Information on EC 3.1.1.28 - acylcarnitine hydrolase

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC3.1.1.28
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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
3.1.1.28
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
acylcarnitine hydrolase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
O-acylcarnitine + H2O = a fatty acid + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hydrolysis of carboxylic ester
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
O-acylcarnitine acylhydrolase
Acts on higher fatty acid (C6 to C18) esters of L-carnitine; highest activity is with O-decanoyl-L-carnitine.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37278-42-5
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C57BL/6
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
the enzyme is required for growth on acetylcarnitine and is important for osmoprotection and induction of the virulence factor PlcH
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,3-diacylglycerides + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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faster than corresponding 1-monoglycerides
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-
?
1,3-dioctanoylglycerol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2 palmitoyl-DL-carnitine + 2 H2O
2 palmitate + L-carnitine + D-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-L-carnitine + H2O
acetate + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetylcarnitine + H2O
acetate + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acyl-L-carnitine + H2O
L-carnitine + a fatty acid
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
ir
butyryl-L-carnitine + H2O
butyrate + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
decanoyl-L-carnitine + H2O
decanoate + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
glycerol monopalmitate + H2O
glycerol + palmitic acid
show the reaction diagram
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slight
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-
?
lauroyl-L-carnitine + H2O
lauric acid + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
lysophospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
myristoyl-L-carnitine + H2O
myristic acid + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
O-fatty-acyl-L-carnitine + H2O
fatty acid + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
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hydrolyzes preferably medium and long chain fatty acids, important role in fatty acid metabolism
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-
?
octanoyl-L-carnitine + H2O
octanoate + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
p-nitrophenyl acetate + H2O
p-nitrophenol + acetate
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl carnitine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-L-carnitine + H2O
palmitic acid + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
lysophospholipids + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
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prevention of accumulation of cytotoxic esters in liver cell
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-
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O-fatty-acyl-L-carnitine + H2O
fatty acid + L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
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hydrolyzes preferably medium and long chain fatty acids, important role in fatty acid metabolism
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?
palmitoyl carnitine + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
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10 mM moderately stimulates
Mn2+
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stimulates
Pb2+
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stimulates
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acetonitrile
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anti-rat CES antibody
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cysteine
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Decanoyl D-carnitine
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methanol
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above 20% v/v
sodium cholate
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sulfhydryl reagents
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.82 - 3.2
Decanoyl-L-carnitine
0.95
lauroyl-L-carnitine
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0.43
myristoyl-L-carnitine
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0.093 - 1.89
Octanoyl-L-carnitine
0.392
p-nitrophenyl acetate
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pH 8.0, 30°C
0.016
palmitoyl carnitine
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0.0988
palmitoyl-DL-carnitine
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pH 8.0, 30°C
5
palmitoyl-L-carnitine
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5 - 9.5
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pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 10
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TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
side-chain modification
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low amount of carbohydrate
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
35
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stable for 5 min
45
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25% loss of activity after 15 min
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-80°C, pH 7.0, 5 mM potassium phosphate buffer, stable for several months
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cobalt affinity column chromatography
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli T7 Express cells
expressed in Hepa1-6, COS-7, and SL2 cells
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expression in Sf9 cells
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APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
medicine
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determination of acetylcarnitine for diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome