Information on EC 4.1.1.28 - aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.1.1.28
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan = 5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-dopa = dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(S)-reticuline biosynthesis I
-
-
beta-carboline biosynthesis
-
-
Betalain biosynthesis
-
-
betaxanthin biosynthesis
-
-
betaxanthin biosynthesis (via dopamine)
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
camptothecin biosynthesis
-
-
catecholamine biosynthesis
Histidine metabolism
-
-
hydroxycinnamic acid serotonin amides biosynthesis
-
-
Indole alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
indole-3-acetate biosynthesis II
-
-
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
L-tryptophan degradation VI (via tryptamine)
-
-
L-tryptophan degradation X (mammalian, via tryptamine)
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Phenylalanine metabolism
-
-
secologanin and strictosidine biosynthesis
-
-
serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis
-
-
tryptophan metabolism
-
-
Tryptophan metabolism
-
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
Aromatic-L-amino-acid carboxy-lyase
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The enzyme also acts on some other aromatic L-amino acids, including L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9042-64-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
filarial nematode, causative agent of heartworm disease in dogs and cats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
migratory locust, subspecies migratorioides R.F.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Micrococcus percitreus
Micrococcus percitreus AJ1065
strain AJ1065
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57B1/129SV
male C57B1/129SV
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tobacco
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Penicillium raistrickii
strain ATCC 46878
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
H10BA2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
H10BA2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
red flour beetle
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
cultivar Vidal blanc
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2,4-Dibromo-DL-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
75% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
2-Chloro-L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
77% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
2-fluoro-L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
4-(2-aminoethyl)-3-fluorobenzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-Methyl-L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
75% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3,4-Dibromo-DL-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
10% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
3-Hydroxytyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of the ganglionic dopamine level
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
3,5-Dibromo-DL-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
72% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3-Chloro-L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
81% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3-Hydroxy-DL-kynurenine
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
8% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
3-Methyl-L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
80% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
4-fluoro-L-tryptophan
4-fluorotryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
4-methyl-L-tryptophan
4-methyltryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-Fluoro-DL-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
75% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
5-fluoro-L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
5-(2-aminoethyl)-3-fluorobenzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5-fluoro-L-tryptophan
5-fluorotryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
5-hydroxytryptamine + O2
5-hydroxyindolacetaldehyde + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
side reaction, decarboxylation-dependent transamination
-
?
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
5-Methyl-DL-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
17% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
6-fluoro-L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
4-(2-aminoethyl)-5-fluorobenzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
6-fluoro-threo-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)serine
4-(2-aminoethyl)-5-fluorobenzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
7-Aza-DL-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
8% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
alpha-methyl-dopamine + O2
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetone + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
side reaction, decarboxylation-dependent transamination
-
?
alpha-methyl-L-Dopa
alpha-methyl-dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
carbidopa
?
show the reaction diagram
-
interaction of carbidopa with the Phe103 residue of the enzyme, the residue forms a displaced sandwich-type sigma-complex with carbidopa
-
-
?
Carboxyl-L-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
DOPA
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dopamine + O2
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-kynurenine
3-amino-1-(2-aminophenyl)propan-1-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Micrococcus percitreus
-
15% of the activity with L-Trp
-
-
-
L-Phe
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine
2-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine
L-phenethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-threo-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)serine
4-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]benzene-1,2-diol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
m-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
m-tyrosine
m-tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Methylene-L-Trp
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
N-methyl-L-dopa
N-methyldopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
in addition, enzyme catalyses the decarboxylation-dependent oxidative deamination of alpha-methyl-dopa, but the oxidative reaction is considerably slower than the decarboxylation reaction
-
?
o-fluorophenylalanine
o-fluorophenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
o-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
p-fluorophenylalanine
p-fluorophenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
p-tyrosine
p-tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Phe-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
? + 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Trp-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
? + 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
Tryptophan
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Tyr-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
? + 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
tyrosine
tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of the ganglionic dopamine level
-
?
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
5-hydroxytryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
5-Hydroxytryptophan
Serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
serotonin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine
2-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
L-Trp
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-tryptophan
tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
m-tyrosine
m-tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-tyrosine
p-tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenylalanine
phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Tryptophan
Tryptamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyrosine
tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
additional information
-
no absolute requirement for exogenous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Al3+
-
activates
Fe2+
-
stimulation
Mn2+
-
stimulation
Na+
-
inverse correlation between DDC activity and sodium reabsorption in the kidney, confirming the hypothesis that dopamine inhibits sodium absorption
additional information
-
increasing concentrations of Zn2+ result in a raise in the solubilization of the membrane-associated enzyme, while the presence of increasing concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ inhibits enzyme release from the MF sample
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
-
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
-
(S)-alpha-(fluoromethyl)tryptophan
-
the suicide substrate effectively inhibits TDC activity extracted from rice leaves infected by Bipolaris oryzae and the inhibition rate increases dependent on preincubation time
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine
-
MPTP, after 7 days of treatment, AAAD activities are decreased by more than 50% in the mouse striatum
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
weak
2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzylhydrazine
-
-
2-[1-[4-hydroxy-5-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-2-methoxyphenyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-5-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
inhibitor isolated from Euonymus glabra Roxb.
-
2-[[(2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl)sulfonyl]amino]-N-phenylbenzamide
-
competitive. Inhibitor is unable to bind free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier
3'-hydroxybenzylhydrazine
-
NSD-1015, a central aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
inhibitory effect of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine on the conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-hydrazino-2-methyl propionic acid
-
carbiDOPA, addition of 10 microM inhibitor to reaction mixtures (Y332F mutant with L-dopa) in the presence or in the absence of catalase or superoxide dismutase, immediately stops the O2 consumption.
3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine
-
-
3-Indoleacetamide
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
3-Indolealdehyde
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
3-iodo-L-tyrosine
-
-
3-methyl-L-tyrosine
-
-
3-[2-hydroxy-5-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-oxopropyl]-5-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
inhibitor isolated from Euonymus glabra Roxb., structural analogue of dopamine. Compound is able to suppress the activity of dopa decarboxylase and dopamine levels in purified enzyme and cell-based assays
4-Bromo-3-hydroxy-benzyloxyamine
-
-
4-[(E)-[(3-phenyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino]methyl]benzene-1,2,3-triol
-
mixed type inhibition. Inhibitor is unable to bind free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier
4-[(E)-[(3-phenyl-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino]methyl]benzene-1,2-diol
-
competitive. Inhibitor is unable to bind free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier
4-[(E)-[[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-sulfanyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl]imino]methyl]benzene-1,2-diol
-
competitive. Inhibitor is unable to bind free pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, and predicted to not cross the blood-brain barrier
5-hydroxy indole acetic acid
-
the conversion of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan is 20% inhibited by 0.33 mM 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
5-hydroxytryptophan
7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor agonist
alpha-Allenyldopa
-
-
alpha-methyl-2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
alpha-Methyl-5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
alpha-Methyl-D,L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
-
alpha-Methylhydrazinodopa
-
-
alpha-monofluoromethyl-DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
suicide inhibitor
alpha-synuclein
-
significantly reduces AADC activity
-
Amino-oxyacetate
-
-
annexin 5
-
endogenous inhibitor, identified and purified from human placenta presented in the membrane function, shows 30.4% inhibition by incubation of the human placenta samples in the presence of 0.34 unit ddc from mouse kidney homogenate. The inhibitor exhibits an optimum activity at 50 mM NaCl, pH 6.5, is heat labile and is deactivated by boiling. After incubation of the placental homogenate with proteinase K, inhibitory activity is partially abolished, suggesting that a population of inhibitor molecules is embedded in the membrane.
