Information on EC 2.6.1.1 - aspartate transaminase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.6.1.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
aspartate transaminase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
amino group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(R)-cysteate degradation
-
-
Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism
-
-
anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, cytosol)
-
-
Arginine and proline metabolism
-
-
Arginine biosynthesis
-
-
aspartate and asparagine metabolism
-
-
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
C4 and CAM-carbon fixation
-
-
C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type
-
-
C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, PEPCK type
-
-
Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms
-
-
coenzyme M biosynthesis
-
-
coenzyme M biosynthesis II
-
-
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
-
-
cysteine metabolism
-
-
gluconeogenesis
-
-
glutamate and glutamine metabolism
-
-
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
L-asparagine degradation III (mammalian)
-
-
L-aspartate biosynthesis
-
-
L-aspartate degradation I
-
-
L-aspartate degradation II
-
-
L-glutamate degradation II
-
-
L-phenylalanine degradation IV (mammalian, via side chain)
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-
Metabolic pathways
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Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
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-
Novobiocin biosynthesis
-
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partial TCA cycle (obligate autotrophs)
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Phenylalanine metabolism
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Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
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-
sulfolactate degradation III
-
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Tropane, piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. Also acts on L-tyrosine, L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan. Aspartate transaminase activity can be formed from the aromatic-amino-acid transaminase (EC 2.6.1.57) of Escherichia coli by controlled proteolysis [7], some EC 2.6.1.57 activity can be found in this enzyme from other sources [8]; indeed the enzymes are identical in Trichomonas vaginalis [6].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9000-97-9
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
2 major isozymes: Asp-DEAE-1 and Asp-DEAE-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isozymes; var. Lodi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YM-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YM-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 392
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 392
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cytosolic and mitochondrial isozymes; mongrel dogs
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 6145c
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 6145c
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cytosolic and mitochondrial isozyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cytosolic form I, and mitochondrial forms II and III
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
dolphin
cytosolic and mitochondrial isozyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzymes: AspAT-1, AspAT-2, AspAT-3
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isozymes: 2 cytosolic, 1 mitochondrial
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain R-4, ATCC 33500
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain R-4, ATCC 33500
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
4 isozymes: AST I , AST II, AST III, AST IV; camel tick
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leptosphaeria michotii
2 isozymes A and B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
grey mullet, Osteichthyes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isozymes: AAT1 and AAT2; cv. Estoril
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 cytosolic isozymes: AAT-P1 and AAT-P2; cv. Uniharvest
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 cytosolic isozymes: AAT-1 and AAT-2, the latter has the 3 forms AAT-2a, AAT-2b, AAT-2c
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isozymes; Jacq. var. trichoglume Eyles
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum SF-4
strain SF-4
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
at least 3 isozymes: inducible cytosolic cAspAT and mitochondrial mAspAT, and a constitutive minor plastidic pAspAT
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TAC 125
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TAC 125
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IFO 12996
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IFO 12996
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
clam, mollusca: Bivalvia
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SJ
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SJ
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MT4
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis candida
cytosolic and mitochondrial isozyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bushby strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bushby strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
a cold-sensitive mutant is generated by transposon mutagenesis. The mutated gene in CSM2 is identified as AAT. Complementation of AAT in CSM2 restores the original phenotype as in the wild-type cells
physiological function
involved in liver glyceroneogenesis
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2R,3R)-beta-chloroalanine + 2-mercaptoethanol
3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-cysteine + HCl
show the reaction diagram
(2R,3S)-beta-chloroalanine + 2-mercaptoethanol
(2R,3S)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-cysteine + HCl
show the reaction diagram
2,4-diaminobutyric acid + 2-oxoglutarate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-aminohexanedioic acid + 2-oxoglutarate
2-oxohexanedioic acid + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. alpha-aminoadipic acid
-
-
?
3-aminopropanesulfonate + 2-oxoglutarate
?
show the reaction diagram
glycine + 2-oxoglutarate
glyoxylate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
-
7.7% of the activity with aspartate
-
-
?
L-2-amino-4-methoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid + 2-oxoglutarate
4-methoxy-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes AAT1 and AAT2, the latter shows lower activity
-
-
?
L-2-amino-4-methoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid + oxaloacetate
4-methoxy-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid + L-aspartate
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes AAT1 and AAT2, low activity
-
-
?
L-alanine + 2-oxoglutarate
pyruvate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-asparagine + 2-oxoglutarate
4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
specific activity: 0.14 micromol/min/mg
-
-
?
L-aspartate + 2-oxobutyrate
oxaloacetate + 2-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
0.4% activity compared to 2-oxoglutarate
-
-
?
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate
oxaloacetate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-aspartate + 2-oxoisocaproate
oxaloacetate + L-leucine
show the reaction diagram
-
1.0% activity compared to 2-oxoglutarate
-
-
?
L-aspartate + 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate
oxaloacetate + L-tyrosine
show the reaction diagram
Torulopsis candida
-
1.48% of the activity with 2-oxoglutarate
-
-
?
L-aspartate + oxaloacetate
?
show the reaction diagram
relative activity compared to 2-oxoglutarate: 81.5%
-
-
?
L-aspartate + phenylpyruvate
oxaloacetate + L-phenylalanine
show the reaction diagram
L-aspartate + pyruvate
oxaloacetate + L-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
1.9% activity compared to 2-oxoglutarate
-
-
?
L-cysteate + 2-oxoglutarate
3-sulfopyruvate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-cysteate + oxaloacetate
?
show the reaction diagram
L-cysteate + pyruvate
?
show the reaction diagram
L-cysteic acid + 2-oxoglutarate
2-oxo-3-sulfopropionate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-cysteine + 2-oxoglutarate
2-oxopropionate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-cysteine sulfinic acid + 2-oxoglutarate
2-oxo-3-sulfinopropionic acid + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate + 2-oxoglutarate
erythro-3-hydroxy-2-oxoaspartate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamate + 2-oxoglutarate
2-oxoglutarate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-kynurenine + ?
kynurenic acid + ?
show the reaction diagram
L-Lys + 2-oxo-4-phenyl-butanoic acid
L-homophenylalanine + 2-keto-6-aminocaproate
show the reaction diagram
-
mutant enzyme R292E/L18H shows a 12.9fold increase in specific activity towards L-Lys and 2-oxo-4-phenylbutanoic acid
2-keto-6-aminocaproate is cyclized nonenzymatically to form DELTA1-piperideine 2-carboxylic acid in the reaction mixture. The low solubility of L-homophenylalanine and spontaneous cyclization of 2-keto-6-aminocaproate drive the reaction completely towards production of L-homophenylalanine
-
?
L-methionine + 2-oxoglutarate
L-glutamate + 4-methylsulfanyl-2-oxobutyric acid
show the reaction diagram
L-Phe + 2-oxoglutarate
2-oxo-3-phenylpropionic acid + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine + 2-oxoglutarate
2-oxo-3-phenylpropanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
specific activity: 0.28 micromol/min/mg
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine + 2-oxoglutarate
2-oxo-3-phenylpropionic acid + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-serine + 2-oxoglutarate
3-hydroxy-2-oxopropionic acid + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
-
7.7% of the activity with aspartate
-
-
?
L-tryptophan + 2-oxoglutarate
3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-2-oxopropanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
specific activity: 0.16 micromol/min/mg
-
-
?
L-tryptophan + 2-oxoglutarate
3-indole-2-oxopropionic acid + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxopropanoate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
specific activity: 0.24 micromol/min/mg
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + 2-oxoglutarate
3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxopropionic acid + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate
oxaloacetate + L-glutamate
show the reaction diagram
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate
additional information
-
active with 1-deazapyridoxal 5'-phosphate a synthetic pyridoxal 5'-phosphate analogue
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
CaCl2
1 mM relative activity: 115.5%
CoCl2
1 mM relative activity: 122.1%
CuSO4
1 mM relative activity: 84.3%
EDTA
1 mM relative activity: 106.4%
MgCl2
1 mM relative activity: 96.9%
Mn2+
-
activation, isozyme AST II
MnSO4
1 mM relative activity: 90.1%
ZnSO4
1 mM relative activity: 99.7%
additional information
-
cytosolic isozyme, no metal ion requirement
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(S)-4-amino-4,5-dihydro-2-furancarboxylic acid
