Information on EC 3.2.1.28 - alpha,alpha-trehalase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.2.1.28
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
alpha,alpha-trehalase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O = beta-D-glucose + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bond
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-
-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Metabolic pathways
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metabolism of disaccharids
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Starch and sucrose metabolism
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trehalose degradation II (trehalase)
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trehalose degradation VI (periplasmic)
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
alpha,alpha-trehalose glucohydrolase
The enzyme is an anomer-inverting glucosidase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the alpha-glucosidic O-linkage of alpha,alpha-trehalose, releasing initially equimolar amounts of alpha- and beta-D-glucose. It is widely distributed in microorganisms, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9025-52-9
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ecotype Columbia-0
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SBUG 724
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SBUG 724
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CAI4
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Giza 1
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
K12
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli K12 DH5alpha
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Mph2
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ArI3
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ArI3
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. thermoidea
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from brazilian soil
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
termites
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Y55
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Y55
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lobosphaera sp.
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Ma2575
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Ma473
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SCB1-2i
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SCB2-2i
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TIB2-1ii
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SCB1-2i
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SCB1-2i
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B11
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B11
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IAM M-15, gene treH
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IAM M-15, gene treH
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MCY1264, neutral trehalase and acid trehalase isozymes encoded by the NTH1 and ATH1 genes
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 968
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 77.7.8, isolated from indian soil
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
RM-B
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
2 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
2 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
alpha-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
alpha-D-glucose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
alpha-alpha-trehalose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cellobiose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isomaltose + H2O
alpha-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
alpha-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
maltose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
melibiose + H2O
D-glucose + D-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
melizitose + H2O
beta-D-fructofuranose + alpha-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
weak
-
-
?
raffinose + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
sucrose + H2O
beta-D-fructofuranose + alpha-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
sucrose + H2O
D-glucose + D-fructose
show the reaction diagram
trehalose + H2O
2 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
trehalose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
2 beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
spores contain neutral and acid trehalase. Lack of neutral trehalase severely reduces spore germination in fission yeast and sporulation-specific acid trehalase somehow participates in the degradation of endogenous trehalose in the ansence of neutral trehalase, thus playing an ancillary role during germination
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-
?
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
2 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
alpha-D-glucopyranose
show the reaction diagram
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
alpha-D-glucose + beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme, an anomer-inverting glycosylase, hydrolyzes alpha,alpha-trehalase to equimolar amounts of alpha- and beta-D-glucose. It is also capable of synthesizing trehalose from D-glucose in the reverse reaction
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-
r
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
beta-D-glucose + alpha-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
alpha,alpha-trehalose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
trehalose + H2O
2 D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
trehalose + H2O
D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
CaCl2
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10 mM, activates 1.2fold
gentiobiose
iodoacetate
-
10 mM, activates 1.3fold
KNO3
-
10 mM, activates 2.2fold
Li+
-
activates the acid trehalase
MgCl2
-
10 mM, activates 2.4fold
NH4+
-
optimal stimulation from 100-200 mM
Ni2+
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122% activity at 20 mM
phloretin
Zn2+
-
2.5-5.0 mM ZnCl2, slight stimulation
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(1R,2R,3R,6S,7S,7aS)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]oxy]hexahydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1,2,7-triol
(2R,3R,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine
(2R,3R,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methylpyrrolidine
(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-[[(1R,2R,5R,6R,7R,7aR)-6,7-dihydroxy-1,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)hexahydro-1H-pyrrolizin-2-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol
(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[[(2R,5R,6R,7R,7aR)-6,7-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)hexahydro-1H-pyrrolizin-2-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol
1,10-phenanthroline
1,2-bis((2R,3R,4R,5S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidin-1-yl)ethane-1,2-dione
1,3-bis((2R,3R,4R,5S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidin-1-yl)propane-1,3-dione
micromolar inhibitor
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1,4-bis((2R,3R,4R,5S)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidin-1-yl)butane-1,4-dione
1-deoxynojirimycin
1-thiatrehazolin
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-
7-deoxycasuarine
7-homocasuarine
acetate
amygdalin
Ba+
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
-
Borate
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16% residual activity at 20 mM
CaCl2
over 90% inhibition at 10 mM
castanospermine
casuarine
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casuarine-6-O-alpha-D-glucoside
cellobiose
-
10 mM, 60% inhibition
Citric acid
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36.16% residual activity at 5 mM
CuCl2
20 mM, 20% residual activity
D-glucose
deoxynojirimycin
-
inhibition according to a ligand exclusion model
diethyldicarbonate
the compound modifies a His residue that results in a less active enzyme. After 40 min with 40 mM diethylpyrocarbonate at 30C pH 6.0, trehalase activity decreases to about 50% of the initial activity
diphosphate
-
more than 50% inhibition at 8 mM and complete inhibition at 16 mM
EGTA
20 mM, 55% residual activity
esculin
FeCl3
-
10 mM, 35% inhibition
gentiobiose
glucono-delta-lactone
linear competitive inhibitor
glucose
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-
H2O2
-
inhibitory at 5-50 mM
Hg+
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inhibits the acid trehalase by 95%
iodoacetamide
-
100 mM required for inhibition of more than 50%
KH2PO4
-
10.32% residual activity at 200 mM
Li+
-
12% residual activity at 20 mM
malate
-
37% residual activity at 20 mM
Mandelonitrile
mannitol
mannose
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-
MDL 25 637
Metal chelators
methyl beta-glucoside
-
-
methyl-alpha-D-mannoside
linear competitive inhibitor
methyl-alpha-glucoside
methyl-alpha-mannoside
-
weak competitive inhibition
Mg2SO4
-
57.02% residual activity at 2 mM
-
MgSO4
over 90% inhibition at 20 mM
MnCl2
over 90% inhibition at 10 mM
NaCl
strong inhibition at 10 mM, treatment of cells leads to accumulation of trehalose
NEM
-
2 mM, 8.4% inhibition
NH4Cl
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1 mM NH4Cl, 22% inhibition of extracellular enzyme, 27% inhibition of intracellular enzyme
p-aminophenyl-beta-D-glucoside
-
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p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside
phenyl-beta-D-glucoside
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phloretin
phlorizin
phosphate
Polyphosphate
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-
potassium glutamate
-
0.5 M KCl, activity is 2fold lower
prunasin
Salicin
SDS
-
1.0%, 80% inhibition
sodium orthovanadate
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80% inhibition at 10 mM
succinate
-
41% residual activity at 20 mM
Sucrose
trehazolin
Urea
-
10 mM, 6% inhibition
UTP
-
90% inhibition at 10 mM
validamycin
-
competitive
validamycin A
validamycin B
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-
Validoxylamine A
validoxylamine B
-
-
Zn2SO4
-
2.06% residual activity at 10 mM
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ZnSO4
-
10 mM, 34% inhibition
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3',5'-cAMP
-
activation is dependent on presence of ATP and a divalent cation such as Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+
alpha,alpha-trehalose
-
the enzymatic activity increases with increasing concentrations of alpha,alpha-trehalose in the incubations up to about 50 mM
amygdalin
-
induces the enzyme in different organs, e.g. Malphigian tubules, midgut, fat body, hemolymph, and body wall, when feeded to larvae
betaine
-
activates
esculin
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induces the enzyme in different organs, e.g. Malphigian tubules, midgut, fat body, hemolymph, and body wall, when feeded to larvae
MgATP2-
-
C-trehalase can be activated by MgATP2- in presence of cAMP
phosphate
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.06 - 42
alpha,alpha-trehalose
0.0109 - 55
trehalose
additional information
additional information
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00045 - 730
alpha,alpha-trehalose
167 - 662
trehalose
additional information
additional information
Apis mellifera
-
the molecular activity is 86.2 per s
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kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.008 - 2400
alpha,alpha-trehalose
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00000066 - 0.000012
(1R,2R,3R,6S,7S,7aS)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl]oxy]hexahydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1,2,7-triol
0.0053 - 0.0093
(2R,3R,4R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidine
0.0256 - 0.0554
(2R,3R,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methylpyrrolidine
0.000157 - 0.01
(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-[[(1R,2R,5R,6R,7R,7aR)-6,7-dihydroxy-1,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)hexahydro-1H-pyrrolizin-2-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol
0.000022 - 0.000138
(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[[(2R,5R,6R,7R,7aR)-6,7-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)hexahydro-1H-pyrrolizin-2-yl]oxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol
0.000009
1-thiatrehazolin
-
at 37C in sodium maleate buffer (75 mM, pH 5.5)
0.00059 - 0.0117
7-deoxycasuarine
0.033 - 0.107
7-homocasuarine
0.21 - 0.22
amygdalin
0.00486
castanospermine
-
pH 6.5, 30C
0.00012
casuarine
-
pH 6.5, 30C
7
D-glucose
at 65C, in 50 mM Bis/Tris/propane-HCl buffer (pH 6.5)
0.00139
deoxynojirimycin
-
pH 6.5, 30C
1.4
glucono-delta-lactone
at pH 6.0 and 30C
1.14
Mandelonitrile
-
pH 6.0, 30C
9
mannitol
-
at pH 5.5 and 55C
0.043
methyl-alpha-D-mannoside
at pH 6.0 and 30C
89
methyl-alpha-glucoside
-
pH 6.0, 30C
6.2
methyl-alpha-mannoside
-
pH 6.0, 30C
0.008
phloretin
at pH 6.0 and 30C
0.09 - 0.5
phlorizin
0.43 - 0.92
prunasin
19 - 190
Salicin
15
Sucrose
-
-
0.55
Tris
-
pH 6.0, 30C
0.000045
validamycin
-
-
0.000004 - 0.4
validamycin A
0.27
validamycin B
-
pH 3.3, 37C, versus trehalose
0.00001 - 0.0032
Validoxylamine A
0.0103
validoxylamine B
-
pH 3.3, 37C, versus trehalose
7
Zn2+
-
at pH 5.5 and 55C
additional information
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics
-