-
apomorphine
-
inhibition in rat striatum
Benserazide
benzerazide
Escherichia coli phagocytosis is blocked by benzerazide, revealing the involvement of Ddc activity in phagocytosis
beta-phenylethylamine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
bromocryptine
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the D2-like receptor agonist
carbidopa
Cd2+
-
-
Chalcone derivatives
-
-
-
Clorgyline
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the dopamine receptor indirect agonist
D-5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
D-Dopa
-
-
D-Trp
-
-
D-tryptophan
-
non-competitive inhibitor
diethyldithiocarbamate
-
-
Difluoromethyldopa
-
-
Dithiobisnitrobenzoate
-
-
dithiothreitol
-
-
DL-alpha-Difluoromethyl-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
-
DL-alpha-Monofluoromethyl-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
DL-m-Tyr
Micrococcus percitreus
-
tryptamine formation
dopamine
EDTA
-
weak
epigallocatechin-3-gallate
-
direct inhibitory effect on both histidine decarboxylase and DOPA decarboxylase. Modeling of binding to the enzymes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate does not affect the quaternary structure of the enzyme and remains stable in the active site throughout the entire trajectory. After 700 ps of simulation, epigallocatechin-3-gallate moves deeper into the active site. While adopting this conformation, epigallocatechin-3-gallate actually fills the binding pocket and blocks its entrance pathway
epinephrine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
Ethynyl dopamine
-
-
Fe2+
-
enzyme from pharate pupae, no effect on the enzyme from white prepupae
Fluoromethyl dopamine
-
-
Hydroxycinnamic acid
-
-
hydroxylamine
Indole acetaldehyde
-
-
indole acetic acid
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
-
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
tryptamine formation
L-alpha-Methyl-alpha-hydrazino-3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid
-
-
L-alpha-methyl-Dopa
-
-
L-Dopa
L-mimosine
-
weak
L-Phe
Micrococcus percitreus
-
tryptamine formation
L-Tyr
Micrococcus percitreus
-
tryptamine formation
mercaptoethanol
-
-
mercuribenzoate
-
-
Methyldopa
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine
-
-
N-5'-Phosphopyridoxyl-L-dopa
-
-
N-acetyldopamine
N1-Seryl N2-(2,3,4-trihydroxybenzyl) hydrazine
-
-
NaN3
-
weak
norepinephrine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
NSD-1015
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid
-
-
Pargyline
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the dopamine receptor indirect agonist
Phenylthiourea
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
quinpirole
-
reduced AAAD activity in the striatum by chronic treatment with the D2-like receptor agonist
R-(+)-Amino-4,5-dihydroxy-1,2-7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene
-
-
-
Semicarbazide
serotonin
-
-
testosterone propionate
-
repetitive treatment of female mice with testosterone propionate for 2 weeks elicits a marked decrease in renal DCC activity
Thiosemicarbazide
-
-
Thiourea
-
-
tryptamine
tyramine
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
Vinyl dopamine
-
-
-
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
-
enhances activity
amantadine
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
Benzene
-
stimulates
budipine
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
cGMPdependent protein kinase Ialpha
phosphorylates and activates neuronal AAAD, maximal increase of activity is obtained at about 100-175 units during a 10 min incubation at 30C
-
Chloroform
-
stimulates
clonidine
-
drug acting on alpha adrenergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
clozapine
dextrometorphan
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
dithiothreitol
-
enhances activity
flupenthixol
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist; enhances activity in rat striatum
forskolin
-
intracerebroventricularly injection enhances the enzyme activity, a response, that can be blocked by selective inhibitors of protein kinase A
glutathione
-
enhances activity
haloperidol
ketanserin
-
drug acting on serotonerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
L-745,870
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
L-Dopa
-
L-DOPA treatment (20-200 microM) increases the levels of dopamine by 226%-504% after 3-6 h of treatment and enhances the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
mecamylamine
-
drug acting on cholinerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
memantine
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
metergoline
-
drug acting on serotonerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
MK-801
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
O2
-
required
phencyclidine
-
drug acting on glutamatergic receptor type enhances AAAD activity
phorbol-12,13-myristic acid
-
intracerebroventricularly injection enhances the enzyme activity, a response, that can be blocked by selective inhibitors of protein kinase A
pimozide
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
protein kinase A
-
phosphorylates and activates AAAD in vitro
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
remoxipride
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
SCH 23390
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the D1-like receptor antagonist
SKF 38393
-
enhanced AAAD activity in the striatum by chronic treatment with the D1-like receptor agonist
spiperone
sulpiride
-
enhanced AAAD activity by in the striatum by acute and chronic treatment with the D2-like receptor antagonist
Way 100635
-
drug acting on serotonerg receptor type enhances AAAD activity
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.95
2-fluoro-DOPA
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.039 - 3.3
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
3.35
5-fluoro-DOPA
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.049 - 0.49
5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan
0.066
5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
0.016 - 0.23
5-hydroxytryptophan
0.7
6-fluoro-DOPA
-
pH 6.8, 25C
0.00083 - 0.0505
dopamine
22
His
-
-
2.2 - 2.9
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
0.038 - 0.155
L-5-hydroxytryptophan
0.000095 - 4.27
L-Dopa
0.52
L-m-Tyr
-
-
0.12
L-o-Tyr
-
-
0.98
L-Phe
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
0.099 - 0.872
L-phenylalanine
0.0321
L-phenylalanyl-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
-
pH6.5-7.5, 37C
2.4
L-Trp
Micrococcus percitreus
-
-
0.049 - 2
L-tryptophan
0.0291
L-tryptophanyl-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
-
pH6.5-7.5, 37C
1 - 3.3
L-Tyr
0.084 - 1.064
L-tyrosine
20
Phe
-
-
3
Trp
-
-
13
Tyr
-
-
0.0351
Tyr-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin
-
pH6.5-7.5, 37C
additional information
additional information