 h
Benserazide
-
peripheral inhibitor
Benserazide
-
intrastriatal inhibition of the enzyme prevents the appearance of L-dopa-induced dyskinetic movements at the lesioned side
Benserazide
-
-
Benserazide
-
competitive inhibitor of L-Dopa, but a non-competitive inhibitor of 5-hydroxytryptophan
benzerazide
Escherichia coli phagocytosis is blocked by benzerazide, revealing the involvement of Ddc activity in phagocytosis
beta-phenylethylamine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
BH4
-
-
bromocryptine
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the D2-like receptor agonist
carbidopa
-
-
carbidopa
-
strongly inhibited by increasing concentrations of carbidopa, at a concentration of 0.4 mM carbidopa the conversion of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is completely inhibited, at a concentration of 0.25 mM the conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan is completely inhibited
carbidopa
-
levels of intracellular dopamine after L-DOPA treatment (0.02 and 0.1 mM) are significantly decreased by the AADC inhibitor carbidopa (0.020 mM) for 6-24 h exposure prior to L-DOPA treatment in PC12 cells, the 230%-350% increases in dopamine levels by L-DOPA are reduced to 187%-284% by 153%-248% by carbidopa for 6 h
carbidopa
Escherichia coli phagocytosis is blocked by carbidopa, revealing the involvement of Ddc activity in phagocytosis
carbidopa
-
non-competitive inhibitor
carbidopa
-
-
carbidopa
-
-
carbidopa
-
-
Cd2+
-
-
Chalcone derivatives
-
-
-
Clorgyline
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the dopamine receptor indirect agonist
Cu2+
-
CuCl2
Cu2+
-
strong
Cu2+
-
-
Cu2+
-
-
Cu2+
-
enzyme from pharate pupae, no effect on the enzyme from white prepupae
D-5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
D-Dopa
-
-
D-Trp
-
-
D-tryptophan
-
non-competitive inhibitor
diethyldithiocarbamate
-
-
Difluoromethyldopa
-
-
Dithiobisnitrobenzoate
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
-
DL-alpha-Difluoromethyl-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
-
DL-alpha-Monofluoromethyl-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
-
DL-alpha-Monofluoromethyl-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
-
DL-alpha-Monofluoromethyl-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
-
DL-alpha-Monofluoromethyl-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
-
DL-m-Tyr
Micrococcus percitreus
-
tryptamine formation
dopamine
-
-
dopamine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
dopamine
-
the conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan is strongly inhibited by dopamine
dopamine
-
-
EDTA
-
weak
epigallocatechin-3-gallate
-
direct inhibitory effect on both histidine decarboxylase and DOPA decarboxylase. Modeling of binding to the enzymes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate does not affect the quaternary structure of the enzyme and remains stable in the active site throughout the entire trajectory. After 700 ps of simulation, epigallocatechin-3-gallate moves deeper into the active site. While adopting this conformation, epigallocatechin-3-gallate actually fills the binding pocket and blocks its entrance pathway
epinephrine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
Ethynyl dopamine
-
-
Fe2+
-
enzyme from pharate pupae, no effect on the enzyme from white prepupae
Fluoromethyl dopamine
-
-
Hg2+
-
strong
Hg2+
-
-
Hg2+
-
enzyme from pharate pupae, no effect on the enzyme from white prepupae
Hydroxycinnamic acid
-
-
hydroxylamine
-
-
hydroxylamine
-
-
Indole acetaldehyde
-
-
indole acetic acid
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
-
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
tryptamine formation
L-alpha-Methyl-alpha-hydrazino-3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid
-
-
L-alpha-methyl-Dopa
-
-
L-Dopa
-
substrate inhibition
L-Dopa
-
20.3% decrease in activity in corpus striatum following a 2 years treatment
L-Dopa
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the dopamine receptor indirect agonist
L-Dopa
-
slight substrate inhibition is observed at high concentration of L-Dopa
L-mimosine
-
weak
L-Phe
Micrococcus percitreus
-
tryptamine formation
L-Tyr
Micrococcus percitreus
-
tryptamine formation
mercaptoethanol
-
-
mercuribenzoate
-
-
Methyldopa
-
-
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine
-
-
N-5'-Phosphopyridoxyl-L-dopa
-
-
N-acetyldopamine
-
-
N-acetyldopamine
-
-
N1-Seryl N2-(2,3,4-trihydroxybenzyl) hydrazine
-
-
NaN3
-
weak
NEM
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
NEM
-
-
NEM
-
-
norepinephrine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
NSD-1015
-
non-competitive inhibitor
NSD-1015
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid
-
-
Pargyline
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the dopamine receptor indirect agonist
PCMB
-
-
Phenylthiourea
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
inhibition at high concentrations, stimulation at lower concentration
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
optimal concentration for pharate pupae enzyme: 0.02 mM; optimal concentration for the white pupae enzyme: 0.4 mM
quinpirole
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by chronic treatment with the D2-like receptor agonist
R-(+)-Amino-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene
-
-
-
Semicarbazide
-
-
Semicarbazide
-
-
serotonin
-
-
testosterone propionate
-
repetitive treatment of female mice with testosterone propionate for 2 weeks elicits a marked decrease in renal DCC activity
Thiosemicarbazide
-
-
Thiourea
-
-
tryptamine
-
-
tryptamine
-
competitive inhibitor
tyramine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
Vinyl dopamine
-
-
-
Zn2+
-
-
Zn2+
-
-
Zn2+
-
enzyme from pharate pupae,no effect on the enzyme from white prepupae
Methyldopa
-
alpha-methyldopa
additional information
-
overview
-
additional information
-
not sensitive to diisopropyl flurophosphate
-
additional information
-
human autoantibody
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by L-alpha-fluoromethyltyrosine and L-alpha-fluoromethyl(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 3-methoxy-tyrosine, homovanillic acid, or 5-hydroxy-tryptamine
-
additional information
-
diminished AAAD activity in dopaminergic cells that overexpress alpha-sinuclein
-
additional information
-
dopamine receptor activation decreases AAAD activity
-
additional information
-
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (100 mg/kg) increases the striatal dopamine content but elicits no effect on locomotor activity in the presence of benserazide (50 mg/kg i.p.), a peripheral AADC inhibitor. L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine increases the dopamine content in the presence of 3'-hydroxybenzylhydrazine to a maximal degree similar to that in the presence of benserazide. L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine cyclohexyl ester is a suitable L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine antagonist that would be available under in vivo experimental conditions.; L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine cyclohexyl ester would antagonize the behavioral responses of conscious rats to L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in the presence of 3'-hydroxybenzylhydrazine. L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine cyclohexyl ester elicits a dose-dependent partial antagonism against the increase in locomotor activity induced by L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. A low dose of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine cyclohexyl ester (10 mg/kg) elicits full antagonism against the potentiating effect of a non-effective dose of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (20 mg/kg) on the increase in locomotor activity induced by a dopamine D2 agonist quinpirole (0.3 mg/kg s.c.). L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine cyclohexyl ester elicits full antagonism against licking behavior induced by L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine.
-
additional information
decrease of Escherichia coli phagocytosis in the presence of Ddc small interfering RNA of about 30%, compared with the controls; Escherichia coli phagocytosis is blocked by small interfering RNA for Ddc and antibodies against Ddc, revealing the involvement of Ddc activity in phagocytosis. Haemocyte-surface-associated Ddc is decreased by about 90% in haemocytes transfected with Ddc siRNA, compared to the control experiment; when haemocytes are pretreated with anti-Ddc instead of Ddc small interfering RNA before challenge with Escherichia coli, a greater decrease of Escherichia coli phagocytosis (about 60%) is observed, compared with the siRNA results (30%)
-
additional information
-
in castrated male mice, DCC activity decreases in all parts of the small intestine, reaching values similar to those in females
-
additional information
-
a decrease in urinary levels of dopamine and in renal AADC activity at 20 twenty-six weeks after renal mass ablation
-
additional information
-
increasing concentrations of the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin have a minimal inhibitory effect on enzyme solubilization while leupeptin inhibits release of membrane-bound enzyme
-
additional information
-
4-benzoquinone might be the crucial chemical moiety for binding and inhibiting human DOPA decarboxylase
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
-
enhances activity
amantadine
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
Benzene
-
stimulates
budipine
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
cGMPdependent protein kinase Ialpha
phosphorylates and activates neuronal AAAD, maximal increase of activity is obtained at about 100-175 units during a 10 min incubation at 30C
-
Chloroform
-
stimulates
clonidine
-
drug acting on alpha adrenergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
clozapine
-
drug acting on serotonerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
clozapine
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
dextrometorphan
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
dithiothreitol
-
enhances activity
flupenthixol
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist; enhances activity in rat striatum
forskolin
-
intracerebroventricularly injection enhances the enzyme activity, a response, that can be blocked by selective inhibitors of protein kinase A
glutathione
-
enhances activity
haloperidol
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
ketanserin
-
drug acting on serotonerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
L-745,870
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
L-Dopa
-
L-DOPA treatment (20-200 microM) increases the levels of dopamine by 226%-504% after 3-6 h of treatment and enhances the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
light
-
increases AAAD activity in retina
-
mecamylamine
-
drug acting on cholinerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
memantine
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
metergoline
-
drug acting on serotonerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
O2
-
required
phencyclidine
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
phorbol-12,13-myristic acid
-
intracerebroventricularly injection enhances the enzyme activity, a response, that can be blocked by selective inhibitors of protein kinase A
pimozide
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
protein kinase A
-
phosphorylates and activates AAAD in vitro
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
increases enzyme activity greatly
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
stimulated by addition of excess pyridoxal phosphate
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
stimulates decarboxylation of DOPA
remoxipride
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
SCH 23390
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the D1-like receptor antagonist
SKF 38393
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by chronic treatment with the D1-like receptor agonist
spiperone
-
drug acting on serotonerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
spiperone
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
sulpiride
-
enhanced AAAD activity by in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
Way 100635
-
drug acting on serotonerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
MK-801
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
additional information
-
injection of Escherichia coli increases enzyme activity
-
additional information
-
DDC is overexpressed, at the mRNA level, in the specimens from prostate cancer patients, in comparison to those from benign prostate hyperplasia patients. High expression levels of DDC are found more frequently in high Gleason's score tumors as well as in advanced stage patients.
-
additional information
-
activation in vivo occurs in response to the acute action of physiological stimuli, drugs that act at neurotransmitter receptors, or modulation of the activity of endogenous kinases and phospatases; the early activation of AAAD is followed by a late, longer lasting (hours) response, which is accompanied by an increase of mRNA and protein
-
additional information
-
high expression of DDC in blood and bone marrow corresponds to metastatic neuroblastoma at diagnosis, residual disease, and poor outcome
-
additional information
-
A conserved AP-1 (JNK activated transcription factor complex) binding upstream of the DDC transcription start site is necessary to induce DDC transcription; aseptic wounding of larvae or adults does not lead to DDC transcriptional induction, unlike in embryos where DDC activity at the edge of the wound contributes to the formation of a melanin clot; Transcription of the dopa decarboxylase gene is induced in response to gram-negative and gram-positive septic injury, but not aseptic wounding. Ddc transcripts are detectible within 2 h and remain high for several hours following infection with either gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Ddc transcription depends on a previously uncharacterized member of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family, p38c
-
additional information
-
relative to obtained dose of Adeno-associated virus type 2 including human AADC gene, high dose-dependent levels of cDNA are detected
-
additional information
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate deficiency reduces AADC activity
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.95
2-fluoro-DOPA
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.039
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
enzyme from pharate pupae
0.052
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
pH 7.0, 32C
0.0625
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
enzyme from white prepupae
0.074
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
0.087
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
recombinant enzyme
0.0952
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
native enzyme
0.14
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
brain enzyme
0.14
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
0.16
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
0.16
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
0.18
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
0.28
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
0.4
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
0.62
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
in 167 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 39 mM dithiotreitol and 0.167 mM NaEDTA, for 2 h at 37C
1
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
