Information on EC 4.1.1.25 - Tyrosine decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
4.1.1.25
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
Tyrosine decarboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
L-tyrosine = tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(S)-reticuline biosynthesis I
-
(S)-reticuline biosynthesis II
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides biosynthesis
-
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
methanofuran biosynthesis
-
octopamine biosynthesis
-
salidroside biosynthesis
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase (tyramine-forming)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
AADC
P54768
-
AtTYDC
Q8RY79
-
Decarboxylase, tyrosine
-
-
-
-
ELI5
-
-
-
-
L-(-)-Tyrosine apodecarboxylase
-
-
-
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
Q8RY79
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
P54768
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
L-Tyrosine decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
PsTYDC1
P54768
-
PsTYDC2
P54768
-
TDC
-
-
-
-
TDC
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
-
-
-
TDC
-
gene name
TDC
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
; gene name
-
TYDC
Citrus sp.
-
-
TYDC
-
-
TYDC
Q6BD07
-
TYDC
-
-
TYDC
P54768
-
TYDC
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
-
-
TYDC/DODC
-
-
-
-
TYR decarboxylase
-
-
TyrDC
Q8RY79
-
TyrDC
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
tyrosine decarboxylase
-
-
tyrosine decarboxylase
-
-
tyrosine decarboxylase
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
-
-
tyrosine decarboxylase-2
-
-
Tyrosine/Dopa decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
tyrosine/Dopa decarboxylase-1
P54768
-
tyrosine/Dopa decarboxylase-2
P54768
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9002-09-9
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
dTdc1; dTdc2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DISAV1022
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain EF37
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
strain DISAV1022
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterococcus faecalis EF37
strain EF37
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
california poppy
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IOEB 9809
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IOEB 9809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IOEB 9809, isolated from wine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains IOEB 9809, isolated from wine, and ATCC 367
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
strain IOEB 9809
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
strain IOEB 9809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
strain IOEB 9809, isolated from wine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subspecies Lactobacillus curvatus curvatus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 14917, gene tdc
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CCDM 824
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM 1004
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
migratorioides R.F., locust
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Xanthi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Dongjin
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; TYDC-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
opium poppy
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
opium poppy, TyDC gene family with about 15 members, TyDC5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
TYDC-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expressed in Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
overexpressed in Solanum tuberosum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
parsley, TyrDC-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
meadow rue
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
Malpighian tubules isolated from Tdc1f03311 homozygous flies show no significant depolarization of their transepithelial potential or diuresis in response to tyrosine while retaining normal sensitivity to tyramine, the null mutant allele of the neuronal TDC isoform Tdc2 has no effect on either tyrosine or tyramine sensitivity
physiological function
-
synthesis of tyramine by Tdc1 in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubule is required for physiological responses to tyrosine
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2-fluoro-L-tyrosine
2-fluorotyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
at 74% of the activity with L-Tyr
-
-
-
L-aspartate
3-aminopropionic acid + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q60358
95% of the activity with L-tyrosine
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q8RY79
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P54768
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
16times lower affinity for DOPA than for tyrosine, the decarboxylation of DOPA is inhibited in the presence of the cofactor pyridoxal 5-phosphate by 50-60%, maximum activity towards DOPA in the absence of the cofactor
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
preference of L-tyrosine over L-DOPA as substrate, strain IOEB 9809: 18% of activity of L-tyrosine decarboxylation, strain ATCC 367: 22% of activity of L-tyrosine decarboxylation
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant TyrDC-2, 19-28% of the specific activity with tyrosine
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in decarboxylation of L-Dopa. L-Dopa decarboxylation activity of tyrosine decarboxylase is differentially regulated in response to stress conditions
-
-
?
L-glutamate
4-aminobutyric acid + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q60358
80% of the activity with L-tyrosine
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
-
L-phenylalanine is decarboxylated to beta-phenylethylamine (10% yield) only when tyrosine is completely depleted
-
-
?
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
possibly involved in the pathway of salidroside formation
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
inducible in late exponential and early stationary growth phases, induced by treatment with yeast glucan elicitor, may be a key enzyme between primary and secondary metabolisms in the biosynthesis of norlaudanosoline-derived alkaloids
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes an early step in the biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
induced with a yeast polysaccharide preparation, elicitor
-
-
-
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q60358
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q7B9Y8
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q8RY79
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P54768
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
A2I9X8, -
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q6BD07
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for tyrosine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q7B9Y8
specific for tyrosine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
16times higher affinity for tyrosine than for DOPA
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific for L-tyrosine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
preference of L-tyrosine over L-DOPA as substrate
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant TyrDC-2, highest specific activity with tyrosine as substrate
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
very substrate-specific, first enzyme in poppy alkaloid biosynthesis, first biosynthetic step in the tetrahydroisoquinoline pathway, TyDC serves as a channel between the aromatic amino acids L-thyrosine and L-dopa and the biosynthesis of all of the opium poppy alkaloids
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
ramification of the shikimate pathway
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosine decarboxylation in lactobacilli
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
flies with a mutation in dTdc2 lack neural tyramine and octopamine and are female sterile due to egg retention. Dtdc2 mutants release eggs into the oviducts but are unable to deposit them
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
under some circumstances, enzyme activity can exert a rate-limiting control over the carbon flux allocated to the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides of tyramine
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the recombinant protein refuses all other substrates other than L-tyrosine, suggesting TyrDC to be a specific L-tyrosine decarboxylase
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM 1004, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CCDM 824
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecalis EF37
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
highly specific for L-tyrosine, tyrosine decarboxylation in lactobacilli
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
Q7B9Y8
-, specific for tyrosine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
-, specific for tyrosine, ramification of the shikimate pathway
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, inactive toward L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q8RY79
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, inactive toward L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan
-
?
additional information
?
-
P54768
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, inactive toward L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, inactive toward L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
not: 5-hydroxytryptophan
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
not: histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, ornithine
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
not: histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, ornithine, L-DOPA
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
not: tryptophan
-
?
additional information
?
-
Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
agmatine deiminase pathway genes in Lactobacillus brevis are linked to the tyrosine decarboxylation operon in a putative acid resistance locus, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
not: histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, ornithine, L-DOPA
-
?
additional information
?
-
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
not: tryptophan
-
?
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in decarboxylation of L-Dopa. L-Dopa decarboxylation activity of tyrosine decarboxylase is differentially regulated in response to stress conditions
-
-
?
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
possibly involved in the pathway of salidroside formation
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
inducible in late exponential and early stationary growth phases, induced by treatment with yeast glucan elicitor, may be a key enzyme between primary and secondary metabolisms in the biosynthesis of norlaudanosoline-derived alkaloids
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes an early step in the biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
induced with a yeast polysaccharide preparation, elicitor
-
-
-
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q7B9Y8
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q8RY79
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P54768
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
A2I9X8, -
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
first enzyme in poppy alkaloid biosynthesis, first biosynthetic step in the tetrahydroisoquinoline pathway, TyDC serves as a channel between the aromatic amino acids L-thyrosine and L-dopa and the biosynthesis of all of the opium poppy alkaloids
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
ramification of the shikimate pathway
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosine decarboxylation in lactobacilli
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
flies with a mutation in dTdc2 lack neural tyramine and octopamine and are female sterile due to egg retention. Dtdc2 mutants release eggs into the oviducts but are unable to deposit them
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
under some circumstances, enzyme activity can exert a rate-limiting control over the carbon flux allocated to the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides of tyramine
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
tyrosine decarboxylation in lactobacilli
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
Q7B9Y8
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
-, ramification of the shikimate pathway
-
?
additional information
?
-
Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
agmatine deiminase pathway genes in Lactobacillus brevis are linked to the tyrosine decarboxylation operon in a putative acid resistance locus, overview
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
cofactor
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
the enzyme is dependent on exogenously supplied pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
activates, activity is dependent on cofactor
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
coenzyme dependence
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Q7B9Y8
requirement
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
cofactor, presence inhibits decarboxylation of DOPA by 50-60%
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
P54768
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-, Q60358
dependent on
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
A2I9X8, -
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Q6BD07
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Citrus sp.
