Information on EC 4.1.1.25 - Tyrosine decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.1.1.25
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
Tyrosine decarboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-tyrosine = tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
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-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
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-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(S)-reticuline biosynthesis I
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(S)-reticuline biosynthesis II
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides biosynthesis
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Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
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Methane metabolism
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methanofuran biosynthesis
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octopamine biosynthesis
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salidroside biosynthesis
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tyrosine metabolism
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Tyrosine metabolism
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase (tyramine-forming)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9002-09-9
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Annona diversifolia saff.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DISAV1022
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain EF37
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1.2028
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 14917, gene tdc
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
migratorioides R.F., locust
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
TYDC-2
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
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Malpighian tubules isolated from Tdc1f03311 homozygous flies show no significant depolarization of their transepithelial potential or diuresis in response to tyrosine while retaining normal sensitivity to tyramine, the null mutant allele of the neuronal TDC isoform Tdc2 has no effect on either tyrosine or tyramine sensitivity
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2-fluoro-L-tyrosine
2-fluorotyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-aspartate
3-aminopropionic acid + CO2
show the reaction diagram
95% of the activity with L-tyrosine
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-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-glutamate
4-aminobutyric acid + CO2
show the reaction diagram
80% of the activity with L-tyrosine
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-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine + H2O
phenylethylamine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
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reaction of mutant F338Y
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?
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + H2O
4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + CO2 + NH3
show the reaction diagram
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enzyme catalyzes decarboxylation and subsequent deamination of substrate
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?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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the enzyme is involved in decarboxylation of L-Dopa. L-Dopa decarboxylation activity of tyrosine decarboxylase is differentially regulated in response to stress conditions
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?
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
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IC50: 6.37 mM
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
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IC50: 9.4 mM
2-mercaptoethanol
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strong inhibition
3-hydroxybenzyl-hydrazine
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potent inhibitor, IC50: 0.0004 mM
alpha-Difluoromethyltyrosine
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weak
alpha-Fluoromethyl(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
alpha-Fluoromethyltyrosine
alpha-methyl-2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
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IC50: 1.8 mM
Citric acid
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stronger inhibitory effect on strain ATCC 367 than on IOEB 9809
Cu2+
1 mM, 9.2% residual activity
ethanol
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12%, slight inhibition of activity in cell suspension, not: up to 10%
Fe2+
1 mM, 5.7% residual activity
glycerol
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strong inhibition
hydroxylamine
2 mM, complete inhibition
L-2-aminoxy-3-phenylpropionate
L-alpha-Aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionate
Lactic acid
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stronger inhibitory effect on strain ATCC 367 than on IOEB 9809
Na2HPO4
1 mM, 67.2% residual activity
Ni2+
1 mM, 64.3% residual activity
O-Methylhydroxylamine
2 mM, complete inhibition
tyramine
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.24
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Thalictrum rugosum
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0.0017 - 1.1
L-Dopa
0.0117 - 5.1
L-phenylalanine
0.25 - 1.5
L-Tyr
0.0009 - 1.6
L-tyrosine
additional information
additional information
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TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
343
L-tyrosine
Lactobacillus brevis
J7GQ11
pH 5.0, 40C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
583
L-tyrosine
Lactobacillus brevis
J7GQ11
pH 5.0, 40C
109
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
8 - 13
tyramine
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
6.37
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
Locusta migratoria
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IC50: 6.37 mM
9.4
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
Locusta migratoria
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IC50: 9.4 mM
0.0004
3-hydroxybenzyl-hydrazine
Locusta migratoria
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potent inhibitor, IC50: 0.0004 mM
1.8
alpha-methyl-2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Locusta migratoria
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IC50: 1.8 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00000243
pH 5, 37C, purified TDC
0.18
Thalictrum rugosum
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133.5
pH 5.0, 40C
1058
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pH 5, 25C
additional information
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
2 - 9
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no activity below pH 2 or above pH 9
3 - 7
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active in the pH-range
3.5
inactive below
5 - 8
at least 95% of maximum activity
6
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more than 90% of maximum activity at pH 6
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
70
8.5% of maximum activity
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5
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isoelectric focusing
5.5
isoelectric focusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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cerebral ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
callus tissue culture, high level of transcripts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Annona diversifolia saff.
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in developing embryo during imbibition and germination, tyrosine dearboxylase is active together with polyphenol oxidase, amine oxidase and norcoclaurine synthase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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the non-neuronal isoform of TDC, Tdc1, is expressed in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubule
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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recombinant TyDC5, xylem parenchyma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Citrus sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (strain ATCC 43067 / DSM 2661 / JAL-1 / JCM 10045 / NBRC 100440)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
65000
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SDS-PAGE
70010
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MALDI TOF mass spectrometry
112000
140000
232000
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His-tagged enzyme, non-denaturing blue native gel electrophoresis
370000
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gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
homodimer
homotetramer
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4 * 65000, SDS-PAGE
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.4
7 days, 92% residual activity
728747
9.5
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at pH values above 9.5 the enzymatic activity rapidly declines
703710
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4
-
strain IOEB 9809, in presence of L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate, half-life: 15 days
25
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strain IOEB 9809, in presence of L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate, half-life: 6 days
37
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stable up to for 10 min, after 20 min 75% loss of activity
50
1 h, 14% residual activity
60
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at temperatures above 60C protein activity sharply declines
100
10 min, enzyme retains full activity
110
10 min, 68% loss of activity
121
10 min, complete loss of activity
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
complete inactivation of purified TDC by freezing at -20C, unstable during purification, washing of purified extract with sodium acetate buffer, pH 5, by ultracentrifugation results in complete loss of activity, partially restored by 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate
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enzyme is stable during preparation, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, glycerol, EDTA and 2-mercaptoethanol stabilize
L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate stabilize
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rapid loss of activity during purification
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stabilized in presence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
unstable to freezing
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ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ethanol
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12%, slight inhibition of activity in cell suspension, not: up to 10%
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3.6 mM L-tyrosine, at least 2 months, stable
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-20C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 24 h, 60% loss of activity
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2C, purified enzyme is relatively stable
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4, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3 days, stable
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4C, 25 mM TrisHCl, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 4 weeks, over 80% of activity
4C, crude extract, progressive loss of activity
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4C, repeated storage, half-life: 1.5 days
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4C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3.6 mM L-tyrosine, 15 days, 50% loss of activity
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4C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 24 h, 85% loss of activity
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Ni2+ agarose column chromatography
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partial
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase gene dTdc1; cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase gene dTdc2
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expressed as fusion protein complexed with N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Oryza sativa transgenic seeds
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expressed as His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain M15
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expressed in Oryza sativa transgenic plants under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter
expression in Escherichia coli
expression n Escherichia coli
expression of TyDC5 fused to beta-glucuronidase in Papaver somniferum and in Nicotiana tabacum
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gene tdc, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
significant increase in glucose and sucrose and the decrease in starch content are characteristic features of tyrosine decarboxylase overexpressed transgenic tubers of Solanum tubersum
transformation of fusion product of tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens
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transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi is engineered to constitutively express tobacco THT (EC 2.3.1.110). A T1 plant overexpressing THT is crossbred with T1 tobacco expressing opium poppy TYDC2 (EC 4.1.1.25), to produce a T2 line with elevated THT and TYDC activities compared with wild type plants
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TYDC-2, expression in Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi, altered biological and physiological phenotype of transgenic tobacco lines; TYDC transgenic lines obtained by transformation of Nicotiana tabacum with agrobacterium tumefaciens containing Papaver somniferum TYC2 cDNA
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TyrDC-2, expression in Solanum tuberosum leading to an accumulation of tyrosol glucoside in the transgenic potato plants
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tyrosine decarboxylase operon and gene tdc, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic organization, overview
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
gene expression is induced coordinately with the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, the last gene involved in salidroside biosynthesis, in salicylic acid/methyl jasmonate treatment. The expression of both enzymes is dramatically upregulated by salicylic acid, respectively 49 folds and 36 folds compared with control. Methyl jasmonate also significantly increases their expression in hairy root cultures
heat and cold stress, as well as stimulation by pathogens trigger no significant alteration of TyrDC transcripts
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salt stress gives rise to a transient decrease of TyrDC mRNA levels by approximately 50% after 60 min
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the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
there is a strong influence of substrate availability on the expression of the gene coding for tyrosine decarboxylase in Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
TyrDC transcription strongly responds to wounding, TyrDC levels peak within 30 min and transcript levels decline thereafter. TyrDC is rapidly activated by drought stress, reaching maximum levels after 60 min
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
F338Y
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alteration in the primary activity from decarboxylation/deamination to decarboxylation. Mutant displays a very low activity to tyrosine, i.e. about 5% of its activity to phenylalanine, and strong activity to DOPA
F346Y
alteration in the primary activity from decarboxylation-deamination to decarboxylation. Mutant retains a small percentage of decarboxylation-deamination activity
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
expression of tyrosine decarboxylase under the control of a methanol-inducible plant tryptophan decarboxylase promoter and generation of transgenic T2 homozygous rice plants. The plants show normal growth phenotypes with slightly increased levels of tyramine in seeds relative to wild type. Upon treatment with 1% methanol, the transgenic rice leaves produce large amounts of tyramine, whereas no increase in tyramine production is observed in wild-type plants. The methanol-induced accumulation of tyramine in the transgenic rice leaves is inversely correlated with the tyrosine level
food industry
nutrition
pharmacology
synthesis
engineering of a salidroside biosynthetic pathway in Rhodiola crenulata hairy roots via metabolic engineering strategy of overexpression. All the transgenic lines show much higher expression levels of tyrosine decaboxylase than non-transgenic one. The transgenic lines produce tyramine, tyrosol and salidroside at higher levels, which are respectively 3.216.84, 1.502.19 and 1.273.47 folds compared with the corresponding compound in non-transgenic lines
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