enzyme form TYDC1 and TYDC2
2.3
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
3.3
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
3.35
5-fluoro-DOPA
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.049
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
-
wild-type enzyme
0.49
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
-
in 167 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 39 mM dithiotreitol and 0.167 mM NaEDTA, for 2 h at 37C
0.066
5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
0.016
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
0.02
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
0.23
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
0.23
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
pH 7.0, 32C
0.7
6-fluoro-DOPA
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.00083
dopamine
-
mutant enzyme K303A, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
0.0505
dopamine
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
22
His
-
-
2.2
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
determined in homogenates of renal cortex of 3/4 nephrectomized rats after 26 weeks
2.6
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
determined in homogenates of renal cortex of sham surgery rats (control) after 10 weeks; determined in homogenates of renal cortex of sham surgery rats (control) after 26 weeks
2.9
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
determined in homogenates of renal cortex of 3/4 nephrectomized rats after 10 weeks
0.038
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
-
pH 7.5, 25C, anaerobiosis
0.047
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
-
in the presence of 0.07 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, in 167 mM sodium phosphate pH 8.0, at 37C
0.053
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
-
in the absence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
0.155
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
-
pH 7.5, 25C, aerobiosis
0.000095
L-Dopa
-
dopamine formation, mutant enzyme K303A, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
0.00092
L-Dopa
-
aldehyde formation, mutant enzyme K303A, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
0.034
L-Dopa
in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, 0.1 mM pargyline, 0.17 mM ascorbic acid, 0.1 mM EDTA, 1 mM beta-mercaptoethanol, 0.01 mMM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and 0.5 mM L-Dopa, at 30C
0.035
L-Dopa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, anaerobiosis
0.058
L-Dopa
-
wild-type enzyme
0.0703
L-Dopa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, aerobiosis
0.091
L-Dopa
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.092
L-Dopa
pH 8., 30C
0.13
L-Dopa
-
pH 8.0, 37C
0.307
L-Dopa
-
in the absence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, in 500 mM sodium phosphate pH 7.0, at 37C
0.333
L-Dopa
-
in the presence of 0.07 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, in 500 mM sodium phosphate pH 7.0, at 37C
4.27
L-Dopa
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
0.52
L-m-Tyr
-
-
0.12
L-o-Tyr
-
-
0.98
L-Phe
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
0.099
L-phenylalanine
-
pH 5.0-5.6, 36C
0.872
L-phenylalanine
pH 8.0, 35C
2.4
L-Trp
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
0.049
L-tryptophan
-
pH 5.0-5.6, 36C
0.095
L-tryptophan
-
mutant Y348F, pH 7., 25C
0.1 - 2
L-tryptophan
-
wild-type, pH 7., 25C
0.35
L-tryptophan
pH 8.0, 35C
1
L-Tyr
-
enzyme form TYDC1 and TYDC2
1.1
L-Tyr
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
0.084
L-tyrosine
-
pH 7.0, 32C
0.92
L-tyrosine
at pH 7.9
20
Phe
-
-
0.0321
Phe-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin
-
pH6.5-7.5, 37C
3
Trp
-
-
0.0291
Trp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin
-
pH6.5-7.5, 37C
13
Tyr
-
-
0.0351
Tyr-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
-
pH6.5-7.5, 37C
1.064
L-tyrosine
-
pH 5.0-5.6, 36C
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
Papaver somniferum, Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5.2
2-fluoro-DOPA
Sus scrofa
-
pH 6.8, 25C
3 - 6
5-fluoro-DOPA
Sus scrofa
-
pH 6.8, 25C
3.47
5-fluoro-DOPA
Sus scrofa
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.67
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
Sus scrofa
-
wild-type enzyme
8.2
6-fluoro-DOPA
Sus scrofa
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.7
dopamine
Homo sapiens
-
mutant enzyme K303A, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
2.48
dopamine
Homo sapiens
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
0.99
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
Sus scrofa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, anaerobiosis
1.99
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
Sus scrofa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, aerobiosis
2.94
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
Sus scrofa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, aerobiosis
6.08
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
Sus scrofa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, anaerobiosis
0.07
L-Dopa
Homo sapiens
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
0.11
L-Dopa
Homo sapiens
-
aldehyde formation, mutant enzyme K303A, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
0.188
L-Dopa
Homo sapiens
-
dopamine formation, mutant enzyme K303A, in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, at 25C
1.8
L-Dopa
Pseudomonas putida
Q88JU5
pH 8., 30C
2.57
L-Dopa
Sus scrofa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, anaerobiosis
3 - 6
L-Dopa
Sus scrofa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, anaerobiosis
3.13
L-Dopa
Sus scrofa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, aerobiosis
4.26
L-Dopa
Sus scrofa
-
pH 7.5, 25C, aerobiosis
4.5
L-Dopa
Sus scrofa
-
Y332F DDC mutant, reaction in 50 mM Hepes, pH 7.5, at 25C causes the production of ammonia and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde along with the consumption of molecular oxygen in a 1:2 molar ratio
8.8
L-Dopa
Sus scrofa
-
wild-type enzyme
9.1
L-Dopa
Sus scrofa
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.7
L-tyrosine
Solanum lycopersicum
Q1KSC5, Q1KSC6
at pH 7.9
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
21
L-Dopa
Pseudomonas putida
Q88JU5
pH 8., 30C
320
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0044
2-[[(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)sulfonyl]amino]-N-phenylbenzamide
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0151
4-[(E)-[(3-phenyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino]methyl]benzene-1,2,3-triol
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0018
4-[(E)-[(3-phenyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino]methyl]benzene-1,2-diol
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0023
4-[(E)-[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]imino]methyl]benzene-1,2-diol
-
pH 7.4, 25C
5.7
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
-
wild-type enzyme, the data of initial velocity for decarboxylation of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan versus substrate concentration exhibit a substrate-inhibition pattern that requires a modified version of the Michaelis-Menten equation.
0.000036
annexin 5
-
inhibitor purified from mouse kidney homogenate ddc, classical non-competitive inhibitor
-
10
L-Dopa
-
wild-type enzyme, the data of initial velocity for decarboxylation of L-dopa versus substrate concentration curiously exhibit a substrate-inhibition pattern that requires a modified version of the Michaelis-Menten equation.
0.31
tryptamine
-
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0216
2-[1-[4-hydroxy-5-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-2-methoxyphenyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-5-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Homo sapiens
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.0168
2-[[(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)sulfonyl]amino]-N-phenylbenzamide
Homo sapiens
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0115
3-[2-hydroxy-5-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-oxopropyl]-5-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Homo sapiens
-
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
0.0067
4-[(E)-[(3-phenyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino]methyl]benzene-1,2,3-triol
Homo sapiens
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.002 - 4
4-[(E)-[(3-phenyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino]methyl]benzene-1,2-diol
Homo sapiens
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0063
4-[(E)-[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]imino]methyl]benzene-1,2-diol
Homo sapiens
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.33
dopamine
Homo sapiens
-
inhibits the conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.00000113
-
determined in homogenates of renal cortex of 3/4 nephrectomized rats after 26 weeks
0.00001427
-
determined in homogenates of renal cortex of sham surgery rats (control) after 10 weeks
0.00001653
-
determined in homogenates of renal cortex of sham surgery rats (control) after 26 weeks
0.00001893
-
determined in homogenates of renal cortex of 3/4 nephrectomized rats after 10 weeks
0.00003
-
enzyme from HTB-14 cells, at 37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.00006
-
enzyme from HeLa cells, at 37C, pH not specified in the publication
0.0003
-
day 20 to day 36, photoperiod; day 32 and 36, photoperiod
0.0006
-
day 0, 12 and 16; day 20 and day 28, continuous light
0.0009
-
day 8, photoperiod
0.0012
-
day 24, continuous light; day 8, continuous light
0.0015
-
day 4
0.01037
-
solubilized enzyme, at pH 5.0 and 37C, using L-Dopa as substrate
0.0325
-
activity of AADC, control level without treatment of L-DOPA in PC-12 cells
0.043
-
brain enzyme
0.19
-
adrenal medulla enzyme
1.57
-
-
2.249
-
assay without pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
2.851
-
-
3.069
-
assay with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
3.67
-
activity in peripheral leukocytes, determined by radiochemical method at 37C
8.9
-
-
10
-
positive controls (embryonic K293 cells)
10.03
-
enzyme from SH-SY5Y cells, at 37C, pH not specified in the publication
18.4
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
23.27
-
-
35.95
-
-
37.7
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
specific activity 10455 nkatal mg-1
additional information
-
specific activity 490 U/mg, enzyme activity is expressed in nanomole of substrate transformed per minute per milliliter of enzyme preparation
additional information
-
The course of the reaction of Y332 mutant with 0.3 mM L-dopa has been followed at different enzyme concentrations. Although the shapes of the profiles for the interconversion of the 2 coenzymatic forms (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate) are similar at all the enzyme concentrations tested. At each enzyme concentration there are 2 phases: at first, pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate increases at the expense of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and then this tendency is reversed until approximately 85% of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor is regenerated, the amount of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate formed relative to the initial pyridoxal 5'-phosphate content of the enzyme, during consumption of L-dopa, increases as the enzyme concentration decreases. At higher enzyme concentrations, where L-dopa consumption is faster, the accumulation of the pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate-intermediate is less appreciable. In every case the pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate species is generated during the course of linear formation of products.
additional information
-
although the obtained specific activity values are found to be lower than the activity values observed in embryonic K293 cells, the data strongly suggest the endogenous dopamine production in these types of cells and underline the complexity of the dopamine synthetic pathway; the purified enzyme shows a specific activity of 3.67 units/mg at 37C
additional information
-
altered enzyme activity and regulation contributes to the decreasing therapeutic response of L-dopa; enzyme activity is closely associated with substrate response and is a determining factor for the formation of dopamine
additional information
-
enzyme activity is closely associated with substrate response and is a determining factor for the formation of dopamine; in striatum and retina, kinetic activation of AAAD is rapid, short-lasting and characterized by changes in the apparent Vmax for both the substrate and the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
additional information
-
110% activity compared to control level, treatment with 0.02 mM L-DOPA in PC-12 cells at 1 h (time point); 237% activity compared to control level, treatment with 0.02 mM L-DOPA in PC-12 cells at 3 h (time point); 242% activity compared to control level, treatment with 0.1 mM L-DOPA in PC-12 cells at 1 h (time point); 269% activity compared to control level, treatment with f 0.1 mM L-DOPA in PC-12 cells at 3 h (time point); 311% activity compared to control level, treatment with 0.2 mM L-DOPA in PC-12 cells at 1 h (time point); 348% activity compared to control level, treatment with 0.2 mM L-DOPA in PC-12 cells at 3 h (time point); The activity of AADC begins to decrease to about 177% (0.02 mM L-DOPA), 233% (0.1 mM L-DOPA) and 297% (0.2 mM L-DOPA) of the control levels by 3-6 h, and then returns to control level by about 24-48 h
additional information
Ddc activity is required for Escherichia coli phagocytosis; phagocytosis, melanization and nodulation in insects depending on dopa decarboxylase activity, because antibodies against Ddc and inhibitors of Ddc activity prevent haemocyte aggregation and melanization in the presence of excess Escherichia coli
additional information
-
2076 nmol CO2/h/g wet female adrenal gland tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 2174 nmol CO2/h/g wet male small intestine tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 21 nmol CO2/h/g wet female skeletal muscle tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 21 nmol CO2/h/g wet male testis tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 2322 nmol CO2/h/g wet male adrenal gland tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 27 nmol CO2/h/g wet male skeletal muscle tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 310 nmol CO2/h/g wet male heart tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 3200 nmol CO2/h/g wet male liver tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 3247 nmol CO2/h/g wet female kidney tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 3410 nmol CO2/h/g wet female liver tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 34 nmol CO2/h/g wet female ovary tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 384 nmol CO2/h/g wet female small intestine tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 42 nmol CO2/h/g wet male prostate tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 457 nmol CO2/h/g wet male pancreas tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 476 nmol CO2/h/g wet female heart tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 533 nmol CO2/h/g wet female pancreas tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 636 nmol CO2/h/g wet male kidney tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 798 nmol CO2/h/g wet male brain, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; 853 nmol CO2/h/g wet female brain tissue, 0.1 mM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 0.1 mM EDTA, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 1.3 mM L-dopa, 0.03 mM dopa, DL-3,4-alanine; estrogen ablation or treatment with estradiol does not affect DDC activity; in kidney, DNA and protein levels of DDC are remarkably higher in females than in males (sexual dimorphism); in the small intestine, male mice display higher levels of activity than females (sexual dimorphism); sexual dimorphism of DCC in kidney has physiological relevance in sodium homeostasis; treatment of female mice with testosterone propionate elicits a robust increase in DCC activity in duodenum and jejunum, which is weaker in the ileum; treatment of females with testosterone propionate for short periods of time (24 and 48 h) does not significantly affect renal DCC activity, although levels of mRNA produces a marked decrease in the kidney; treatment of males with the antiandrogen flutamide for short periods of time (24 and 48 h) does not significantly affect renal DCC activity, although levels of mRNA produces a marked increase in the kidney
additional information
-
enzyme activity is 0.2 pmol/ml plasma per min, patient 1 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 47-119 pmol/ml plasma per min); enzyme activity is 0.6 pmol/ml plasma per min, patient 3 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 33-79 pmol/ml plasma per min); enzyme activity is 0.6 pmol/ml plasma per min, patient 8 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 23-34 pmol/ml plasma per min); enzyme activity is 0 pmol/ml plasma per min, patient 4 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 33-79 pmol/ml plasma per min); enzyme activity is 0 pmol/ml plasma per min, patient 7 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 23-34 pmol/ml plasma per min); enzyme activity is 0 pmol/ml plasma per min, patient 9 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 23-34 pmol/ml plasma per min); enzyme activity is 1.6 pmol/ml plasma per min, patient 6 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 36-129 pmol/ml plasma per min); enzyme activity is 4.0 pmol/ml plasma per min, patient 5 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 47-119 pmol/ml plasma per min); enzyme activity is below 1 U/l plasma, patient 2 with AAAD deficiency (reference range 18-34 pmol/ml plasma per min)
additional information
-
after gene transfer in nondegenerating striatal neurons in patients, transgene expression of AADC can be monitored in the putamen
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.2
-
native and recombinant enzyme
6.5
-
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate
6.8
-
-
7
-
5-hydroxytryptophan as substrate
7 - 7.4
-
2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate
7 - 8.4
-
5-hydroxytryptophan as substrate
7.2
-
-
7.2
-
assay at
7.4 - 7.47
-
L-tyrosine as substrate
7.5 - 8.5
-
broad, brain enzyme
7.5 - 8.5
-
enzyme form TYDC1 and TYDC2
8
-
liver enzyme
8 - 8.5
-
adrenal enzyme
9
Micrococcus percitreus
-
L-Trp
9
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5 - 8.5
-
pH 5.0: about 45% of maximal activity, pH 8.5: about 45% of maximal activity, adrenal medulla enzyme
5.5 - 8.5
-
pH 5.5: about 55% of maximal activity, pH 8.5: about 35% of maximal activity, brain enzyme
7 - 10
Micrococcus percitreus
-
pH 7.0: about 50% of maximal activity, pH 10.0: about 35% of maximal activity, L-Trp
7 - 10
-
about 50% of maximal activity at pH 7.0 and at pH 10.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
37
-
assay at
37
-
assay at
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.6 - 5.9
-
isoelectric focusing
5.7
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
estimated from amino acid sequence
6.1
calculated from amino acid sequence
6.2
-
isoelectric focusing gel
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
fat pad, detection of enzyme protein despite of absence of the mRNA sinal after reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
both the neuronal and the extraneuronal AADC mRNA isoforms are present at early brain developmental stages in the basal ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
sample source for DNA isolation from patients with AADC deficiency
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
from children with neuroblastoma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
rom the posterior iliac crest of children with neuroblastoma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cerebellum; hypothalamus; midbrain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
brain stem; cerebellum; cerebral cortex; hippocampus; hypothalamus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
increase of AADC activity with brain development is considered to be associated with special stages of neuronal maturation and tissue differentiation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
6% of the DDC activity is located in the brain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts are detected in the adult brain Hd-rR strain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
AADC expression in the developing pig brain is highly expressed in the basal ganglia and the brain stem regions, and also significantly expressed in the cortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of larvae
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
both the neuronal and the extraneuronal AADC mRNA isoforms are present at early brain developmental stages in the brain stem
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
largest activity in young branches
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high DDC mRNA expression levels are found in well-differentiated and Dukes' stage A and B tumors
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
neural and non-neural type DDC
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
clozapine modulates AAAD activity in striatum and enhances exogenous L-DOPA decarboxylation in intact mice and mice lesioned with1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Kinetic analysis of AAAD at 1 h showed an increase in the apparent Vmax for both the substrate L-DOPA and the cofactor pyridoxal-5'-phosphate with no changes for Km. Dopamine D4 and 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A antagonists also increase AAAD activity in striatum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
diencephalic catecholaminergic cluster and locus caeruleus of 36-h post-fertilization zebrafish embryos
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
sexual dimorphism
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
epiphysis, locus caeruleus, diencephalic catecholaminergic clusters, and raphe nuclei of 36-h post-fertilization zebrafish embryos
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
transcription of DDC is induced when larvae or adults are infected, transcription is induced throughout the epidermis and not specifically at the site of infection
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts in embryonic CNS cells at 3 days post fertilization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
of 36-h post-fertilization zebrafish embryos
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
abdomen, detection of enzyme protein despite of absence of the mRNA sinal after reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high activity in dry fruits, low activity in green fruits
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
stellate and cervical. Exposure of the mice to repeated stress produces significant elevation of the AADC mRNA levels in stellate ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no expression of ddc gene
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts are detected in the adult brain Hd-rR strain and in embryonic primordial cells at 3 days post fertilisation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DDC transcription is induced strongly in the flies that are septically injured with Eschericia coli or Staphylococcos aureus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
right atrium, left atrium, right ventriculum, left ventriculum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no expression of ddc gene
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
novel imprinted dopa decarbylase gene on chromosome 11 is a 2kb transcript variant that initiates from an alternative first exon in intron 1 of the canonical Ddc transcript, it is paternally expressed in trabecular cardiomyocytes of the embryonic and neonatal heart. Imprinted gene expression is progressively downregulated in the heart during postnatal development and occurs only at low basal levels in the adult heart.
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57B1/129SV
-
right atrium, left atrium, right ventriculum, left ventriculum
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of neural-type and non-neural DDC isoforms, although HeLa cells express full length and the alternative Alt-DDC isoforms, they do not possess enzymatic activity towards the decarboxylation of L-Dopa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
haemolymph from third instar larvae is collected and centrifuged and the sedimented haemocytes are used, surface-associated Ddc and inside localization, changes in the level of haemocyte-surface Ddc are observed during larval development, with a peak in the white pupae
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
highest expression of DDC mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts in embryonic CNS cells at 3 days post fertilization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
sexual dimorphism
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of neural-type and non-neural DDC isoform
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
sexual dimorphism
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
medulla and cortex
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
sexual dimorphism
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
renal dopaminergic system activity in rat (3/4 nephrectomized) kidney up to 26 weeks after surgery
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts are detected in the adult brain Hd-rR strain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
obtained from normal individuals just after sacrifice by carbon dioxide
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57B1/129SV
-
medulla and cortex
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
dopa decarboxylase and dopamine beta hydroxylase transcripts are detectable during the whole ontogenesis excect for the dopamine beta hydroxylase transcripts in 2-cell embryos stage. The expression level of both mRNAs increases significantly in the veliger stage, and reaches the peak in late and mid-veliger larvae, respectively. Two dopa decarboxylase immunoreactive areas are observed in the trochophore and D-hinged larvae, and then three immunoreactive areas and two immunopositive fibres formed in early and late veliger larvae, respectively
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
peripheral; peripheral leukocyte
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts are detected in the adult brain Hd-rR strain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57B1/129SV
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
detection of enzyme protein despite of absence of the mRNA sinal after reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57B1/129SV
-
detection of enzyme protein despite of absence of the mRNA sinal after reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts in embryonic CNS cells at 3 days post fertilization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts in embryonic CNS cells at 3 days post fertilization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
IMR 32, CHP-212, SH-SY5Y, SK-N-SH, SK-N-FI, SK-N-AS, SK-N-BE(2) and SK-N-DZ
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the bas-I gene encodes an AADC enzyme, expression in serotonergic and dopinergic neurons
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
striatal neurons
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts are detected in the adult brain Hd-rR strain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pyridoxine depletion decreases the content of the enzyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
prostate cancer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
from patients with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
total RNA is isolated from tissue specimens from benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer patients
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
of 36-h post-fertilization zebrafish embryos
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of neural-type DDC isoform
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no expression of ddc gene
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no expression of ddc gene
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57B1/129SV
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ddc transcripts in embryonic CNS cells at 3 days post fertilization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no expression of ddc gene
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DDC transcription is induced strongly in the flies that are septically injured with Eschericia coli or Staphylococcos aureus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
detection of enzyme protein despite of absence of the mRNA sinal after reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
tissue specificity is proposed to be directed by both alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
enzyme is mainly expressed and stored in the peripheral plasma area near the nucleus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
; a population of DDC molecules are intrinsic membrane proteins
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
a significant number of proteins exist in membrane-associated and soluble forms
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
36000
-
alternative DDC isoform, SDS-PAGE
691469
37000
-
determined by SDS-PAGE, determined by SDS-PAGE, expression of the alternative DDC molecule (alt-DDC) in human peripheral leukocytes, lacks exons 10-15 but includes an alternative exon 10
691469
37000
-
SDS-PAGE
705269
48000
-
gel filtration, SDS-PAGE
650450
50000
-
antibody reaction
650436
50000
-
SDS-PAGE
651068
50000
-
SDS-PAGE
653352
50000
-
AADC is detected with two bands at approximately 50000 Da, SDS-PAGE
705265
54000
-
recombinant enzyme, immunoblotting
653356
54000
-
determined by SDS-PAGE, expression of DDC in human T-lymphoytes; native DDC isoform, SDS-PAGE
691469
54000
-
predicted from amino acid sequence and determined by Western Blot analysis
693382
54000
-
deduced from amino acid sequence
702968
55000
-
SDS-PAGE
681181
56000
-
gel filtration
4220
86000
-
gel filtration
4234
90000
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation in presence of 0.3 M NaCl
4211
93000
-
gel filtration
650868
100000
-
gel filtration
4217
100000
-
gel filtration
4219
100000
-
gel filtration
4228
100000
-
gel filtration
4229
101000
Micrococcus percitreus
-
gel filtration, equilibrium sedimentation
4202
101000
Micrococcus percitreus
-
gel filtration
4216
102000
-
variable porosity acrylamide gel electrophoresis
4212
103000
-
ultracentrifugation analysis
4218
105000
Micrococcus percitreus
-
equilibrium sedimentation
4216
106000
-
gel filtration, sedimentation analysis
4227
112000
-
gel filtration
653346
113000
-
sucrose density gradient sedimentation
4212
115000
-
-
653443
125000
-
SDS-PAGE
653288
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 54000, SDS-PAGE
?
x * 50000, about 50000 Da, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE
?
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
x * 54000, estimated from amino acid sequence
?
-
x * 55000, SDS-PAGE
?
x * 63380, calculated from amino acid sequence
?
x * 57000, SDS-PAGE, x * 56800, calculated
?
x * 58000, SDS-PAGE, x * 55899, calculated
?
-
x * 58000, SDS-PAGE, x * 55899, calculated
-
dimer
-
1 * 46000 + 1 * 50000, SDS-PAGE in presence of mercaptoethanol
dimer
-
2 * 54000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
Micrococcus percitreus
-
2 * 48000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 56000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 51000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 54000
homodimer
-
2 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
-
homodimer binding one pyridoxal 5'-phosphate molecule
homodimer
-
-
monomer
-
1 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 48000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 125000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
Penicillium raistrickii H10BA2
-
1 * 125000, SDS-PAGE
-
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
-
plays a role in the activation of the enzyme in vivo
phosphoprotein
-
phosphoprotein
-
plays a role in the activation of the enzyme in vivo
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
apoenzyme, to 2.9 A resolution. The apoenzye exists in an unexpected open conformation. Compared to the pig kidney holoenzyme, the dimer subunits move 20 A apart and the two active sites become solvent exposed. Complete achievement of the closed conformation of the dimer is not essential for Schiff base formation and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding to the intermediate monomer is able to induce rearrangement of loop1. Covalent binding of the cofactor can only be achieved after an initial rearrangement towards the closed conformation
-
-
Micrococcus percitreus
-
density functional theory and real-time dynamics studies. In the crystal structure, residue Asp 271 interacts with the pyridine nitrogen atom of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate through H-bonding in both native and substrate-bound enzyme. Residue Thr 246 is in close proximity to the oxygen atom of 3-OH of the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate pyridine ring only in substrate-bound enzyme. In the ligand-free enzyme, this distance is not favorable for hydrogen bonding
-
modeling of complex with inhibitor epigallocatechin-3-gallate. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate does not affect the quaternary structure of the enzyme and remains stable in the active site throughout the entire trajectory. After 700 ps of simulation, epigallocatechin-3-gallate moves deeper into the active site. While adopting this conformation, epigallocatechin-3-gallate actually fills the binding pocket and blocks its entrance pathway
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
Micrococcus percitreus
-
30C, 60 min, about 70% loss of activity
4216
5
Micrococcus percitreus
-
30C, 60 min, about 35% loss of activity
4216
6 - 7
Micrococcus percitreus
-
30C, 60 min, stable
4216
8
Micrococcus percitreus
-
30C, 60 min, about 20% loss of activity
4216
10
Micrococcus percitreus
-
30C, 60 min, about 40% loss of activity
4216
11
Micrococcus percitreus
-
30C, 60 min, about 85% loss of activity
4216
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
Micrococcus percitreus
-
60 min, stable between pH 6.0 and 7.0
4216
35
Micrococcus percitreus
-
pH 7.0, 5 min, stable until
4216
50
Micrococcus percitreus
-
pH 7.0, 5 min, rapid inactivation above
4216
additional information
Micrococcus percitreus
-
in the presence of high concentrations of pyridoxal phosphate, glycerol or potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, stability against heating increases
4216
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
three cycles of freezing, -45C, and thawing have no effect on enzyme activity, in 0.10 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containg 1 mM dithiothreitol and 10% glycerol
-
neither pyridoxal 5-phosphate deficiency nor the addition of 4-deoxypyridoxine affected aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase stability over 8 h with protein synthesis inhibited.
-
instability of the apo form of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase in vivo and in vitro, implications for the involvement of the flexible loop that covers the active site
-
complete loss of activity by limited tryptic proteolysis
-
graduall decrease in activity by repeated freezing and thawing
-
no loss of activity after lyophilization
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
reaction specificity with D-aromatic amino acids does not change in presence or absence of O2, the reaction with L-aromatic amino acids seems to be affected by O2
-
649696
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
4C, 40% loss of activity after 10 days
-
0C, 0.05-0.01 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, 1 mM dithiothreitol, stable for 6 weeks
-
5C, in 0.5 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, 20% glycerol, 1 mM pyridoxal phosphate and 19 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, stable for more than 10 months
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-20C, 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, 0.1 mM dithiothreitol, stable for at least 2 months
-
-20C, stable for at least 2 months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DEAE-cellulose chromatography
DEAE-cellulose chromatography
affinity chromatography using monoclonal antibody
-
DEAE-cellulose chromatography
Ni2+ chelating Sepharose column chromatography
DEAE-cellulose chromatography
Discovery C18 column chromatography, gel filtration
-
recombinant enzyme
-
DEAE-cellulose chromatography
-
Micrococcus percitreus
-
either protein A-agarose column chromatography or anti-FLAG M2 affinity gel filtration
recombinant enzyme
-
Ni2+ affinity chromatography; Ni2+ affinity chromatography
commentary
-
recombinant enzyme
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
knockdown (silencing) of gene expression (RNA interference) results in a significant reduction of melanization of Sephadex beads at 24 h after injection. The average proportion of mosquitoes that completely melanized beads is 28% compared with 64% when the control green fluorescent protein is injected; knockdown (silencing) of gene expression (RNA interference) results in a significant reduction of melanization of Sephadex beads at 24 h after injection. The average proportion of mosquitoes that completely melanized beads is 28% compared with 64% when the control green fluorescent protein is injected
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in a mouse cell line using a bovine papilloma virus-derived expression vector containg the full coding region of the bovine enzyme
-
two autonomously regulated genes, TDC1 and TDC2
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
Nicotiana tabacum T-201-1 tobacco line transformed with a full-length TDC cDNA gene and expressed under the regulatory control of the cauliflower mosaic virus CaMV 35S promoter
-
TDC encoded by a single-copy gene,TDC gene used to transform tobacco, Canola and potato plants and callus and root cultures from Peganum harmala
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)-Transetta cells
cDNA, alternative mRNA splice variants, neuronal and nonneuronal
-
coexpression of tyrosine hydroxylase, GTP cyclohydrolase I, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 from a helper virus-free herpes simplex virus type 1 vector supports high-level, long-term biochemical and behavioral correction of a rat model of Parkinson's disease
-
developed an adeno-associated virus vector that contains human AADC cDNA under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Infusion of this vector into the striatum of parkinsonian rats and monkeys improves L-DOPA responsiveness by improving AADC-mediated conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli XL-1 Blue cells
-
expressed in LNCaP cells
-
expression in COS cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli
human AADC gene is cloned into a Adeno-associated virus type 2 shuttle plasmid, and a recombinant Adeno-associated virus type 2 containing hAADC under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter is generated by a triple transfection technique
-
in a primate model of Parkinson disease, intrastriatal infusion of an adeno-associated viral vector containing the AADC gene results in robust gene expression
-
mutant enzyme K303A is expressed in Escherichia coli SVS370 cells
-
splice variant of L-Dopa decarboxylase lacking exons 10-15 of the full-length transcript but includes an alternative exon 10
-
expression in Escherichia coli
expressed in Escherichia coli expression vector pFLAG-1
Nicotiana tabacum T-201-1 tobacco line transformed with a full-length TDC cDNA gene and expressed under the regulatory control of the cauliflower mosaic virus CaMV 35S promoter
-
plant expression vectors introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101
-
prediction and cloning of the promoter, a 3 kbp fragment flanking the Ddc gene. Development of a simple method combining a green fluorescent protein-reporter assay in vivo with TA-cloning
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in MN-9D cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli using a T7 RNA polymerase expression system
-
expressed in Escherichia coli; expressed in Escherichia coli
cloning and expression of wild-type DDC and Y332F and T246A mutants in SVS370 Escherichia coli cells.
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
-
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
bacterium Vibrio anguillarum challenge can induce the mRNA expression of dopa decarboxylase and dopamine beta hydroxylase in different developmental stages. A significant increase of dopa decarboxylase mRNA is observed in the trochophore larvae at 12 h and in late D-hinged larvae at 24 h post challenge
the expression of dopa decarboxylase in silkworm is higher during molting stage, and decreases after molting
-
silkworm larvae fed with ecdysone hormone show significantly elevatd expression of dopa decarboxylase
-
after treatment with lipopolysaccharide stimulation, the mRNA expression level of DDC in hemocytes increases 5.5fold at 3 h and 9.8fold at 12 h and then recovers to the baseline level
4-deoxypyridoxine reduces aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase mRNA levels
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-deficient human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exhibit reduced levels of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase activity and protein but with no alteration in expression
-
DDC mRNA is transcribed in two different forms, neural and non-neural, due to alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing within the 5'-untranslated region
-
both 20-hydroxyecdysone and juvenile hormone regulate DDC expression in the epidermis
-
ecdysone cascades regulate DDC expression in the epidermis
-
gene expression is induced by L-dopa
AADC expression in the L-DOPA naive 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats does decrease significantly as compared with intact striata
-
AADC transcript abundance presents a small peak at 110 days after full bloom and then a continuous increase at the berry post-ripening stage
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Y348F
-
mutation results in conversion of enzyme into an indole-3-acetaldehyde synthase
E227A/R228A/D229A/K230A
-
replacement of amino acids 227-230 (ERDK) with alanine residues reduces reactivity to 13.6% compared to the wild type enzyme
Y348F
mutation results in conversion of enzyme into an indole-3-acetaldehyde synthase, mutant retains a small percentage of its original decarboxylation activity
A53T
-
shows minimal dopamine synthesis
T246A
-
T246 act as an essential general base for the oxidative deamination reaction
Y332F
-
wild-type enzyme and Y332F variant are able to perform the oxidation toward aromatic amines or aromatic L-amino acids, without the aid of any cofactor related to oxygen chemistry.
K303A
-
the mutant binds pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with a 100fold decreased apparent equilibrium binding affinity with respect to the wild type enzyme. Unlike the wild-type, K303A in the presence of L-Dopa displays a parallel progress course of formation of both dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (plus ammonia) with a burst followed by a linear phase
additional information
-
Model chemistry by second-order Moller-Plessett perturbation theory calculations, phenylalanine in position 103 is replaced by all native amino acids. The mutant residues which conserve an aromatic side chain (tyrosine and tryptophan) retain near 100% interaction energy with the carbidopa, and thus most likely retain full protein function. Arginine has an interaction energy of 555% of the wild-type. This is due to the fact that the long, polar side chain is able to find a geometry where a hydrogen bond is being made with the hydroxyl group of the carbidopa. The small side chains are not close enough to the carbidopa to have a large deal of dispersion/induction interactions. Residues are arranged by the size of the side chain, and with a few exception, the interaction energy generally increases with size of the side chain. Glycine, alanine, serine, threonine, and histidine all fall below the above mentioned 20% threshold and would likely cause a loss of protein function. Serine contains a polar side chain and histidine has pi-electrons, yet these residues are too small and too far removed to have strong interactions.
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
pharmacology
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
analysis
loss of dopa decarboxylase appears to result in similar phenotypes as those of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, thus zebrafish could be a good model for investigating pathogenetic mechanisms of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency in children
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
analysis
-
development o a high-throughput assay for testing of inhibitors
drug development
-
Parkinson disease, gene therapy, initiation of a phase I safety trial
medicine
-
coexpression of tyrosine hydroxylase, GTP cyclohydrolase I, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 from a helper virus-free herpes simplex virus type 1 vector supports high-level, long-term biochemical and behavioral correction of a rat model of Parkinson's disease
medicine
-
potential of DDC expression, at the mRNA level, as a novel biomarker in prostate cancer
medicine
-
therapy of Parkinson disease
medicine
-
Because epileptic attacks can be treated with appropriate antiepileptic drugs, a confirmation whether patients with AADC deficiency have both non-epileptic and epileptic seizures in varying proportions, is necessary. The differentiation of epileptic seizures from involuntary non-epileptic movements, such as short-lasting dystonic attacks, chorea, or myoclonus, is indispensable for the adequate treatment of patients with AADC deficiency.
medicine
-
diagnosis of neuroblastoma, both tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and DDC mRNA could be useful for stratifying patients into different treatment groups in future clinical trials.
medicine
-
Development of therapy of patients with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency. Drug therapy in patients with AADC deficiency aims at correcting the central and peripheral deficiency of serotonin and catecholamines. Treatment is very challenging. There are no established treatment schemes or clear dosages for the individual drugs.
medicine
-
combination treatment of Adeno-associated virus type-2 containing human AADC gene, with oral levodopa is a novel therapeutic approach in patients with Parkinson disease
medicine
-
there is no association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the DDC gene and suicidal behavior
medicine
-
DDC mRNA expression is a potential tissue biomarker in colorectal adenocarcinoma
medicine
-
enzyme is responsible for thyronamine biosynthesis via decarboxylation of thyroid hormone. In addition, patients with aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase-deficiency display thyronamines in plasma at levels similar to those of healthy controls
pharmacology
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
medicine
-
novel approaches in the fight against the pathological conditions that the enzyme is implicated in such as cancer, schizophrenia, psychosis and Parkinson's disease
medicine
-
therapy of Parkinson disease
medicine
-
the presence of a natural occurring ddc inhibitor in a peripheral tissue, may have interesting implications for future pharmacological treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as inhibition of peripheral ddc, as well as, therapeutic approaches of neoplasias that are characterized by elevated levels of Ddc expression
medicine
-
therapy of Parkinson disease
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
medicine
-
development of dopamine treatment ainst Parkinson's disease, drug target for treatment of neurodgenerative diseases
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
synthesis
-
preparation of valuable biochemical and diagnostic tools