crystal structures of the Escherichi coli aspartate aminotransferase with (S)-4-amino-4,5-dihydro-2-furancarboxylic acid bound to the active site are obtained via cocrystallization at pH 7.5 and 8. The complex structures suggest that (S)-4-amino-4,5-dihydro-2-furancarboxylic acid inhibits the transamination reaction by forming adducts with the catalytic lysine 246 via a covalent bond while producing 1 equivalent of pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate
-
2-methyl-DL-aspartate
binds to the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate form of the enzyme, formation of an external aldimine complex
2-oxoglutaconate
2-oxoglutaconic acid dimethyl ester
-
15% inhibition at 25C, pH 7.0, 10 mM, after 2 h; pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzyme form, cytosolic isozyme
2-oxoglutarate
adipate
alpha-aminoadipate
-
IC50: 1.5 mM
aminoguanidine
-
competes with the enzyme for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, forms complexes with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, 70% enzyme inhibition at 1 mM
aminooxyacetic acid hemihydrochloride
aspartate
-
IC50: 0.3 mM
Ca2+
-
AST II
chymoptrypsin
-
cytosolic isozyme at 1 mg/ml, no inhibition of mitochondrial isozyme
-
fumarate
gamma-Acetylenic GABA
-
-
glutamate
-
IC50: 0.9 mM
Glutarate
Hadacidin
-
i.e. N-formylhydroxyaminoacetic acid
hydroxylamine
inhibition of PfAspAT abolishes all glutamate oxaloacetate transamination activity in the cytoplasm of cultured parasites, demonstrating that no other enzyme within the cytoplasm can complement PfAspAT activity
isocitrate
-
-
isonicotinic acid hydrazine
L-2-amino-5-methoxy-5-oxopentanoic acid
-
only isozyme AAT2, competitive against L-asparate
L-aspartate
L-Cycloserine
-
cytosolic isozyme, weak inhibition only after 24 h incubation, 1 mM
L-cysteic acid
-
competitive
L-cysteine
-
10 mM, 30% inactivation
L-cysteine sulfinic acid
-
weak, competitive to 2-oxoglutarate
L-cysteinic acid
-
-
L-glutamate
L-glutamine
-
-
L-histidine
-
; inhibition is relieved by high concentrations of substrates
L-serine O-sulfate
-
inhibition of cytosolic enzyme, no inhibition of mitochondrial enzyme
malate
Maleate
Methylacetimidate
-
complete inhibition at 50 mM
Mg2+
-
AST II
MgCl2
-
2 mM
N-5'-phosphopyridoxyl L-aspartate
-
cofactor analogue binds covalently to the enzyme
N-ethylmaleimide
-
alkylation of cysteine residues
Ni2+
-
AST II
oxaloacetate
p-chloromercuribenzoate
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
palmitate
-
0.1 mM
phosphate
-
inhibition of cofactor binding to the apoenzyme, cytosolic and mitochondrial isozymes
potassium phosphate
-
-
Pro
-
hyperprolinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by severe deficiency of enzyme DELTA1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid dehydrogenase leading to tissue accumulation of proline. Proline has direct inhibitory effect on aspartate transaminase activity of different brain regions leading to lesser synthesis of glutamate thereby causing neurological dysfunctions
proteinase K
-
both cytosolic and mitochondrial isozymes
-
quisqualate
-
6 mM, 90% inhibition
Sodium mersalyl
-
cytosolic isozyme, 40% inhibition after 60 min at 5 mM and 30C
Subtilisin
-
only cytosolic isozyme
-
succinate
Thiosemicarbazide
-
-
Trypsin
-
weak inhibition of mitochondrial isozyme
-
Zn2+
-
AST II
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
aconitate
-
activating effect on the activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme form
ethanol
-
binge ethanol treatment causes significant increase in blood plasma AST activity
malate
-
5 mM
rosiglitazone
-
10 nM, stimulates activity
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.77 - 0.86
2-oxo-4-phenyl-butanoic acid
0.007 - 6.9
2-oxoglutarate
4.1 - 20.3
L-2-amino-4-methoxy-4-oxobutanoic acid
3.5 - 140
L-alanine
29
L-Asp
-
pH 8, mutant enzyme A12T/P13T/N34D/T109S/G261A/S285G/A293D/N297S
0.09 - 37
L-aspartate
2.05
L-cysteine sulfinic acid
-
pH 8.5, 60C, recombinant enzyme
0.5 - 37
L-glutamate
0.724
L-kynurenine
-
at pH 7.4
105 - 189
L-Lys
6.9 - 56
L-methionine
0.3
L-Phe
-
pH 8, mutant enzyme A12T/P13T/N34D/T109S/G261A/S285G/A293D/N297S
1.1 - 6.6
L-phenylalanine
2.3 - 5
L-tryptophan
1.43 - 1.6
L-tyrosine
0.01 - 2.45
oxaloacetate
0.00025
pyridoxyl 5'-phosphate
-
pH 7.6, 25C
additional information
additional information