Information on EC 1.2.1.8 - betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.2.1.8
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = betaine + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
choline degradation I
-
-
choline degradation IV
-
-
glycine betaine biosynthesis
-
-
glycine betaine biosynthesis I (Gram-negative bacteria)
-
-
glycine betaine biosynthesis II (Gram-positive bacteria)
-
-
glycine betaine biosynthesis III (plants)
-
-
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
betaine-aldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase
In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine. This enzyme is involved in the second step and appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria. In contrast, different enzymes are involved in the first reaction. In plants, this reaction is catalysed by EC 1.14.15.7 (choline monooxygenase), whereas in animals and many bacteria it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC 1.1.99.1 (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC 1.1.3.17 (choline oxidase) [5]. In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC 2.1.1.156 (glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase) and EC 2.1.1.157 (sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase).
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9028-90-4
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Amaranthus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
M-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A-16
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
-
betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 is a key enzyme in the synthesis of fragrance aroma compounds. The extremely low activity of the enzyme in catalyzing the oxidation of acetaldehyde is crucial for the accumulation of the volatile compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline in fragrant rice
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,3-diaminopropane + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-aminopropionaldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-aminopropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-aminopropionate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3-aminopropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-aminopropionic acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3-aminopropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde + NAD+ + O2
3-dimethylsulfoniopropionate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
steady state bi bi mechanism with ordered addition of substrates and random release of products
-
-
ir
3-N-trimethylaminopropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-N-trimethylaminopropionate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-N-trimethylaminopropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
4-aminobutanal + NAD+ + H2O
4-aminobutanoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-aminobutyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
4-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-aminobutyrate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
4-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-aminobutyric acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
4-gamma-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
4-guanidinobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-guanidinobutyrate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-guanidinobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
4-N-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-N-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-N-trimethylaminobutyrate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-N-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-trimethylaminobutyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
acetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
acetate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
aminoacetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
aminoacetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
benzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
benzaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
benzoate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
betaine aldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
betaine + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
betaine aldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NAD(P)H + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
betaine aldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
betaine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
betaine + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
accumulation of betaine is a strategy of plants to survive drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures
-
?
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
betaine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
betaine + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
betaine + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
butyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
butyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
at 40% of the activity with betaine aldehyde
-
-
?
butyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
butyrate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
butyraldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
butyrate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D,L-glyceraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycerate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
D,L-glyceraldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
glycerate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
formate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
formate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gamma-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyceraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycerate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
at 30% of the activity with betaine aldehyde
-
-
?
glycine betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycine betaine aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycolaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycolate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
glycolaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycolate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycolaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
glycolate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isovaleraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
isovalerate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
isovaleraldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
isovalerate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylglyoxal + NAD+ + H2O
pyruvate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylglyoxal + NADP+ + H2O
? + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
N-acetyl-4-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
p-nitrobenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
p-nitrobenzaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
p-nitrobenzoate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
phenyl acetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
phenyl acetaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
phenyl acetate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
propionate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
propionate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
propionate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
undecanal + NAD+ + H2O
undecanoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
undecanal + NADP+ + H2O
undecanoate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
valeraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
valerate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
valeraldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
valerate + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3-aminopropionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3-aminopropionate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
4-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-aminobutyrate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
B3VMC0, B3VMC1, B3VMC2
-
-
-
?
4-aminobutyraldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-aminobutyric acid + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NAD(P)H + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
betaine aldehyde + NAD(P)+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NAD(P)H + H+
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
betaine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
betaine + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
accumulation of betaine is a strategy of plants to survive drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures
-
?
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
betaine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
Q9HTJ1
-
-
-
r
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
betaine aldehyde + NADP+ + H2O
glycine betaine + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Mg2+
-
0.2 M, slight activation
additional information
-
high salt tolerance: 50% or more of its maximal activity is preserved at 1.0 M Na+ or K+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
-
mutant enzyme is less sensitive to inhibition than wild-type enzyme
1,10-phenanthroline
2,2'-dipyridyl
3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde
-
at high concentrations
5,5'-dithiobis[2-nitrobenzoic acid]
-
the effect of the thiol reagent DTNB on the native enzyme structure of the wild type enzyme and the mutants is examined
acetaldehyde
Acetylcholine
-
10 mM, 18% inhibition
AgNO3
-
3 mM, 90-100% inhibition
benzaldehyde
-
1 mM, 51% inhibition
benzyltrimethylamine iodide
-
10 mM, 45% inhibition
betaine
Betaine aldehyde
bis[diethylthiocarbamyl]disulfide
-
the effect of the thiol reagent disulfiram on the native enzyme structure of the wild type enzyme and the mutants is examined
Butyrylcholine
-
100 mM, 73% inhibition
choline
cimetidine
Disulfiram
DL-glyceraldehyde
-
-
ethanolamine
-
100 mM, 35% inhibition
Glutaraldehyde
-
10 mM, 83% inhibition
glyceraldehyde
-
100 mM, 83% inhibition
glycine betaine
H2O2
-
more than 50% inhibition at 0.1 mM H2O2, noncompetitive inhibition with respect to NAD+ or to betaine aldehyde at saturating concentrations of the other substrate at pH 7.0 or 8.0
iodoacetamide
iodoacetate
Iodosobenzoate
-
-
Isobutanal
-
10 mM, 93% inhibition
isopentanal
-
1 mM, 84% inhibition
Isovaleraldehyde
-
wild-type enzyme shows stronger inhibition than the mutant enzyme
K+
-
1.0 mM, 35% inhibition
methyl methanethiosulfonate
methyl methanethiosulphonate
-
pH-dependence of the second-order rate constant of inactivation suggests that at low pH values the essential Cys exists as thiolate by the formation of an ion pair with a positively charged residue
methyl(bis-beta-chloroethyl)amine
-
-
Mg2+
-
0.4 M, complete inhibition
N,N-dimethylethanolamine
-
100 mM, 57% inhibition
N,N-dimethylglycine
-
1 mM, 24% inhibition
n-butylaldehyde
-
10 mM, 96% inhibition
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-Methylethanolamine
-
100 mM, 50% inhibition
N-methylglycine
-
1 mM, 24% inhibition
NAD(P)H
-
reversible inactivation
NADP+
-
substrate inhibition above 10 mM
NADPH
-
product inhibition
phenylacetaldehyde
-
1 mM, 54% inhibition
Phenylarsine oxide
-
PAO
phosphate
-
-
S-methyl-N,N-diethyldithiocarbamoyl sulfone
-
most potent irreversible inhibition in vitro at 0.05 mM, but no inhibition in situ
-
S-methyl-N,N-diethyldithiocarbamoyl sulfoxide
-
irreversible inhibition
-
S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamoyl sulfone
-
irreversible inhibition
-
S-methyl-N,N-diethylthiocarbamoyl sulfoxide
-
-
-
S-methylmethanesulfonate
-
the effect of the thiol reagent MMTS on the native enzyme structure of the wild type enzyme and the mutants is examined
sodium meta-arsenite plus 2,3-dimercaptopropanol
-
arsenite-BAL
-
tetraethylamine iodide
-
10 mM, 19% inhibition
tetramethylamine iodide
-
10 mM, 19% inhibition
tetramethylammonium hydroxide
-
100 mM, 57% inhibition
tetrapropylamine iodide
-
10 mM, 43% inhibition
trimethylacetaldehyde
-
100 mM, 89% inhibition
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Cys
-
activates, optimal concentration: 1 mM
dithiothreitol
-
enhances activity
glycine betaine
-
activates the wild-type enzyme but not the mutant enzyme
methanol
used in the assay as activating compound in concentration of 0.5% for 96 h
NH4+
-
slight activation up to about 0.3 M
Pro
-
0.1 M, 35% activation, at high substrate concentrations
propan-2-yl 1-thio-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
for the expressed protein, final concentration of 1 mmol in culture solution
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00000054 - 3.7
3-aminopropionaldehyde
0.0027
3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde
-
-
0.035 - 0.34
3-N-trimethylaminopropionaldehyde
0.003 - 1.1
4-Aminobutyraldehyde
0.000024 - 0.00005
4-Guanidinobutyraldehyde
0.0078 - 0.041
4-N-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde
0.0014
4-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde
-
cytoplasmic enzyme
0.014 - 28
acetaldehyde
0.1 - 6.7
benzaldehyde
0.0000041
beta-NAD+
-
-
0.000005 - 6.81
Betaine aldehyde
0.5 - 3.4
Butyraldehyde
11 - 48
D,L-glyceraldehyde
3.8
formaldehyde
-
pH 7.7, coenzyme NAD+
0.13
glycine betaine aldehyde
-
-
0.152 - 11.5
glycolaldehyde
0.2 - 15
Isovaleraldehyde
2.5 - 9
methylglyoxal
0.0025 - 0.8
NAD+
0.08 - 1.4
NADP+
0.5
p-nitrobenzaldehyde
-
pH 7.7, coenzyme NAD+
51 - 140
phenyl acetaldehyde
0.8 - 21
propionaldehyde
2 - 106
Undecanal
0.2 - 4.1
Valeraldehyde
additional information
additional information
-
for the mutants and wild-type enzymes KM NADP+ varies within 0.060 and 0.107 mM, KM NAD+ within 0.254 and 0.411 mM, KM betaine aldehyde within 0.270 and 0.434 mM
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
261
NAD+
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
-
30C, pH 8.0
276
NADP+
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
-
30C, pH 8.0
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5.7
acetaldehyde
-
-
0.8705 - 0.896
AMP
0.7
benzaladehyde
-
-
0.209 - 0.289
betaine
4.6
Betaine aldehyde
-
-
14
Butyrylcholine
-
-
0.0111 - 11
choline
0.001 - 0.033
cimetidine
78
ethanolamine
-
-
7.4
glyceraldehyde
-
-
0.1
isopentanal
-
-
27
N,N-dimethylethanolamine
-
-
130
N,N-dimethylglycine
-
-
40
N-Methylethanolamine
-
-
130
N-methylglycine
-
-
0.047
NADH
-
30C, pH 8.0
0.185
NADPH
-
30C, pH 8.0
0.53
phenylacetaldehyde
-
-
26
tetramethylammonium hydroxide
-
-
4.5
trimethylacetaldehyde
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00014
-
NaCl level 0%, wild type
0.00015
-
NaCl level 1.5%, wild type
0.00017
-
NaCl level 1.0%, wild type
0.00045
-
NaCl level 0%, transgenic plant T3-5
0.00078
-
NaCl level 0%, transgenic plant T3-8
0.00086
-
NaCl level 0%, transgenic plant T3-3
0.00111
-
NaCl level 0%, transgenic plant T3-1
0.00119
-
NaCl level 0%, transgenic plant T3-9
0.0012
-
-
0.00523
-
NaCl level 1.5%, transgenic plant T3-1
0.00578
-
NaCl level 1.5%, transgenic plant T3-9
0.006
-
culture conditions, 11.1 mM glucose and 15 mM NH4Cl
0.00625
-
NaCl level 1.5%, transgenic plant T3-8
0.00635
-
NaCl level 1.0%, transgenic plant T3-1
0.00662
-
NaCl level 1.5%, transgenic plant T3-3
0.00723
-
NaCl level 1.0%, transgenic plant T3-5
0.00736
-
NaCl level 1.0%, transgenic plant T3-9
0.00784
-
NaCl level 1.0%, transgenic plant T3-3
0.00826
0.00881
-
NaCl level 1.5%, transgenic plant T3-5
0.012
-
culture conditions, 11.1 mM glucose, 15 mM NH4Cl and 0.4 M NaCl
0.075
-
BADH I
0.211
-
culture conditions, 11.1 mM glucose, 20 mM choline and 0.4 M NaCl
0.215
-
culture conditions, 11.1 mM glucose and 20 mM choline
0.311
-
BADH II
0.492
-
culture conditions, 20 mM choline and 0.4 M NaCl
0.571
-
culture conditions, 20 mM choline
19.63
cloned in strain A764 and extracted, incubating at 30C for 96 h in presence of 0.5% of methanol. Activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm in 1 ml assay buffer (50 mmol HEPES-KOH (pH 8.0), 1 mmol EDTA, 5 mmol DTT, 1 mmol NAD+, 1 mmol betaine aldehyde) at 25C, supplemented with 50 microliter protein extract. Activity is calculated using an extinction coefficient of 6.220 M/cm for NADH. One unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount converting 1 nmol of NAD+ per min
75
-
mutant C439V
102
-
mutant C439S
138
-
mutant C353A
165
-
mutant C377A
189
-
mutant C439A
196
-
wild-type enzyme
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.5 - 9.5
-
-
8.5 - 9
-
BADH I and BADH II
8.8 - 9.2
-
-
9.6
-
assay at
additional information
-
mutant enzyme E103Q exhibits a broader temperature optimum than the wild-type enzyme
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7 - 8
-
pH 7.0: about 35% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: about 70% of maximal activity
7 - 9.5
7 - 9
-
pH 7.0: about 40% of maximal activity, pH 9.0: about 50% of maximal activity
7.8 - 10.1
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
-
activity assay
37
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
20 - 40
-
20C: about 45% of maximal activity, 40C: about 70% of maximal activity
30
-
assay at
additional information
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.3
calculated from amino acid sequence
6
-
isoelectric focusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
activity increases between birth and 40 days of age
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
source for isolating the total RNA; source for isolating the totl RNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
found in all plant tissues excepting roots, expression level is highest in leaves and stems
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
found in all plant tissues excepting roots, expression level is highest in leaves and stems
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
found in all plant tissues excepting roots, expression level is highest in leaves and stems
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE