Information on EC 2.7.4.3 - adenylate kinase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.7.4.3
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
adenylate kinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + AMP = 2 ADP
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
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-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
adenosine ribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis
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Biosynthesis of antibiotics
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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Metabolic pathways
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purine metabolism
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Purine metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:AMP phosphotransferase
Inorganic triphosphate can also act as donor.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9013-02-9
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 168
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
lemon, sweet and sour
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
carp
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
squid
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JE24F+, derived from W3110, uninfected or infected with RNA-phage MS2
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain K12
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 29841
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
1S2D strain
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
1S2D strain
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
rice, two isoforms
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
slime mold
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mre11/Rad50 complex, part of a DNA repair complex
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bullfrog
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodopseudomonas rubrum
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 5068
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bovine parasite
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Beneckea, type III
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DNA repair complex components Mre11 and Rad50 show adenylate kinase activity when in complex Mre11/Rad50
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
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adenylate kinase 2 links mitochondrial energy metabolism to the induction of the unfolded protein response
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,N6-ethenoadenosine 5'-triphosphate + AMP
? + ADP
show the reaction diagram
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not ATP + 1,N6-ethenoadenosine 5'monophosphate
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ir
adenosine 5'-(3-thio)triphosphate + AMP
adenosine 5'-diphosphate + adenosine 5'-(3-thio)diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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muscle: reaction at 97% the rate of ATP, liver mitochondria: reaction at 70% the rate of ATP
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?
ADP
AMP + ATP
show the reaction diagram
ADP
ATP + AMP
show the reaction diagram
ADP + ADP
?
show the reaction diagram
ADP + ADP
ATP + AMP
show the reaction diagram
ADP + diphosphate
ATP + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
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at 0.1% the rate of the natural substrates
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?
ADP + TDP
AMP + TTP
show the reaction diagram
AMP + ATP
ADP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + 7-deazaadenosine 5'-monophosphate
ADP + 7-deazaadenosine 5'-diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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i.e. tubercidine monophosphate
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-
?
ATP + adenine-9-beta-D-arabinofuranoside 5'-monophosphate
ADP + adenine-9-beta-D-arabinofuranoside 5'-diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ATP + adenosine 5'-thiophosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
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muscle: reaction at 56% the rate of AMP, liver mitochondria: reaction at 95% the rate of AMP
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-
?
ATP + AMP
2 ADP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + AMP
ADP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + AMP
ADP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + AMP
AMP + AMP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + AMP + CDP
ADP + AMP + CTP
show the reaction diagram
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-
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r
ATP + AMP-3'-diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
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muscle: reaction at 57% the rate of AMP, liver mitochondria: reaction at 86% the rate of AMP
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-
?
ATP + CDP
ADP + CTP
show the reaction diagram
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nucleoside triphosphate synthesis by beta-phosphoryl transfer from ADP to any bound nucleoside diphosphate
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r
ATP + CMP
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
ATP + CMP
ADP + CDP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + dAMP
ADP + dADP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + dCMP
ADP + dCDP
show the reaction diagram
ATP + IMP
ADP + IDP
show the reaction diagram
IMP is a poor substrate
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-
?
ATP + shikimic acid
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
shikimic acid is a good substrate
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?
ATP + TMP
ADP + TDP
show the reaction diagram
TMP is a good substrate
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?
ATP + UMP
ADP + UDP
show the reaction diagram
CDP + CDP
CTP + CMP
show the reaction diagram
CTP + AMP
ADP + CDP
show the reaction diagram
CTP + AMP
CDP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
dATP + AMP
dADP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
dATP + dAMP
dADP
show the reaction diagram
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-
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r
dATP + dAMP
dADP + dADP
show the reaction diagram
AMP and dAMP are the preferred substrates
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?
dCTP + AMP
dCDP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
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?
dGTP + AMP
dGDP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
dTTP + AMP
dTDP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
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?
GTP + AMP
ADP + GDP
show the reaction diagram
GTP + AMP
GDP
show the reaction diagram
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r
GTP + AMP
GDP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
GTP + AMP + CDP
GDP + AMP + CTP
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
ITP + AMP
IDP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
TTP + AMP
TDP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
UTP + AMP
ADP + UDP
show the reaction diagram
UTP + AMP
UDP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + ADP
?
show the reaction diagram
ADP + TDP
AMP + TTP
show the reaction diagram
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Escherichia coli adenylate kinase is able to synthesize TTP, but the activity is too low to explain the high rate of TTP accumulation uring amino acid starvation of cells
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?
ATP + AMP
ADP + ADP
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ADP
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the adenylate kinase protein preparation contains non-covalently bound ADP
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Cobalt
Li+
the enzyme is slightly activated by Li+ +(65.87% relative activity at 10 mM)
Na+
-
30 nM of AK loses about 75% of its activity but regains activity losses owing to the presence of monovalent salts like Na+
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
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above 30 mM, activates below
1,N6-Ethenoadenosine 5'-triphosphate
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3'-O-(4-Benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP
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3-phosphoglyceraldehyde
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5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
7-deazaadenosine 5'-monophosphate
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i.e. tubercidine 5'-monophosphate
8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid
acetyl-CoA
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adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate tetralithium
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non-metabolizable ATP analogue, inhibition of adenylate kinase abolishes the stimulatory effect of AMP on K/ATP channels
adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate
adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate
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weak
adenosine-5'-pentaphosphate
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weak
Ag+
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Ag+ inhibits the adenylate kinase activity from 20% to 60% when its concentration varies from 0.01 to 0.5 mM
Antibodies against bovine muscle enzyme
arginine phosphate
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weak
ascorbate
ATP
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product inhibition
Butanedione
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Ca2+
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51% inhibition at 1 mM
cystine
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adenylate kinase activity is diminished in the brain cortex of rats loaded with cystine dimethylester (0.0016 mg/g body weight), co-administration with cysteamine (0.00046 mg/g body weight) prevents inhibition of adenylate kinase caused by cystine
D-glucose
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elevated concentrations of glucose inhibit cytosolic isoform AK1 expression. Inhibition of adenylate kinase increases the ATP/ADP ratio in the microenvironment of the K/ATP channel promoting channel closure and insulin secretion
diphosphate
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reverse reaction
Homologous antibodies
iodoacetate
Methylmercury nitrate
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N-ethylmaleimide
oleic acid
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p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonate
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p-Hydroxymercuribenzene sulfonic acid
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p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
P1,P4-bis(adenosine-5')tetraphosphate
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inhibitory to both serum adenylate kinase and endothelial adenylate kinase
P1,P4-di(uridine-5')tetraphosphate
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inhibitory to both serum adenylate kinase and endothelial adenylate kinase
P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate
P1,P5-(bis adenosine)-5'-pentaphosphate
inhibited activity of the recombinant enzyme, also inhibited the growth of L. donovani promastigotes in vitro
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P1,P5-(diadenosine-5')-pentaphosphate
adenylate kinase-specific inhibitor
P1,P5-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate
P1,P5-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate
P1,P5-diadenosine 5'-pentaphosphate
P1,P5-diadenosine 5-pentaphosphate
adenylate kinase-specific inhibitor, potent inhibitor of CINAP
phosphoenolpyruvate
sulfhydryl reagents
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sulfur
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elemental sulfur, reversible by dithiothreitol, muscle, not liver isozyme
suramin
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inhibitory to both serum adenylate kinase and endothelial adenylate kinase
Urea
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plus dithiothreitol and IAA
uridine adenosine tetraphosphate
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inhibitory to both serum adenylate kinase and endothelial adenylate kinase
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
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inhibitory above 30 mM, activates below
2-mercaptoethanol
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activation
2-oxoglutarate
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activation
ADP
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induction of cellular ATP production via adenylate kinase resulting in regulation of ADP-dependent endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein
alanine
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activation
AMP
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adenylate kinase activation by ATP and AMP stimulates K/ATP channel activity and this stimulation is abolished by adenylate kinase inhibitors
ATP
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adenylate kinase activation by ATP and AMP stimulates K/ATP channel activity and this stimulation is abolished by adenylate kinase inhibitors
CDP
-
activation
cis-aconitate
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activation
citrate
dithiothreitol
fumarate
-
activation
GDP
-
activation
isocitrate
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activation
KCl
-
activation
L-cysteine
L-histidine
-
activation
malate
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activation
NH4Cl
-
activation
Prostaglandins
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activation
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sulfhydryl compounds
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requirement
TDP
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activation
Thermolysin
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significant increase of specific activity (1.5-fold) after a short (60 min, 50 C) proteolytic treatment with thermolysin
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threonine
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activation
UDP
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activation
Urea
-
up to 1 M, 60% increase in activity
additional information
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no activation by GTP, CTP, UTP, TTP, 2'-dGTP, 2'-dCTP, 2'-dATP, GMP, CMP, UMP, TMP, IMP, 2'-dAMP or 3',5'-cAMP; no activation by succinate or oxaloacetate
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