-
dependent on
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
IC50: 6.37 mM
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
IC50: 9.4 mM
2-mercaptoethanol
-
strong inhibition
3-hydroxybenzyl-hydrazine
-
potent inhibitor, IC50: 0.0004 mM
alpha-Difluoromethyltyrosine
-
weak
alpha-Fluoromethyl(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
-
alpha-Fluoromethyl(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
weak
alpha-Fluoromethyltyrosine
-
-
alpha-Fluoromethyltyrosine
-
weak
alpha-methyl-2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
IC50: 1.8 mM
Citric acid
-
stronger inhibitory effect on strain ATCC 367 than on IOEB 9809
ethanol
-
12%, slight inhibition of activity in cell suspension, not: up to 10%
glycerol
-
strong inhibition
hydroxylamine
-, Q60358
2 mM, complete inhibition
L-alpha-Aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionate
-
-
L-alpha-Aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionate
-
-
Lactic acid
-
stronger inhibitory effect on strain ATCC 367 than on IOEB 9809
O-Methylhydroxylamine
-, Q60358
2 mM, complete inhibition
tyramine
-
competitive product inhibition, stronger effect on strain ATCC 367 than on IOEB 9809
tyramine
-
mixed non-competitive inhibitor
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.24
-
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
0.117
-
L-Dopa
-
pH 7, 32C
0.25
-
L-Dopa
Thalictrum rugosum
-
no details of experimental conditions given
1
-
L-Dopa
P54768
-
0.27
-
L-Tyr
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
0.355
-
L-Tyr
-
-
0.007
-
L-tyrosine
-
pH 7, 32C
0.27
-
L-tyrosine
Thalictrum rugosum
-
no details of experimental conditions given
0.58
-
L-tyrosine
-
pH 5, 25C, ATCC 367, crude extract
0.63
-
L-tyrosine
-
pH 5, 25C
0.67
-
L-tyrosine
-
pH 5, 25C, IOEB 9809, crude extract
0.745
-
L-tyrosine
-
-
1
-
L-tyrosine
P54768
-
1.6
-
L-tyrosine
-, Q60358
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
8
-
tyramine
-
strain ATCC 367
13
-
tyramine
-
strain IOEB 9809
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
6.37
-
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
IC50: 6.37 mM
9.4
-
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
IC50: 9.4 mM
0.0004
-
3-hydroxybenzyl-hydrazine
-
potent inhibitor, IC50: 0.0004 mM
1.8
-
alpha-methyl-2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
IC50: 1.8 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
2.43e-06
-
Q7B9Y8
pH 5, 37C, purified TDC
0.18
-
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
1058
-
-
pH 5, 25C
additional information
-
-
highly sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric assay
additional information
-
-
the pCO2 electrode is a good tool for kinetic studies
additional information
-
Q7B9Y8
not detectable in crude extract, but in the soluble fraction
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5
-
Q7B9Y8
assay at
5
-
A2I9X8, -
assay at
8.4
-
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
2
9
-
no activity below pH 2 or above pH 9
3
7
-
active in the pH-range
6
-
-
more than 90% of maximum activity at pH 6
7
9
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
pH 7: about 30% of maximal activity, pH 9: about 50% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
32
-
-
assay at
35
-
A2I9X8, -
assay at
37
-
Q7B9Y8
assay at
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5
-
-
isoelectric focusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
cerebral ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activation of the enzyme in leaves of Solanum tuberosum treated with abscisic acid. Leaves of plants grown in the dark and in red light show significantly decreased activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of 2-day-old seedlings
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
recombinant TyDC5, vascular cylinder surrounding the xylem
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
recombinant TyDC5, xylem parenchyma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the non-neuronal isoform of TDC, Tdc1, is expressed in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubule
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
enzyme activity decreases in the different ganglia in the following order: optic lobes, cerebral ganglia, thoracic ganglia, sub-oesophageal ganglion, abdominal ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
recombinant TyDC5 expression pattern, not in poppy laticifers, about 15 members of the TyDC gene family show differences in developmental, tissue-specific and inducible gene expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
dTdc1 is expressed nonneurally; dTdc2 is expressed neurally
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Citrus sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q7B9Y8
in the soluble fraction
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
in the soluble fraction
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (strain ATCC 43067 / DSM 2661 / JAL-1 / JCM 10045 / NBRC 100440)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
65000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
70010
-
-
MALDI TOF mass spectrometry
90000
-
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
native PAGE
90000
-
-, Q60358
gel filtration
95000
-
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
gel filtration
112000
-
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
140000
-
-
gel filtration
232000
-
-
His-tagged enzyme, non-denaturing blue native gel electrophoresis
370000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
x * 56300, SDS-PAGE
dimer
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
2 * 56300, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-, Q60358
2 * 45000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
-
2 * 70000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
homodimer
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
2 * 70000, SDS-PAGE; 2 * 70000, SDS-PAGE
-
homotetramer
-
4 * 65000, SDS-PAGE
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
9.5
-
-
at pH values above 9.5 the enzymatic activity rapidly declines
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
-
strain IOEB 9809, in presence of L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate, half-life: 15 days
25
-
-
strain IOEB 9809, in presence of L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate, half-life: 6 days
37
-
-
stable up to for 10 min, after 20 min 75% loss of activity
60
-
-
at temperatures above 60C protein activity sharply declines
100
-
-, Q60358
10 min, enzyme retains full activity
110
-
-, Q60358
10 min, 68% loss of activity
121
-
-, Q60358
10 min, complete loss of activity
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
rapid loss of activity during purification
-
stabilized in presence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
unstable to freezing
-
complete inactivation of purified TDC by freezing at -20C, unstable during purification, washing of purified extract with sodium acetate buffer, pH 5, by ultracentrifugation results in complete loss of activity, partially restored by 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate
-
enzyme is stable during preparation, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, glycerol, EDTA and 2-mercaptoethanol stabilize
Q7B9Y8
L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate stabilize
-
stabilized in presence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Thalictrum rugosum
-
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ethanol
-
12%, slight inhibition of activity in cell suspension, not: up to 10%
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
2C, purified enzyme is relatively stable
-
-20C, stable
Q7B9Y8
-20C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3.6 mM L-tyrosine, at least 2 months, stable
-
-20C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 24 h, 60% loss of activity
-
4, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3 days, stable
-
4C, crude extract, progressive loss of activity
-
4C, repeated storage, half-life: 1.5 days
-
4C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3.6 mM L-tyrosine, 15 days, 50% loss of activity
-
4C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 24 h, 85% loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Ni2+ agarose column chromatography
-
67.6fold
Q7B9Y8
-
Thalictrum rugosum
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expressed as His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain M15
-
cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase gene dTdc1; cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase gene dTdc2
-
tyrosine decarboxylase operon and gene tdc, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic organization, overview
-
gene tdc, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
A2I9X8, -
transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
-, Q60358
expressed as fusion protein complexed with N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Oryza sativa transgenic seeds
-
expressed in Oryza sativa transgenic plants under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter
Q6BD07
transformation of fusion product of tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
expression of TyDC5 fused to beta-glucuronidase in Papaver somniferum and in Nicotiana tabacum
-
transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi is engineered to constitutively express tobacco THT (EC 2.3.1.110). A T1 plant overexpressing THT is crossbred with T1 tobacco expressing opium poppy TYDC2 (EC 4.1.1.25), to produce a T2 line with elevated THT and TYDC activities compared with wild type plants
-
TYDC-2, expression in Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi, altered biological and physiological phenotype of transgenic tobacco lines; TYDC transgenic lines obtained by transformation of Nicotiana tabacum with agrobacterium tumefaciens containing Papaver somniferum TYC2 cDNA
-
significant increase in glucose and sucrose and the decrease in starch content are characteristic features of tyrosine decarboxylase overexpressed transgenic tubers of Solanum tubersum
-, Q06087
TyrDC-2, expression in Solanum tuberosum leading to an accumulation of tyrosol glucoside in the transgenic potato plants
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
salt stress gives rise to a transient decrease of TyrDC mRNA levels by approximately 50% after 60 min
-
heat and cold stress, as well as stimulation by pathogens trigger no significant alteration of TyrDC transcripts
-
TyrDC transcription strongly responds to wounding, TyrDC levels peak within 30 min and transcript levels decline thereafter. TyrDC is rapidly activated by drought stress, reaching maximum levels after 60 min
-
there is a strong influence of substrate availability on the expression of the gene coding for tyrosine decarboxylase in Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
there is a strong influence of substrate availability on the expression of the gene coding for tyrosine decarboxylase in Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
-
the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CCDM 824
-
-
the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
-
the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM 1004
-
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
the mutant allele of Tdc1, Tdc1f03311, reduces expression of the mature Tdc1 transcript by greater than 100fold
additional information
-
fusion construct of tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine N-hydroycinnamoyltransferase
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
food industry
-
tyrosine decarboxylase is expressed during wine fermentation
nutrition
-
information about enzyme may contribute to the prevention of tyramine formation during wine production and storage
food industry
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
tyrosine decarboxylase is expressed during wine fermentation
-
nutrition
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
information about enzyme may contribute to the prevention of tyramine formation during wine production and storage
-
nutrition
-
production of plant secondary metabolites
pharmacology
P54768
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids