Information on EC 1.1.1.37 - malate dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.1.1.37
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
malate dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(S)-malate + NAD+ = oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
also oxidizes some other 2-hydroxydicarboxylic acids
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
anaerobic energy metabolism (invertebrates, cytosol)
-
-
aspartate and asparagine metabolism
-
-
Biosynthesis of antibiotics
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
C4 and CAM-carbon fixation
-
-
C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation cycle, NAD-ME type
-
-
Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms
-
-
Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes
-
-
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
-
-
citric acid cycle
-
-
Cysteine and methionine metabolism
-
-
formaldehyde assimilation I (serine pathway)
-
-
gluconeogenesis I
-
-
gluconeogenesis III
-
-
Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
-
-
glyoxylate cycle
-
-
incomplete reductive TCA cycle
-
-
L-aspartate degradation II
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Methane metabolism
-
-
methylaspartate cycle
-
-
Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
-
-
mixed acid fermentation
-
-
pyruvate fermentation to propanoate I
-
-
Pyruvate metabolism
-
-
reductive TCA cycle I
-
-
reductive TCA cycle II
-
-
superpathway of glyoxylate cycle and fatty acid degradation
-
-
TCA cycle I (prokaryotic)
-
-
TCA cycle II (plants and fungi)
-
-
TCA cycle III (animals)
-
-
TCA cycle IV (2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase)
-
-
TCA cycle V (2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase)
-
-
TCA cycle VI (obligate autotrophs)
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(S)-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Also oxidizes some other 2-hydroxydicarboxylic acids.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
(R)-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
(S)-malate dehydrogenase
-
-
cMDH
Q3S893
-
cMDH
-
-
cMDH
-
cytosolic isoenzyme
cMDH
F1C7I4
-
cMDH -S
Q90YZ9
-
cMDH-L
Q90YZ8
-
cyMDH
A3DSX0
-
cytosolic malate dehydrogenase
A3DSX0
-
cytosolic malate dehydrogenase
-
-
cytosolic malate dehydrogenase
F1C7I4
-
cytosolic MDH
-
-
cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase
A3DSX0
-
halophilic malate dehydrogenase
Q07841
-
L-malate dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
L-malate dehydrogenase
-
-
L-malate-NAD oxidoreductase
-
-
L-malate: NAD oxidoreductase
-
-
L-malate:NAD-oxidoreductase
A3DSX0
-
m-MDH
Q8X1C8
-
m-MDH
-
-
malate (NAD) dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
malate dehydrogenase
-
-
malate dehydrogenase
P61889
-
malate dehydrogenase
Pontonia pinnophylax
-
-
malate dehydrogenase
-
-
malate dehydrogenase
P22133
-
malate dehydrogenase
-
-
malate dehydrogenase (NAD)
-
-
-
-
malate dehydrogenase 1
-
-
malate dehydrogenase 2
Q6B4U5, Q6GR58
-
malate: NAD oxidoreductase
-
-
MalDH
Haloarcula marismortui DSM 3752
Q07841
-
-
malic acid dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
malic dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
mbNAD-MDH
-
-
-
-
MDH
Beggiatoa leptomitiformis D-402
-
-
-
MDH
P61889
-
MDH
Mucor circinelloides f. lusitanicus INMI
-
-
-
MDH
Pontonia pinnophylax
-
-
MDH
Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2R
-
-
-
MDH
Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680
-
-
-
MDH
-
-
MDH A
-
isoform
MDH B1
-
isoform
MDH B2
-
isoform
Mdh2a
Q6B4U5
-
Mdh2b
Q6GR58
-
mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
-
mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase
Q4VVC2
-
mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase
-
-
mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase
-
-
mitochondrial MDH
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
-
mMDH
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
-
mMDH
Q4VVC2
-
mMDH
-
-
mMDH
Q90YZ7
mitochondrial isoenzyme
mMDH
-
-
mMDH
-
mitochondrial isoenzyme
NAD+-dependent malate dehydrogenase
-
-
NAD+-dependent MDH
-
-
NAD+-MDH enzymes
-
-
NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
NAD-dependent malic dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
NAD-dependent MDH
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
-
NAD-L-malate dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
NAD-linked malate dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
NAD-malate dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
NAD-malic dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
NAD-MDH
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
-
NAD-specific malate dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
peroxisomal NAD+-malate dehydrogenase 1
-
-
peroxisomal NAD+-malate dehydrogenase 2
-
-
regulatory subunit of nucleic acid-conducting channel
-
-
TaMDH
A3KLL4
-
VEG69
-
-
-
-
Vegetative protein 69
-
-
-
-
YlMdh2p
Q6C5X9
-
[LDH-like] MDH
-
-
mNAD-MDH
-
-
-
-
additional information
-
MDH belongs to the superfamily of 2-ketoacid NAD(P)+-dependent dehydrogenases
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9001-64-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pineapple, cv. Havaiano
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mMDH1; isozymes mMDH1 and mMDH2, eight genes encoding isoforms of NAD-dependent MDH
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mMDH2; isozymes mMDH1 and mMDH2, eight genes encoding isoforms of NAD-dependent MDH
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the Arabidopsis genome encodes eight putative NAD+-MDH enzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B60
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Aspergillus niger B60
strain B60
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
moderate thermophile, designated BI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Beggiatoa leptomitiformis D-402
strain D-402
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bovine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3I1B-143 bacteroids
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bryophyllum calycinum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
lemon fruit
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coccochloris peniocystis
no. 1548
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coccochloris peniocystis 1548
no. 1548
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Stanier strain 78, ATCC 11996
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NC4 (ATCC 24697)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Dictyostelium discoideum NC4
strain NC4 (ATCC 24697)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Drosophila melanogaster Oregon K
Oregon K
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Texmelucan
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Drosophila virilis Texmelucan
Texmelucan
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
horse
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene mdh
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain K-12
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MG1655, gene mdh
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli MG1655
strain MG1655, gene mdh
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Euglena gracilis SM-ZK
SM-ZK
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
brown shrimp
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1
strain KUC-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1
strain KUC-1
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Duch. cv. Elsanta
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
N.C.A 1503, N.C.A. 1518 Ra2, 2184
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soybean, Williams 79 cultivar
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Haloarcula marismortui DSM 3752
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Halobacterium salinarum NRC 36014
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoforms A1, A2 and B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine snail
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
N.C.I.B. 10486
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Laceyella sacchari NCIB 10486
N.C.I.B. 10486
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D-405
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Macromonas bipunctata D-405
strain D-405
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; gene MdcyMDH
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Orin apple
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type strain JF1, strain GP1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Methanospirillum hungatei GPI
strain GPI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2D2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 5710
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2D2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 5710
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mucor circinelloides f. lusitanicus INMI
strain INMI
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
H37Rv, H37Ra, BCG
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine diatom
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Chromatium sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Mycobacterium fortuitum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Mycobacterium smegmatis 607
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
lamb
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type strain NRRL 1555 (-)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pontonia pinnophylax
inhabiting the mantle cavity of host Pinna nobilis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; a hyperthermophilic archaeon, strain DSM 4184
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
m-MDH chromosomal DNA sequence
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase cDNA sequence
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
rat; Sprague-Dawley
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
Sprague-Dawley
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B100; formerly Rhodopseudomonas capsulata
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B100; formerly Rhodopseudomonas capsulata; strain 37b4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 37b, strain number DSM 938
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodobacter capsulatus 37b4
strain 37b4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodobacter capsulatus B100
B100
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2R
strain 2R
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodocyclus purpureus 6770
strain 6770
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodomicrobium vannielii EY33
strain EY33
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodopseudomonas palustris f8pt
strain f8pt
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodospirillum rubrum 1.1.1
strain 1.1.1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
castor bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mdh2; isozyme Mdh2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
This UniProt-ID has been deleted; isozyme Mdh1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DSM 13855
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
salmon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
salmonid fish
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme cMDH-L; Pelican barracuda
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme cMDH-S; Pelican barracuda
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme mMDH; Pelican barracuda
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 6803 CF
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Synechocystis sp. 6803 CF
strain 6803 CF
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
N.C.I.B. 11185
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermobifida fusca NCIB 11185
N.C.I.B. 11185
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YT-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus aquaticus B
strain B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus aquaticus YT-1
strain YT-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type enzyme and mutant EX7 (with altered coenzyme specificity from NADH towards NADPH)
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus thermophilus AT-62
AT-62
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TV 10-02, strain Tv-1961, strain Tv-1973
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. H4564
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
black gram, mung bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Viola sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene YlMDH2; several strains, overview, gene YALI0E14190g or YlMDH2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme YlMDH1; gene YALI0D16753g or YlMDH1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
corn
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zea mays Goldener Badischer Landmais
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zea mays VA35
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
-
the plasma membrane-associated isozyme belongs belongs to the lactate dehydrogenase/MDH superfamily, MDH type 2 family
evolution
Q6C5X9, Q6C8V3
the three different enzyme forms in cytosol, peroxisome and mitochondrion are encoded by three different genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but by only two genes in Yarrowia lipolytica, where the second gene is differentiated into cytosolic and peroxisomal isozymes by alternative splicing, overview
evolution
Zea mays Goldener Badischer Landmais
-
the plasma membrane-associated isozyme belongs belongs to the lactate dehydrogenase/MDH superfamily, MDH type 2 family
-
malfunction
Q6C5X9, Q6C8V3
absence of either the peroxisomal or the cytosolic form of the MDH does not affect growth rate, irrespective of the carbon source
malfunction
-
exposure of maize plants to excess concentrations of Zn2+ and Cu2+ in the hydroponic solution inhibited lateral root growth, decreased malate dehydrogenase activity and changed isoform profiles
malfunction
-
knockdown of MDH1 in young human dermal fibroblasts and the IMR90 human fibroblast cell line results in the appearance of significant cellular senescence features, including senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining, flattened and enlarged morphology, increased population doubling time, and elevated p16INK4A and p21CIP1 protein levels. The NAD/NADH ratio is decreased by 90% in MDH1 knockdown dermal fibroblasts but only by about 30% in MDH2 knockdown dermal fibroblasts
physiological function
A3DSX0
cyMDH is an enzyme crucial for malate synthesis in the cytosol. Involvement of MdcyMDH directly in malate synthesis and indirectly in malate accumulation through the regulation of genes/enzymes associated with malate degradation and transportation, gluconeogenesis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
physiological function
A3DSX0
cyMDH is an enzyme crucial for malic acid synthesis in the cytosol. Role of the apple cyMDH gene in growth and tolerance to cold and salt stresses. cyMDH was sensitive to cold and salt stresses. cyMDH overexpression favourably contributes to cell and plant growth and confers stress tolerance in the apple
physiological function
-
MDH is an essential enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Inhibition of mMDH activity affects cell energy production, probably leading to the inhibition of proliferation. Inhibition of mMDH activity by DIF-1 and 2-MIDIF-1 can be one of the mechanisms to induce anti-proliferative effects, independent of the inhibition of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway
physiological function
Q9K3J3
mitochondrial and cytosolic MDH isozymes are required for maintaining the balance of NAD+ and NADH in mitochondria and cytosol
physiological function
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
mMDH has a role in maximizing photorespiratory rate. The slow-growing mmdh1mmdh2 mutant has elevated leaf respiration rate in the dark and light, without loss of photosynthetic capacity, suggesting that mMDH normally uses NADH to reduce oxaloacetate to malate, which is then exported to the cytosol, rather than to drive mitochondrial respiration. Increased respiratory rate in leaves can account in part for the low net CO2 assimilation and slow growth rate of mmdh1mmdh2. Loss of mMDH also affects photorespiration with alterations in CO2 assimilation/intercellular CO2 at low CO2, and the light-dependent elevated concentration of photorespiratory metabolites
physiological function
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
mMDH has a role in maximizing the photorespiratory rate. The slow-growing mmdh1mmdh2 mutant has elevated leaf respiration rate in the dark and light, without loss of photosynthetic capacity, suggesting that mMDH normally uses NADH to reduce oxaloacetate to malate, which is then exported to the cytosol, rather than to drive mitochondrial respiration. Increased respiratory rate in leaves can account in part for the low net CO2 assimilation and slow growth rate of mmdh1mmdh2. Loss of mMDH also affects photorespiration with alterations in CO2 assimilation/intercellular CO2 at low CO2, and the light-dependent elevated concentration of photorespiratory metabolites
physiological function
-
besides its function in malate synthesis, MDH is responsible for the exchange of reducing equivalents between metabolic pathways in distinct cell compartments
physiological function
A3DSX0
cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase is an enzyme crucial for malate synthesis in the cytosol
physiological function
-
MDH1 plays a critical role in the cellular senescence of human fibroblasts. MDH1 is the major regulator of the cofactor NAD, the loss of which induces cellular senescence
physiological function
Zea mays Goldener Badischer Landmais
-
besides its function in malate synthesis, MDH is responsible for the exchange of reducing equivalents between metabolic pathways in distinct cell compartments
-
malfunction
Zea mays VA35
-
exposure of maize plants to excess concentrations of Zn2+ and Cu2+ in the hydroponic solution inhibited lateral root growth, decreased malate dehydrogenase activity and changed isoform profiles
-
additional information
-
inverse correlation between mMDH and ascorbate content
additional information
-
mMDH inhibition is of minor relevance for the growth inhibition caused by paullones
additional information
-
a significant decrease of both mass and elongation of maize roots and shoots, as well as loss of root turgor and completely repressed lateral root growth were demonstrated in 0.1 mM Cu2+ and 5 mM Zn2+ treatments, overview
additional information
Q6C5X9, Q6C8V3
possible role for alternative splicing in the regulation of MDH compartmentalization in this yeast, gene YlMDH2 encodes the cytosolic and peroxisomal forms of MDH
additional information
Zea mays VA35
-
a significant decrease of both mass and elongation of maize roots and shoots, as well as loss of root turgor and completely repressed lateral root growth were demonstrated in 0.1 mM Cu2+ and 5 mM Zn2+ treatments, overview
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2S,3S)-tartrate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2S,3S)-tartrate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-2-hydroxyglutarate + NAD+
2-oxoglutarate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
oxidized at an extremely slow rate, less than 0.001% of the rate of L-malate oxidation
-
-
r
(S)-malate + 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide
oxaloacetate + reduced 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
can also use 3-acetylpyridine-adenine as cofactor
-
-
r
(S)-malate + acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
oxaloacetate + reduced acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
show the reaction diagram
Q6VVP7
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD(P)+
oxaloacetate + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P22133
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q9K3J3
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
Q9ZF99
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Bryophyllum calycinum
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q6VVP7
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q8NN33
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q7X3X5
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
A3KLL4
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q25QU7
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Pontonia pinnophylax
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q07841
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q4VVC2
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
B8R5H0
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
B8R5H3
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
B8R5H2
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
B8R5G9
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
B8R5G8
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
B8R5H1
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
A3DSX0
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q6C5X9, Q6C8V3
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
F1C7I4
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
mitochondrial enzyme form mMDH functions in citric acid cycle and in the malate-aspartate shuttle
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
O15769
mitochondrial enzyme, Krebs cycle
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
NAD+ binds first to the enzyme and then oxaloacetate is consequently released randomly via an ordered via an ordered bi-bi mechanism
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity in this direction
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q25QU7
malate dehydrogenase is an oligomeric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate in the presence of NAD+, MDH is an essential metabolic enzyme in the citric acid cycle
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q4VVC2
the NAD-dependent mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase plays pivotal roles in tricarboxylic acid and is crucial for the survival and pathogenecity of parasites
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
the peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase functions in beta-oxidation, serving to reoxidize NADH, but not in the glyoxylate cycle
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Pontonia pinnophylax
-
enzyme activity and electrophoretic pattern of MDH and lactate dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.27, compared in relation to heat and urea inactivation, overview
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P22133
mitochondrial isozyme Mdh1 preferably catalyzes the oxaloacetate formation, overview
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P61889
residues I12, R81, M85, G210, and V214 determine the enzyme's substrate specificity
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P22133
the cytoplasmic isozyme Mdh2 catalyzes preferably the malate formation, overview
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific for oxaloacetate and malate
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
the envelope- and plasma membrane-bound NAD-MDH exhibit the highest affinities for OAA, leaf plasma membrane-bound MDH exhibits a high capacity for both reaction directions (malate oxidation and oxaloacetate reduction), while the two chloroplast isoforms (stromal and envelope-bound) preferentially reduce oxaloacetate
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q9K3J3
the reverse reaction is highly preferred, with a 1050fold higher kcat/Km value
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
1246fold preference for oxaloacetate reduction over L-malate oxidation
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
O08349
the reduction of oxaloacetate with NADH is preferred. Malate is oxidized by NAD+ at 10% of the maximal velocity for the reduction of oxaloacetate with NADH. No oxidation of malate with NADP+ as coenzyme
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter capsulatus B100
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila melanogaster Oregon K
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680
-
1246fold preference for oxaloacetate reduction over L-malate oxidation
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Mucor circinelloides f. lusitanicus INMI
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodomicrobium vannielii EY33
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Beggiatoa leptomitiformis D-402
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus YT-1
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger B60
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila virilis Texmelucan
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Synechocystis sp. 6803 CF
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Zea mays Goldener Badischer Landmais
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Dictyostelium discoideum NC4
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodospirillum rubrum 1.1.1
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Thermus thermophilus AT-62
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter capsulatus 37b4
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1
-
NAD+ binds first to the enzyme and then oxaloacetate is consequently released randomly via an ordered via an ordered bi-bi mechanism
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodocyclus purpureus 6770
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Thermobifida fusca NCIB 11185
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Coccochloris peniocystis 1548
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus B
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Laceyella sacchari NCIB 10486
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Zea mays VA35
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis SM-ZK
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2R
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
acetate + CO2 + H2 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NADP+
oxaloacetate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q8NN33
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NADP+
oxaloacetate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Flavobacterium frigidimaris, Flavobacterium frigidimaris KUC-1
-
-
-
-
ir
1,4,5,6-tetrahydronicotinamide + L-malate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-oxobutyrate + NADH
2-hydroxybutyrate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide + L-malate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-bromopyruvate + NADH
3-bromo-2-hydroxypropanoate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O24047
about 10% of the activity with oxaloacetate at pH 6.8
-
-
?
alpha-keto-malonate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
alpha-keto-malonate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-keto-malonate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alpha-keto-malonate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
alpha-keto-malonate + NADH
? + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
reduced by m-MDH with half of the turnover number observed with oxaloacetate
-
-
?
alpha-ketoglutarate + NADH
2-hydroxyglutarate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O24047
about 10% of the activity with oxaloacetate at pH 6.8 and at pH 8.2
-
-
?
alpha-ketoisovalerate + NADH
2-hydroxyisovalerate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O24047
about 10% of the activity with oxaloacetate at pH 8.2
-
-
?
alpha-ketomalonate + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
Q6VVP7
-
-
-
?
citrate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
hydroxymalonate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
hydroxymalonate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
tartronic acid
-
-
r
L-lactate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
cMDH less catalytically efficient than against its natural substrate malate
-
-
?
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
Q9ZF99
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Bryophyllum calycinum
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Q6VVP7
-
-
-
-
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
A3KLL4
-
-
-
-
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter capsulatus B100
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila melanogaster Oregon K
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodomicrobium vannielii EY33
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus YT-1
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger B60
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila virilis Texmelucan
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Synechocystis sp. 6803 CF
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Dictyostelium discoideum NC4
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodospirillum rubrum 1.1.1
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Thermus thermophilus AT-62
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter capsulatus 37b4
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodocyclus purpureus 6770
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Thermobifida fusca NCIB 11185
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Coccochloris peniocystis 1548
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus B
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Laceyella sacchari NCIB 10486
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis SM-ZK
-
-
-
-
r
meso-tartrate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
meso-tartrate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
nicotinamide 1-N6-ethenoadenine dinucleotide + L-malate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide + L-malate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
P80040
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
Q9ZF99
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Bryophyllum calycinum
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O24047
the ratio of oxaloacetate reduction to malate oxidation is 28.4
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter capsulatus B100
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila melanogaster Oregon K
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodomicrobium vannielii EY33
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus YT-1
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger B60
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila virilis Texmelucan
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Methanospirillum hungatei GPI
-
-
-
-
ir
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Synechocystis sp. 6803 CF
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Dictyostelium discoideum NC4
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodospirillum rubrum 1.1.1
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Thermus thermophilus AT-62
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter capsulatus 37b4
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodocyclus purpureus 6770
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Thermobifida fusca NCIB 11185
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Coccochloris peniocystis 1548
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus B
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Laceyella sacchari NCIB 10486
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis SM-ZK
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O15769
cytosolic enzyme and glycosomal enzyme
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O15769
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Q0QW09
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
F1C7I4
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O08349
the reduction of oxaloacetate with NADH is preferred. Malate is oxidized by NAD+ at 10% of the maximal velocity for the reduction of oxaloacetate with NADH. Maximal activity with NADPH is 10% compared to the activity with NADH
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodopseudomonas palustris f8pt
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Zea mays Goldener Badischer Landmais
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Halobacterium salinarum NRC 36014
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Macromonas bipunctata D-405
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Haloarcula marismortui DSM 3752
Q07841
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Haloarcula marismortui DSM 3752
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD
show the reaction diagram
Haloarcula marismortui, Haloarcula marismortui DSM 3752
-
-
-
-
?
oxaloglycolate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate + NADH + H+
2-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate
show the reaction diagram
O15769
-
-
-
?
phenylpyruvate + NADH
2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O24047
about 30% of the activity with oxaloacetate at pH 8.2
-
-
?
phenylpyruvate + NADH + H+
2-hydroxy-3-phenylpropanoate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O15769
-
-
-
?
pyridine 3-aldehyde adenine dinucleotide + L-malate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
pyruvate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
cMDH less catalytically efficient than against its natural substrate malate
-
-
?
pyruvate + NADH
2-hydroxypropanoate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O24047
about 25% of the activity with oxaloacetate at pH 8.2
-
-
?
pyruvate + NADH + H+
(S)-lactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
wild-type enzyme shows no activity with pyruvate. Mutant enzyme R100Q has considerably higher specificity for pyruvate than for oxaloacetate
-
-
?
pyruvate + NADH + H+
(S)-lactate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Haloarcula marismortui DSM 3752
Q07841
wild-type enzyme shows no activity with pyruvate. Mutant enzyme R100Q has considerably higher specificity for pyruvate than for oxaloacetate
-
-
?
thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide + L-malate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
meso-tartrate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
slightly oxidized, 0.82 of the rate for L-malate oxidation
-
-
r
additional information
?
-
-
D-malate, (+)-tartrate, succinate and L-aspartate are not oxidized
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
D-malate, L-tartarate, D-tartarate, hydroxymalonate, dihydroxyfumarate, L-lactate, D-lactate Dl-alpha-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate, alpha-hydroxypyruvate, alpha-ketoisovalerate and alpha-ketoglutarate are no substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle supplying organic acids as the main source of carbon but not energy
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O24047
the enzyme plays a central role in Crassulacean acid metabolism, less than 10% of the activity with oxaloacetate with the substrates: alpha-ketobutyrate, alpha-ketoisocaproate, alpha-ketovalerate and alpha-ketomethylvalerate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the dimeric isoform of the enzyme is responsible for Krebs cycle function and the tetrameric isoform is involved in functioning of the glyoxylate cycle
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P22133
the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle components are metabolic longevity regulators required for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in yeast, the shuttle plays a major role in the activation of the downstream targets of calorie restriction such as Sir2, mechanism and regulation, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
MDH1 stabilizes and transactivates p53 protein by binding to p53-responsive elements in the promotor of downstream genes, MDH1 directly regulates p53-dependent apoptosis upon glucose deprivation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PMDH activity is not essential for photosynthesis in air in Arabidopsis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the dimeric 74-kDa isozyme is involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, while the tetrameric 148-kDa isozyme takes part in the citramalate pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the recombinant SaMDH may also use NADPH as a cofactor although it is a highly NAD(H)-specific enzyme. No activity with malate and NADP+ as substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
F1C7I4
no substrate: lactate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Rhodopseudomonas palustris f8pt
-
the dimeric isoform of the enzyme is responsible for Krebs cycle function and the tetrameric isoform is involved in functioning of the glyoxylate cycle
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680
-
the recombinant SaMDH may also use NADPH as a cofactor although it is a highly NAD(H)-specific enzyme. No activity with malate and NADP+ as substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Beggiatoa leptomitiformis D-402
-
the enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle supplying organic acids as the main source of carbon but not energy
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2R
-
the dimeric 74-kDa isozyme is involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, while the tetrameric 148-kDa isozyme takes part in the citramalate pathway
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(S)-malate + 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide
oxaloacetate + reduced 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
can also use 3-acetylpyridine-adenine as cofactor
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD(P)+
oxaloacetate + NAD(P)H
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P22133
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q9K3J3
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Pontonia pinnophylax
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q07841
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
A3DSX0
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q6C5X9, Q6C8V3
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
F1C7I4
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
mitochondrial enzyme form mMDH functions in citric acid cycle and in the malate-aspartate shuttle
-
-
?
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
O15769
mitochondrial enzyme, Krebs cycle
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q25QU7
malate dehydrogenase is an oligomeric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate in the presence of NAD+, MDH is an essential metabolic enzyme in the citric acid cycle
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q4VVC2
the NAD-dependent mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase plays pivotal roles in tricarboxylic acid and is crucial for the survival and pathogenecity of parasites
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
the peroxisomal malate dehydrogenase functions in beta-oxidation, serving to reoxidize NADH, but not in the glyoxylate cycle
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific for oxaloacetate and malate
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Zea mays Goldener Badischer Landmais
-
-
-
-
r
(S)-malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Zea mays VA35
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
P61889
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
Q9ZF99
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Bryophyllum calycinum
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter capsulatus B100
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila melanogaster Oregon K
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodomicrobium vannielii EY33
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus YT-1
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Aspergillus niger B60
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila virilis Texmelucan
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Synechocystis sp. 6803 CF
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Dictyostelium discoideum NC4
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodospirillum rubrum 1.1.1
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Thermus thermophilus AT-62
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter capsulatus 37b4
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodocyclus purpureus 6770
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Thermobifida fusca NCIB 11185
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Coccochloris peniocystis 1548
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus B
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Laceyella sacchari NCIB 10486
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH
L-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
-
-
-
?
oxaloacetate + NADH
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
O15769
cytosolic enzyme and glycosomal enzyme
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
F1C7I4
-
-
-
r
oxaloacetate + NADH + H+
(S)-malate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Zea mays Goldener Badischer Landmais
-
-
-
-
r
malate + NAD+
oxaloacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis SM-ZK
-
-
-
-
r
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle supplying organic acids as the main source of carbon but not energy
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O24047
the enzyme plays a central role in Crassulacean acid metabolism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the dimeric isoform of the enzyme is responsible for Krebs cycle function and the tetrameric isoform is involved in functioning of the glyoxylate cycle
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P22133
the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle components are metabolic longevity regulators required for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in yeast, the shuttle plays a major role in the activation of the downstream targets of calorie restriction such as Sir2, mechanism and regulation, detailed overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
MDH1 stabilizes and transactivates p53 protein by binding to p53-responsive elements in the promotor of downstream genes, MDH1 directly regulates p53-dependent apoptosis upon glucose deprivation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
PMDH activity is not essential for photosynthesis in air in Arabidopsis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the dimeric 74-kDa isozyme is involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, while the tetrameric 148-kDa isozyme takes part in the citramalate pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Rhodopseudomonas palustris f8pt
-
the dimeric isoform of the enzyme is responsible for Krebs cycle function and the tetrameric isoform is involved in functioning of the glyoxylate cycle
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Beggiatoa leptomitiformis D-402
-
the enzyme is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle supplying organic acids as the main source of carbon but not energy
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2R
-
the dimeric 74-kDa isozyme is involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, while the tetrameric 148-kDa isozyme takes part in the citramalate pathway
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
F1C7I4
about 30% of the activity with NADH
NAD+
-
can not be replaced by NADP+
NAD+
-
purified enzyme shows activity with both coenzymes
NAD+
-
NADP+ does not serve as a coenzyme
NAD+
-
no detectable activity with NADP+
NAD+
A3KLL4
-
NAD+
Q7X3X5
-
NAD+
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
-
NAD+
-
the relative activity for NAD+ to that of NADP+ is about 43.9%. pro-R stereospecificity for hydrogen transfer at the C4 position of the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme
NAD+
Q25QU7
dependent on
NAD+
-
dependent on; preferred cofactor
NAD+
P22133
dependent on; dependent on
NAD+
Pontonia pinnophylax
-
-
NAD+
Q4VVC2
dependent on
NAD+
-
dependent on
NAD+
B8R5G8
-
NAD+
B8R5H1
-
NAD+
B8R5G9
-
NAD+
B8R5H3
-
NAD+
B8R5H2
-
NAD+
-
dependent on
NAD+
Q9K3J3
dependent on and specific for
NAD+
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
;
NAD+
P11386
the binding domain for NAD(H) is localized at the N-terminal part of the polypeptide chain
NAD+
Q6C5X9, Q6C8V3
;
NAD+
O08349
no oxidation of malate with NADP+ as coenzyme
NADH
-
A-side stereospecificity
NADH
A3KLL4
-
NADH
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
-
NADH
Q7X3X5
-
NADH
Q8NN33
almost equally active both for NADH and NADPH on the bases of the turnover number values at pH 6.5, which is optimal for both coenzymes
NADH
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
-
NADH
-
pro-R stereospecificity for hydrogen transfer at the C4 position of the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme
NADH
Q25QU7
dependent on
NADH
P61889
-
NADH
-
dependent on; preferred cofactor
NADH
P22133
dependent on; dependent on
NADH
Pontonia pinnophylax
-
-
NADH
Q4VVC2
dependent on
NADH
-
dependent on
NADH
Q9K3J3
dependent on and specific for
NADH
Q9LKA3, Q9ZP06
;
NADH
P11386
the binding domain for NAD(H) is localized at the N-terminal part of the polypeptide chain
NADH
O08349
maximal activity with NADPH is 10% compared to the activity with NADH
NADH
F1C7I4
; specific for NADH
NADP+
-
purified enzyme shows activity with both coenzymes
NADP+
-
low activity with
NADP+
-
the relative activity for NAD+ to that of NADP+ is about 43.9%. No activity with NADPH
NADP+
-
10% of the activity with NAD+
NADPH
-
A-side stereospecificity
NADPH
Q8NN33
almost equally active both for NADH and NADPH on the bases of the turnover number values at pH 6.5, which is optimal for both coenzymes
NADPH
P10584
mutant EX7 with altered coenzyme specificity from NADH towards NADPH
NADPH
-
10% of the activity with NADH; less than 10% of maximal activity with NADH
NADPH
O08349
maximal activity with NADPH is 10% compared to the activity with NADH
3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide
-
-
additional information
A3KLL4
no detectable activity with NADPH and NADP+
-
additional information
Q6VVP7
cannot use NADP+ and NADPH as cofactor
-
additional information
-
no activity with malate and NADP+
-
additional information
Q4VVC2
no activity with NADP(H)
-
additional information
-
can also use 3-acetylpyridine-adenine and nicotinamide guanine as cofactors but with less specificity than NAD+
-
additional information
F1C7I4
no activity with NADPH
-
additional information
-
the recombinant SaMDH may also use NADPH as a cofactor although it is a highly NAD(H)-specific enzyme, no activity with malate and NADP+ as substrates
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ba2+
-
activation constant: 4.1 mM
Ba2+
-
4-40 mM, activates
Ca2+
-
activation constant: 3.3 mM
Ca2+
-
4-40 mM, activates
Ca2+
-
activates
chloride
-
binding site structure analysis, structural adaptation in the halophilic protein, residue Lys205 is involved, the anion influences the oligomeric state of the enzyme, overview
Cu2+
-
activates
Mg2+
-
activation constant: 2.5 mM
Mg2+
-
4-40 mM, activates
Mg2+
-
activates
NaCl
-
activation of the enzyme was obtained by increasing the salt concentration to 3 M NaCl
NH4+
-
activates
phosphate
-
6.6% activation at 50 mM compared to Tris at 50 mM
additional information
-
addition of Mg2+ to homogeneous enzyme stimulates protein aggregation and formation of enzyme tetramers
additional information
Q9K3J3
enzyme activity is not or poorly affected by 2 mM of Ca2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Na+, Li+, K+, Rb+, and Ag+
additional information
-
Co2+ has no effect on the activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
Q8NN33
reduction of oxaloacetate to malate and oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate
(S)-malate
-
product inhbition, 66% inhibition at 5 mM
(S)-malate
Q9K3J3
substrate inhibition, 60% inhibition at 30 mM
(S)-malate
O08349
product inhibitor
(S)-malate
-
24.2% substrate inhibition at 20 mM
1-(3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)hexan-1-one
-
i.e. differentiation-inducing factor DIF-1, a morphogen secreted from Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits proliferation of several cancer cells via suppression of the Wnt/beta -catenin signaling pathway, specifically to mMDH and inhibits its activity, no binding of cytosolic MDH, overview
-
11-chloro-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
65.3% inhibition at 0.010 mM
2',3'-Cyclic AMP
-
-
2,3-dimethoxy-6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carbonitrile
-
89.2% inhibition at 0.010 mM
2,3-dimethoxy-9-(trifluoromethyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
97.7% inhibition at 0.010 mM
2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid
-
-
2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl bromide
-
-
2-methoxy-1-(3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)hexan-1-one
-
i.e. differentiation-inducing factor 2-MIDIF-1, a morphogen secreted from Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits proliferation of several cancer cells via suppression of the Wnt/beta -catenin signaling pathway, binds specifically to mMDH and inhibits its activity, no binding of cytosolic MDH, overview
-
2-oxoglutarate
-
44% inhibition at 5 mM
2-oxoglutarate
Q8NN33
reduction of oxaloacetate to malate and oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate
3-Aminopyridine adenine dinucleotide
-
-
3-methoxy-9-trifluormethyl-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
83.9% inhibition at 0.010 mM
3-methylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
-
-
3-pyridylacetonitrile adenine dinucleotide
-
-
3-pyridylcarbinol adenine dinucleotide
-
-
4-coumaric acid
-
13.4% inhibition at 0.1 mM
4-methoxy-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
87.6% inhibition at 0.010 mM
5-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
5-(4-methylbenzyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
5-benzyl-9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
8.6% inhibition at 0.010 mM
5-benzyl-9-chloro-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
5-benzyl-9-methoxy-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
5-benzyl-9-methyl-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
5-benzyl-9-tert-butyl-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
5-benzyl-9-trifluoromethyl-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carbonitrile
-
91.3% inhibition at 0.010 mM
6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carboxylic acid
-
98.7% inhibition at 0.010 mM
7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
78.7% inhibition at 0.010 mM
8,10-dichloro-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
28.7% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-(methylsulfinyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
96.2% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-(methylthio)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
76.6% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-(trifluoromethyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
88.3% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-12-(prop-2-en-1-yl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
74.1% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-12-methyl-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
98.0% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-2,3-dimethoxy-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
56.3% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-2-methoxy-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
58.7% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-3-methoxy-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
15.0% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-4-hydroxy-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
25.9% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-4-methoxy-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
82.0% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-5-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
9-bromo-5-(4-methoxybenzyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
9-bromo-5-(4-methylbenzyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
9-bromo-5-methyl-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
81.9% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-bromo-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
74.5% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-chloro-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
73.4% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-fluoro-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
46.2% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-methyl-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
87.8% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-nitro-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
54.2% inhibition at 0.010 mM
9-tert-butyl-5-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-7,12-dihydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepin-6(5H)-one
-
-
acetyl-CoA
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose
-
-
ADP
-
competitive
alpha-ketoglutarate
-
end-product inhibition
AMP
-
competitive
arsenate
-
uncompetitive inhibition
ATP
Coccochloris peniocystis, Vigna radiata var. radiata
-
-
ATP
-
competitive
ATP
-
43.7% inhibition at 5 mM
BaCl2
-
1 mM, 24.9% inhibition
butyl 6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carboxylate
-
-
Ca2+
-
decreases activity under normal and pathological conditions
CaCl2
-
1 mM, 29.1% inhibition
cAMP
-
competitive
citrate
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
citrate
Q8NN33
reduction of oxaloacetate to malate
citrate
-
competitive with respect to oxaloacetate
Co2+
Q9K3J3
36% inhibition at 2 mM
CoA
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
CoCl2
-
1 mM, 39% inhibition
Cu2+
-
0.01-0.4 mM, activity from ischemic tissue decreases more significantly compared to the control
Cu2+
-
25% inhibition at 0.1 mM
CuCl2
-
1 mM, 89.8% inhibition
D-fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
heart s-MDH, inhibits the binding of NADH
diethyldicarbonate
-
-
EDTA
-
1 mM, 52.2% inhibition
ethyl 6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carboxylate
-
-
Fe2+
Q9K3J3
complete inhibition at 2 mM
ferulic acid
-
24.5% inhibition at 0.1 mM
gossypol
Q6VVP7
IC50: 0.0115 mM
hexyl 6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carboxylate
-
-
HgCl2
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
hydroxylamine
-
1 mM, 57.1% inhibition
Hydroxymalonate
-
-
Hydroxymalonate
-
-
Hydroxymalonate
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
-
iodoacetate
-
-
iodoacetate
-
1 mM, 93.6% inhibition
Isocitrate
Q8NN33
reduction of oxaloacetate to malate
L-Malate
-
product inhibition
L-Malate
-
-
L-Malate
-
inhibition constant: 3.65 mM
methyl 6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carboxylate
-
60.9% inhibition at 0.010 mM
MgCl2
-
1 mM,34.9% inhibition
NAD+
-
product inhbition, 29% inhibition at 5 mM, 42% inhibition at 10 mM; product inhibition
NADH
-
substrate inhibition
NADH
-
product inhibition
NADH
-
product inhibition
NADH
O08349
substrate inhibition
NADP+
-
product inhbition, 26% inhibition at 10 mM; product inhibition
NEM
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
NiCl2
-
1 mM, 36.8% inhibition
octyl 6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carboxylate
-
-
oxaloacetate
-
-
oxaloacetate
-
-
oxaloacetate
-
substrate inhibition
oxaloacetate
-
-
oxaloacetate
-
substrate inhibition
oxaloacetate
-
substrate inhibition; substrate inhibition, 29% inhibition at 5 mM
oxaloacetate
-
substrate inhibition
oxaloacetate
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
oxaloacetate
-
-
oxaloacetate
Q704F5
above 0.025 mM
oxaloacetate
O24047
-
oxaloacetate
-
substrate inhibition, pH-dependent
oxaloacetate
Q4VVC2
substrate inhibition at above 0.3 mM, 37% inhibition at 1 mM
oxaloacetate
-
-
oxaloacetate
Q9K3J3
substrate inhibition, 50% inhibition at 6 mM
oxaloacetate
O08349
substrate inhibition
oxaloacetate
-
substrate inhibition
oxaloacetate
-
27.4% substrate inhibition at 1 mM
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonate
-
-
pentyl 6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carboxylate
-
-
Phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride
-
-
propyl 6-oxo-5,6,7,12-tetrahydroindolo[3,2-d][1]benzazepine-9-carboxylate
-
-
pyridine adenine dinucleotide
-
-
Semicarbazide
-
1 mM, 61.3% inhibition
succinate
Q8NN33
slight inhibition of reduction of oxaloacetate
Triton X-100
Q9K3J3
-
Urea
Pontonia pinnophylax
-
enzyme activity and electrophoretic pattern of MDH and lactate dehydrogenase, EC 1.1.1.27, compared in relation to heat and urea inactivation, LDH is more sensitive than MDH, overview
Zn2+
-
inhibition constant 1.7 mM
Zn2+
Q9K3J3
73% inhibition at 2 mM
Zn2+
-
25% inhibition at 1 mM
ZnCl2
-
1 mM, 72.6% inhibition
MnCl2
-
1 mM, 28.6% inhibition
additional information
-
not inhibitory: AMP, ADP, ATP
-
additional information
Q704F5
unaffected by excess of L-malate
-
additional information
Q4VVC2
no substrate inhibition by L-malate up to 20 mM
-
additional information
-
strong decrease in MDH activity under aerobic conditions
-
additional information
Q9K3J3
MDH is not affected by DTT or EDTA
-
additional information
-
development of 5-benzylpaullones and paullone-9-carboxylic acid alkyl esters as selective inhibitors of mMDH, overview
-
additional information
-
differentiation-inducing factors DIF-3, i.e. 1-(3-chloro-2,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)hexan-1-one, and 6-MIDIF-3, a 6-methoxy isomer of DIF-3, bind spefically to mMDH, but do not inhibit the enzyme activity, no binding of cytosolic MDH
-
additional information
A3DSX0
cyMDH is sensitive to cold and salt stresses
-
additional information
F1C7I4
not inhibitory: praziquantel and albendazole
-
additional information
-
no effect by NaCl
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
citrate
Q8NN33
oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate
dithiothreitol
-
-
glutathione
-
-
Isocitrate
Q8NN33
oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate
NaCl
-
activation of the enzyme obtained by increasing the salt concentration to 3 M NaCl/l
Sodium phosphate
-
-
L-Malate
-
-
additional information
P61889
Escherichia coli proteome response to a heatshock stress causes a 1.6-fold increase of malate dehydrogenase, even under the heat-shock condition, whereas the total number of soluble proteins decreases by about 5%
-
additional information
-
highest MDH activity under aerobic conditions
-
additional information
Q9K3J3
MDH is not affected by DTT or EDTA
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.056
(S)-malate
-
pH 9.6, 25C
0.1
(S)-malate
F1C7I4
pH 8.0, temperature not specified in the publication; pH 9.6, 22C, recombinant enzyme
0.19
(S)-malate
A3DSX0
pH 7.5, 30C; pH 7.9, 25C
0.215
(S)-malate
-
-
0.269
(S)-malate
-
20C, pH 10.0
0.288
(S)-malate
-
30C, pH 10.0
0.3
(S)-malate
-
pH 8.1, 22C
0.494
(S)-malate
Q9K3J3
pH 8.5, 30C
0.53
(S)-malate
-
pH 9.0, 25C, dimeric enzyme form
0.543
(S)-malate
-
10C, pH 10.0
0.555
(S)-malate
-
pH 9.0, 25C, tetrameric enzyme form
0.56
(S)-malate
O15769
pH 7.5, 37C, mitochondrial enzyme
0.64
(S)-malate
-
recombinant wild type mitochondrial MDH, at 25C
0.645
(S)-malate
-
pH 9.0, 25C
0.74
(S)-malate
-
40C, pH 10.0
0.94
(S)-malate
-
native wild type mitochondrial MDH, at 25C
1.007
(S)-malate
-
glycosomal isoenzyme
1.67
(S)-malate
-
pH 9.0, 25C
1.72
(S)-malate
-
recombinant wild type cytosolic MDH, at 25C
2.72
(S)-malate
O15769
pH 7.5, 37C, glycosomal enzyme
3.3
(S)-malate
-
cytosolic isoenzyme
15
(S)-malate
-
mitochondrial isoenzyme
0.089
3-acetylnicotinamide-NAD+
-
-
0.0667
3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
-
-
0.04955
3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide
-
wild type enzyme
0.0962
3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide
-
mutant enzyme R214G
0.1114
3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide
-
mutant enzyme R183A
0.022
Acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
Q6VVP7
pH 7.5
5.44
alpha-ketomalonate
Q6VVP7
pH 7.5
0.264
deamino-NAD+
-
-
2.2
Ketomalonate
-
-
0.014
L-Malate
-
fusion protein of MDH with mitochondrial citrate synthase
0.019
L-Malate
-
30C
0.028
L-Malate
-
-
0.033
L-Malate
Q704F5
pH 7.6, native enzyme
0.0341
L-Malate
O24047
pH 8.2, 30C
0.047
L-Malate
Q704F5
pH 7.6, recombinant enzyme with a poly-His tail
0.054
L-Malate
Q704F5
pH 7.6, native enzyme, recombinant protein fusions with glutathione S-transferase
0.069
L-Malate
-
0.03-0.1 mM substrate
0.095
L-Malate
-
60C
0.14
L-Malate
-
fusion protein of MDH with mitochondrial citrate synthase
0.174
L-Malate
-
-
0.2
L-Malate
-
-
0.263
L-Malate
-
0.2-10 mM substrate
0.28
L-Malate
-
-
0.46
L-Malate
-
pH 7.5
0.5
L-Malate
-
recombinant enzyme, pH 8.0, 80C
0.67
L-Malate
-
25C
0.71
L-Malate
-
s-MDH
0.8
L-Malate
Q8NN33
pH 10.5, 20-23C
0.833
L-Malate
-
-
0.9
L-Malate
-
-
0.9
L-Malate
-
m-MDH
1
L-Malate
-
Tv-1961
1
L-Malate
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
pH 7.4, 30C, recombinant enzyme
1.22
L-Malate
-
Tv 10-02
1.25
L-Malate
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
pH 7.4, 30C, native enzyme
1.33
L-Malate
-
mitochondrial MDH
1.4
L-Malate
-
Tv-1973
2.068
L-Malate
-
pH 6.9, 30C
2.1
L-Malate
-
-
2.1
L-Malate
-
pH 6.8
2.28
L-Malate
-
pH 7.5, 30C
2.6
L-Malate
P61889
wild-type
5.3
L-Malate
P61889
mutant N122C-L305C(DTT)
5.6
L-Malate
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
6.8
L-Malate
P61889
mutant N122C-L305C(diamide)
8
L-Malate
-
cytoplasmic isoenzyme
20
L-Malate
-
mitochondrial isoenzyme
0.55
malate
-
-
1.35
malate
Q6VVP7
pH 10.2
0.022
NAD+
-
Tv-1973
0.024
NAD+
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
0.026
NAD+
-
30C
0.027
NAD+
Q704F5
pH 7.6, native enzyme
0.0279
NAD+
-
10C, pH 10.0
0.028
NAD+
-
recombinant enzyme, pH 8.0, 80C
0.0286
NAD+
-
20C, pH 10.0
0.0299
NAD+
-
30C, pH 10.0
0.033
NAD+
Q704F5
pH 7.6, recombinant enzyme with a poly-His tail
0.036
NAD+
Q704F5
pH 7.6, recombinant protein fusions with glutathione S-transferase
0.0382
NAD+
-
40C, pH 10.0
0.042
NAD+
F1C7I4
pH 8.0, temperature not specified in the publication; pH 9.6, 22C, recombinant enzyme
0.05
NAD+
-
-
0.069
NAD+
-
cytosolic isoenzyme
0.0699
NAD+
-
Tv 10-02
0.085
NAD+
-
pH 9.0, 25C, dimeric enzyme form
0.094
NAD+
-
pH 9.6, 25C
0.1
NAD+
-
mitochondrial MDH
0.11
NAD+
-
fusion protein of MDH with mitochondrial citrate synthase
0.117
NAD+
-
-
0.12
NAD+
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
pH 7.4, 30C, native enzyme
0.121
NAD+
-
mitochondrial isoenzyme
0.13
NAD+
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
pH 7.4, 30C, recombinant enzyme
0.1338
NAD+
-
pH 7.5, 30C
0.1397
NAD+
-
pH 6.9, 30C
0.14
NAD+
-
-
0.14
NAD+
-
-
0.14
NAD+
-
60C
0.15
NAD+
Q9K3J3
pH 8.5, 30C
0.152
NAD+
Q6VVP7
pH 10.2
0.19
NAD+
-
m-MDH
0.21
NAD+
-
native wild type mitochondrial MDH, at 25C; recombinant wild type cytosolic MDH, at 25C
0.22
NAD+
-
pH 7.5
0.252
NAD+
-
glycosomal isoenzyme
0.26
NAD+
P61889
wild-type
0.263
NAD+
-
pH 9.0, 25C
0.27
NAD+
-
pH 9.0, 25C, tetrameric enzyme form
0.28
NAD+
-
pH 6.8
0.3
NAD+
-
s-MDH
0.319
NAD+
O24047
pH 8.2, 30C
0.37
NAD+
-
recombinant wild type mitochondrial MDH, at 25C
0.38
NAD+
P61889
mutant N122C-L305C(DTT)
0.4
NAD+
Q8NN33
pH 10.5, 20-23C
0.4
NAD+
-
pH 9.0, 25C
0.435
NAD+
-
-
0.459
NAD+
-
-
0.5
NAD+
P61889
mutant N122C-L305C(diamide)
0.69
NAD+
A3KLL4
pH 7.5
0.71
NAD+
-
m-MDH
0.75
NAD+
-
s-MDH
3.32
NAD+
A3DSX0
pH 7.5, 30C; pH 7.9, 25C
0.0024
NADH
P10584
30C, pH 7.0, wild-type enzyme
0.0041
NADH
-
; 40C, pH 5.8
0.007
NADH
Q704F5
pH 8.0, native enzyme
0.007
NADH
-
pH 8.5, 25C
0.0098
NADH
-
30C
0.0104
NADH
-
pH 6.9, 30C
0.0106
NADH
-
Tv 10-02
0.011
NADH
-
-
0.012
NADH
-
pH 8.0, 25C, recombinant wild-type enzyme and mutant K205A
0.0127
NADH
Q704F5
pH 8.0, recombinant enzyme with a poly-His tai
0.013
NADH
-
-
0.0134
NADH
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
pH 7.5, 20C, recombinant cytosolic isoenzyme cMDH-L
0.0135
NADH
-
-
0.0135
NADH
Q7X3X5
pH 7.0, 30C, recombinant enzyme
0.0136
NADH
-
fusion protein of MDH with mitochondrial citrate synthase
0.0136
NADH
O24047
pH 8.2, 30C
0.0145
NADH
-
pH 7.5, 20C, mitochondrial isoenzyme mMDH
0.0152
NADH
-
pH 7.5
0.0165
NADH
-
-
0.017
NADH
-
pH 7.5, 30C
0.017
NADH
-
pH 8.0, 25C, tetrameric enzyme form
0.0172
NADH
Q7X3X5
pH 7.0, 30C
0.019
NADH
Q704F5
pH 8.0, recombinant protein fusions with glutathione S-transferase
0.02
NADH
-
Tv-1961; Tv-1973
0.0205
NADH
-
pH 7.5, 20C, cytosolic isoenzyme cMDH
0.0207
NADH
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
pH 7.5, 20C, recombinant cytosolic isoenzyme cMDH-S
0.0214
NADH
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
pH 7.5, 20C, cytosolic isoenzyme cMDH-S
0.023
NADH
-
pH 8.0, 25C, dimeric enzyme form
0.024
NADH
-
60C, pH 8.0
0.024
NADH
O08349
pH 8.0, 65C, at 0.4 mM oxaloacetate
0.0244
NADH
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
pH 7.5, 20C, mitochondrial isoenzyme mMDH
0.025
NADH
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
pH 7.4, 30C, native enzyme
0.025
NADH
-
pH 7.5, temperature not specified in the publication, native enzyme
0.026
NADH
-
recombinant wild type cytosolic MDH, at 25C
0.0266
NADH
-
pH 7.8, 25C
0.027
NADH
-
-
0.028
NADH
-
60C, pH 8.0
0.0286
NADH
-
-
0.029
NADH
-
m-MDH
0.029
NADH
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
pH 7.4, 30C, recombinant enzyme
0.029
NADH
-
pH 7.5, temperature not specified in the publication, recombinant enzyme
0.03
NADH
-
60C
0.03
NADH
-
whole cell MDH
0.036
NADH
Q6VVP7
pH 7.5
0.036
NADH
O15769
glycosomal enzyme
0.0366
NADH
O24047
pH 6.8, 30C
0.0381
NADH
-
intact chloroplast enzyme fraction
0.04
NADH
-
mitochondrial MDH
0.041
NADH
-
pH 6.8
0.041
NADH
Q8NN33
pH 8.0, 20-23C
0.041
NADH
-
mitochondrial isoenzyme
0.042
NADH
-
pH 7.8, 25C
0.0434
NADH
-
chloroplast envelope enzyme fraction
0.048
NADH
-
s-MDH
0.048
NADH
-
-
0.05
NADH
-
normal rats
0.052
NADH
-
s-MDH
0.052
NADH
P61889
mutant N122C-L305C(diamide)
0.054
NADH
O15769
pH 7.5, 37C, glycosomal enzyme
0.056
NADH
P61889
mutant N122C-L305C(DTT)
0.057
NADH
Q0QW09
cytosolic isoenzyme
0.061
NADH
P61889
wild-type
0.061
NADH
-
glycosomal isoenzyme
0.063
NADH
-
-
0.066
NADH
-
cytosolic isoenzyme
0.07
NADH
Q8NN33
pH 6.5, 20-23C
0.07238
NADH
-
wild type enzyme
0.0729
NADH
-
broken chloroplast enzyme fraction
0.0739
NADH
-
plasma membrane-bound enzyme fraction
0.075
NADH
-
ischemic rats
0.078
NADH
-
soluble enzyme fraction
0.085
NADH
O15769
pH 7.5, 37C, glycosomal enzyme
0.086
NADH
-
pH 8.0, 80C; recombinant enzyme, pH 8.0, 80C
0.086
NADH
-
recombinant wild type mitochondrial MDH, at 25C
0.087
NADH
P61889
mutant L305C
0.1
NADH
Q8NN33
pH 9.5, 20-23C
0.1172
NADH
-
chloroplast stroma enzyme fraction
0.1197
NADH
-
mutant enzyme R214G
0.1231
NADH
-
mutant enzyme R183A
0.14
NADH
-
mit MDH
0.167
NADH
F1C7I4
pH 8.0, 22C, recombinant enzyme; pH 8.0, temperature not specified in the publication
0.192
NADH
-
cytosolic MDH
0.2
NADH
-
m-MDH
0.21
NADH
-
native wild type mitochondrial MDH, at 25C
0.32
NADH
O15769
glacosomal enzyme
0.39
NADH
A3KLL4
pH 7.5
0.83
NADH
Q9K3J3
pH 8.5, 30C
1.4
NADH
A3DSX0
pH 7.8, 30C
0.178
NADP+
Coccochloris peniocystis
-
-
0.0426
NADPH
P10584
30C, pH 7.0, wild-type enzyme
0.25
NADPH
Q8NN33
pH 6.5, 20-23C
1.464
nicotinamide 1-N6-ethenoadenine dinucleotide
-
-
0.25
nicotinamide hypoxanthine dinucleotide
-
-
0.0024
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.003
oxaloacetate
P10584
30C, pH 7.0, wild-type enzyme, cofactor NADH
0.004
oxaloacetate
Q704F5
pH 8.0, native enzyme
0.0056
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.006
oxaloacetate
-
30C
0.0076
oxaloacetate
-
chloroplast envelope enzyme fraction
0.0081
oxaloacetate
-
plasma membrane-bound enzyme fraction
0.0083
oxaloacetate
-
pH 7.5, 20C, cytosolic isoenzyme cMDH
0.0088
oxaloacetate
O24047
pH 6.8, 30C
0.0094
oxaloacetate
-
fusion protein of MDH with mitochondrial citrate synthase
0.0096
oxaloacetate
-
pH 8.5, 25C
0.0113
oxaloacetate
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
pH 7.5, 20C, recombinant cytosolic isoenzyme cMDH-L
0.0121
oxaloacetate
-
chloroplast stroma enzyme fraction
0.013
oxaloacetate
Q704F5
pH 8.0, recombinant protein fusions with glutathione S-transferase
0.0133
oxaloacetate
-
intact chloroplast enzyme fraction
0.0135
oxaloacetate
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
pH 7.5, 20C, mitochondrial isoenzyme mMDH
0.014
oxaloacetate
-
37C
0.015
oxaloacetate
O15769
glycosomal enzyme
0.015
oxaloacetate
-
pH 8.0, 80C; recombinant enzyme, pH 8.0, 80C
0.0151
oxaloacetate
-
isoform B2, at 20C
0.016
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.016
oxaloacetate
-
Q9ZF99
4C
0.0162
oxaloacetate
-
Tv 10-02
0.0175
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.018
oxaloacetate
Q704F5
pH 8.0, recombinant enzyme with a poly-His tail
0.02
oxaloacetate
-
60C
0.02
oxaloacetate
-
Tv-1961
0.02
oxaloacetate
-
25C
0.02
oxaloacetate
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
pH 7.4, 30C, native enzyme
0.02
oxaloacetate
-
pH 8.1, 22C
0.022
oxaloacetate
Q8TG27, Q8X1C8
pH 7.4, 30C, recombinant enzyme
0.022
oxaloacetate
-
pH 8.0, 25C, tetrameric enzyme form
0.022
oxaloacetate
-
recombinant wild type mitochondrial MDH, at 25C
0.023
oxaloacetate
-
m-MDH
0.023
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.023
oxaloacetate
-
Q9ZF99
10C
0.023
oxaloacetate
-
4C
0.024
oxaloacetate
-
20C, isoenzyme B
0.024
oxaloacetate
-
isoform B1, at 20C
0.025
oxaloacetate
Q8NN33
pH 6.5, 20-23C
0.026
oxaloacetate
-
10C
0.027
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.027
oxaloacetate
-
cytosolic isoenzyme
0.03
oxaloacetate
-
cytoplasmic isoenzyme
0.03
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.03
oxaloacetate
Q6VVP7
pH 7.5
0.03
oxaloacetate
-
pH 8.0, 25C, dimeric enzyme form
0.0302
oxaloacetate
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
pH 7.5, 20C, cytosolic isoenzyme cMDH-S
0.031
oxaloacetate
Q0QW09
cytosolic isoenzyme
0.034
oxaloacetate
-
s-MDH
0.0348
oxaloacetate
-
pH 7.5, 20C, mitochondrial isoenzyme mMDH
0.035
oxaloacetate
-
native wild type mitochondrial MDH, at 25C
0.036
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.036
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.036
oxaloacetate
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.6), 1 mM MgCl2
0.038
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.0387
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.039
oxaloacetate
Q90YZ7, Q90YZ8, Q90YZ9
pH 7.5, 20C, recombinant cytosolic isoenzyme cMDH-S
0.0391
oxaloacetate
-
pH 6.9, 30C
0.04
oxaloacetate
-
cytoplasmic enzyme
0.04
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.04
oxaloacetate
-
normal rats
0.04
oxaloacetate
P61889
pH 7.5, 30C,recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.041
oxaloacetate
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.6), 1 mM MgCl2
0.043
oxaloacetate
-
Tv-1973
0.043
oxaloacetate
O08349
pH 8.0, 65C, at 0.4 mM NADH
0.044
oxaloacetate
P61889
mutant L305C
0.044
oxaloacetate
F1C7I4
pH 8.0, 22C, recombinant enzyme; pH 8.0, temperature not specified in the publication
0.0443
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.0449
oxaloacetate
O24047
pH 8.2, 30C
0.045
oxaloacetate
-
Q9ZF99
37C
0.0459
oxaloacetate
-
broken chloroplast enzyme fraction
0.047
oxaloacetate
-
mitochondrial enzyme
0.0476
oxaloacetate
-
pH 7.8, 25C
0.048
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.049
oxaloacetate
P61889
wild-type
0.04954
oxaloacetate
-
wild type enzyme
0.05
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.05
oxaloacetate
-
ischemic rats
0.0502
oxaloacetate
-
soluble enzyme fraction
0.052
oxaloacetate
-
; 40C, pH 5.8
0.053
oxaloacetate
-
pH 7.8, 25C
0.056
oxaloacetate
-
37C
0.056
oxaloacetate
-
mitochondrial isoenzyme
0.057
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.057
oxaloacetate
Q8NN33
pH 8.0, 20-23C
0.057
oxaloacetate
-
glycosomal isoenzyme
0.06
oxaloacetate
-
s-MDH
0.061
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.06186
oxaloacetate
-
mutant enzyme R214G
0.0643
oxaloacetate
-
pH 6.8
0.069
oxaloacetate
O15769
glycosomal enzyme
0.072
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.074
oxaloacetate
-
m-MDH
0.08074
oxaloacetate
-
mutant enzyme R183A
0.081
oxaloacetate
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.6), 1 mM MgCl2
0.083
oxaloacetate
-
mitochondrial MDH
0.085
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.09
oxaloacetate
-
cyt MDH
0.111
oxaloacetate
-
pH 7.5, 30C
0.112
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.126
oxaloacetate
-
pH 7.5, temperature not specified in the publication, native enzyme
0.13
oxaloacetate
-
pH 8.0, 25C, recombinant wild-type enzyme and mutant K205A
0.17
oxaloacetate
-
-
0.176
oxaloacetate
-
recombinant wild type cytosolic MDH, at 25C
0.189
oxaloacetate
Q9K3J3
pH 8.5, 30C
0.2
oxaloacetate
Q8NN33
pH 9.5, 20-23C
0.27
oxaloacetate
-
mitochondrial MDH
0.287
oxaloacetate
-
pH 7.5
0.289
oxaloacetate
-
pH 7.5, temperature not specified in the publication, recombinant enzyme
0.34