Information on EC 4.1.1.25 - Tyrosine decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
4.1.1.25
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
Tyrosine decarboxylase
-
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-tyrosine = tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(S)-reticuline biosynthesis I
-
-
(S)-reticuline biosynthesis II
-
-
hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amides biosynthesis
-
-
methanofuran biosynthesis
-
-
octopamine biosynthesis
-
-
salidroside biosynthesis
-
-
tyrosine metabolism
-
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
-
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-tyrosine carboxy-lyase (tyramine-forming)
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Decarboxylase, tyrosine
-
-
-
-
ELI5
-
-
-
-
L-(-)-Tyrosine apodecarboxylase
-
-
-
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
L-amino acid decarboxylase
-
-
L-Tyrosine decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
P0665A11.14
gene name
TDC
-
-
-
-
TDC
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
-
-
-
TDC
-
gene name
TDC
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
; gene name
-
TYDC
Citrus sp.
-
-
TYDC
-
-
TYDC
-
-
TYDC
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
-
-
TYDC
-
-
TYDC/DODC
-
-
-
-
TYR decarboxylase
-
-
TyrDC
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
tyrosine decarboxylase
-
-
tyrosine decarboxylase
-
-
tyrosine decarboxylase
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
-
-
tyrosine decarboxylase-2
-
-
Tyrosine/Dopa decarboxylase
-
-
-
-
tyrosine/Dopa decarboxylase-1
-
tyrosine/Dopa decarboxylase-2
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9002-09-9
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Annona diversifolia saff.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
dTdc1; dTdc2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DISAV1022
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain EF37
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
strain DISAV1022
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterococcus faecalis EF37
strain EF37
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterococcus faecium R615Z1
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
california poppy
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IOEB 9809
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IOEB 9809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain IOEB 9809, isolated from wine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains IOEB 9809, isolated from wine, and ATCC 367
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1.2028
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
strain IOEB 9809
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
strain IOEB 9809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
strain IOEB 9809, isolated from wine
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subspecies Lactobacillus curvatus curvatus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 14917, gene tdc
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CCDM 824
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM 1004
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
migratorioides R.F., locust
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Xanthi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Dongjin
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; TYDC-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
opium poppy
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
opium poppy, TyDC gene family with about 15 members, TyDC5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
TYDC-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expressed in Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desiree
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
overexpressed in Solanum tuberosum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
parsley, TyrDC-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
meadow rue
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
Malpighian tubules isolated from Tdc1f03311 homozygous flies show no significant depolarization of their transepithelial potential or diuresis in response to tyrosine while retaining normal sensitivity to tyramine, the null mutant allele of the neuronal TDC isoform Tdc2 has no effect on either tyrosine or tyramine sensitivity
physiological function
-
synthesis of tyramine by Tdc1 in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubule is required for physiological responses to tyrosine
physiological function
the phenylalanine residue in the catalytic loop region could serve as a signature residue to reliably distinguish plant arylalkylamine and aldehyde synthesizing aromaic amino acid decarboxylases
physiological function
over-expression results in a marked increase of tyrosol and salidroside content in transgenic plants
physiological function
Annona diversifolia saff.
-
alkaloid biosynthesis at early developmental stages is related to embryo growth and development
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2-fluoro-L-tyrosine
2-fluorotyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine
Dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
at 74% of the activity with L-Tyr
-
-
L-aspartate
3-aminopropionic acid + CO2
show the reaction diagram
95% of the activity with L-tyrosine
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
16times lower affinity for DOPA than for tyrosine, the decarboxylation of DOPA is inhibited in the presence of the cofactor pyridoxal 5-phosphate by 50-60%, maximum activity towards DOPA in the absence of the cofactor
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
preference of L-tyrosine over L-DOPA as substrate, strain IOEB 9809: 18% of activity of L-tyrosine decarboxylation, strain ATCC 367: 22% of activity of L-tyrosine decarboxylation
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant TyrDC-2, 19-28% of the specific activity with tyrosine
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in decarboxylation of L-Dopa. L-Dopa decarboxylation activity of tyrosine decarboxylase is differentially regulated in response to stress conditions
-
?
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1.2028
43.9% of the activity with L-tyrosine
-
?
L-glutamate
4-aminobutyric acid + CO2
show the reaction diagram
80% of the activity with L-tyrosine
-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
L-phenylalanine is decarboxylated to beta-phenylethylamine (10% yield) only when tyrosine is completely depleted
-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
-
L-phenylalanine is decarboxylated to beta-phenylethylamine (10% yield) only when tyrosine is completely depleted
-
?
L-phenylalanine
beta-phenylethylamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecium R615Z1
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine + H2O
phenylethylamine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
reaction of mutant F338Y
?
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
possibly involved in the pathway of salidroside formation
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
inducible in late exponential and early stationary growth phases, induced by treatment with yeast glucan elicitor, may be a key enzyme between primary and secondary metabolisms in the biosynthesis of norlaudanosoline-derived alkaloids
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes an early step in the biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
induced with a yeast polysaccharide preparation, elicitor
-
-
-
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
preferred substrate
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for tyrosine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
specific for tyrosine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
16times higher affinity for tyrosine than for DOPA
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific for L-tyrosine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
preference of L-tyrosine over L-DOPA as substrate
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant TyrDC-2, highest specific activity with tyrosine as substrate
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
very substrate-specific, first enzyme in poppy alkaloid biosynthesis, first biosynthetic step in the tetrahydroisoquinoline pathway, TyDC serves as a channel between the aromatic amino acids L-thyrosine and L-dopa and the biosynthesis of all of the opium poppy alkaloids
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
ramification of the shikimate pathway
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosine decarboxylation in lactobacilli
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
flies with a mutation in dTdc2 lack neural tyramine and octopamine and are female sterile due to egg retention. Dtdc2 mutants release eggs into the oviducts but are unable to deposit them
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
under some circumstances, enzyme activity can exert a rate-limiting control over the carbon flux allocated to the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides of tyramine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the recombinant protein refuses all other substrates other than L-tyrosine, suggesting TyrDC to be a specific L-tyrosine decarboxylase
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM 1004
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1
preferred substrate
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1.2028
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CCDM 824
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecalis EF37
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
highly specific for L-tyrosine, tyrosine decarboxylation in lactobacilli
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
specific for tyrosine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
specific for tyrosine, ramification of the shikimate pathway
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Enterococcus faecium R615Z1
-
preferred substrate
-
?
L-tyrosine + H2O
4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + CO2 + NH3
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme catalyzes decarboxylation and subsequent deamination of substrate
?
additional information
?
-
no substrate: L-tryptophan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, inactive toward L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, inactive toward L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, inactive toward L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
exclusive substrate specificity for L-amino acids with either indole or phenol side chains, but not both, inactive toward L-phenylalanine and L-tryptophan
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
not: 5-hydroxytryptophan
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
not: histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, ornithine
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
not: histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, ornithine, L-DOPA
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
not: tryptophan
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
agmatine deiminase pathway genes in Lactobacillus brevis are linked to the tyrosine decarboxylation operon in a putative acid resistance locus, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1.2028
no substrates: L-phenylalanine, L-tryptophan
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
agmatine deiminase pathway genes in Lactobacillus brevis are linked to the tyrosine decarboxylation operon in a putative acid resistance locus, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
not: histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, ornithine, L-DOPA
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
not: tryptophan
-
-
?
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-Dopa
dopamine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in decarboxylation of L-Dopa. L-Dopa decarboxylation activity of tyrosine decarboxylase is differentially regulated in response to stress conditions
-
?
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
possibly involved in the pathway of salidroside formation
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
inducible in late exponential and early stationary growth phases, induced by treatment with yeast glucan elicitor, may be a key enzyme between primary and secondary metabolisms in the biosynthesis of norlaudanosoline-derived alkaloids
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes an early step in the biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids
-
-
-
L-Tyr
?
show the reaction diagram
Thalictrum rugosum
-
induced with a yeast polysaccharide preparation, elicitor
-
-
-
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q7B9Y8
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q8RY79
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P54768
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
A2I9X8
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q1KLR8
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
first enzyme in poppy alkaloid biosynthesis, first biosynthetic step in the tetrahydroisoquinoline pathway, TyDC serves as a channel between the aromatic amino acids L-thyrosine and L-dopa and the biosynthesis of all of the opium poppy alkaloids
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
ramification of the shikimate pathway
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
tyrosine decarboxylation in lactobacilli
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
flies with a mutation in dTdc2 lack neural tyramine and octopamine and are female sterile due to egg retention. Dtdc2 mutants release eggs into the oviducts but are unable to deposit them
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
under some circumstances, enzyme activity can exert a rate-limiting control over the carbon flux allocated to the biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides of tyramine
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
tyrosine decarboxylation in lactobacilli
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
Q7B9Y8
-
-
?
L-Tyrosine
Tyramine + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Papaver somniferum TYDC-2
-
ramification of the shikimate pathway
-
?
additional information
?
-
Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
agmatine deiminase pathway genes in Lactobacillus brevis are linked to the tyrosine decarboxylation operon in a putative acid resistance locus, overview
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
cofactor
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
functional group
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
the enzyme is dependent on exogenously supplied pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
activates, activity is dependent on cofactor
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
coenzyme dependence
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
requirement
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
cofactor, presence inhibits decarboxylation of DOPA by 50-60%
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
dependent on
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Citrus sp.
-
dependent on
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
IC50: 6.37 mM
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
-
IC50: 9.4 mM
2-mercaptoethanol
-
strong inhibition
3-hydroxybenzyl-hydrazine
-
potent inhibitor, IC50: 0.0004 mM
alpha-Difluoromethyltyrosine
-
weak
alpha-Fluoromethyl(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
-
alpha-Fluoromethyl(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
-
weak
alpha-Fluoromethyltyrosine
-
-
alpha-Fluoromethyltyrosine
-
weak
alpha-methyl-2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
-
IC50: 1.8 mM
Citric acid
-
stronger inhibitory effect on strain ATCC 367 than on IOEB 9809
Cu2+
1 mM, 9.2% residual activity
ethanol
-
12%, slight inhibition of activity in cell suspension, not: up to 10%
Fe2+
1 mM, 5.7% residual activity
glycerol
-
strong inhibition
hydroxylamine
2 mM, complete inhibition
L-2-aminoxy-3-phenylpropionate
-
-
L-alpha-Aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionate
-
-
L-alpha-Aminooxy-beta-phenylpropionate
-
-
Lactic acid
-
stronger inhibitory effect on strain ATCC 367 than on IOEB 9809
Na2HPO4
1 mM, 67.2% residual activity
NaCl
decarboxylation of substrate phenylalanine is inhibited increasing concentrations of NaCl, no inhibition for substrate tyrosine
NaCl
-
decarboxylation of substrate phenylalanine is inhibited increasing concentrations of NaCl, no inhibition for substrate tyrosine
Ni2+
1 mM, 64.3% residual activity
O-Methylhydroxylamine
2 mM, complete inhibition
tyramine
-
competitive product inhibition, stronger effect on strain ATCC 367 than on IOEB 9809
tyramine
-
mixed non-competitive inhibitor
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.24
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
0.0017
L-Dopa
pH 7.2, 30C
0.117
L-Dopa
-
pH 7, 32C
0.25
L-Dopa
Thalictrum rugosum
-
no details of experimental conditions given
0.0117
L-phenylalanine
pH 7.2, 30C
4.6
L-phenylalanine
-
mutant F338Y, pH 7., 25C
5.1
L-phenylalanine
-
wild-type, pH 7., 25C
0.27
L-Tyr
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
0.355
L-Tyr
-
-
1.5
L-Tyr
-
-
0.0009
L-tyrosine
pH 7.2, 30C
0.007
L-tyrosine
-
pH 7, 32C
0.27
L-tyrosine
Thalictrum rugosum
-
no details of experimental conditions given
0.58
L-tyrosine
-
pH 5, 25C, ATCC 367, crude extract
0.59
L-tyrosine
pH 5.0, 40C
0.63
L-tyrosine
-
pH 5, 25C
0.67
L-tyrosine
-
pH 5, 25C, IOEB 9809, crude extract
0.745
L-tyrosine
-
-
1
L-tyrosine
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
343
L-tyrosine
Lactobacillus brevis
J7GQ11
pH 5.0, 40C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
583
L-tyrosine
Lactobacillus brevis
J7GQ11
pH 5.0, 40C
109
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
8
tyramine
-
strain ATCC 367
13
tyramine
-
strain IOEB 9809
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
6.37
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
Locusta migratoria
-
IC50: 6.37 mM
9.4
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanoic acid
Locusta migratoria
-
IC50: 9.4 mM
0.0004
3-hydroxybenzyl-hydrazine
Locusta migratoria
-
potent inhibitor, IC50: 0.0004 mM
1.8
alpha-methyl-2,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
Locusta migratoria
-
IC50: 1.8 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.00000243
pH 5, 37C, purified TDC
0.18
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
133.5
pH 5.0, 40C
1058
-
pH 5, 25C
additional information
-
highly sensitive and rapid spectrophotometric assay
additional information
-
the pCO2 electrode is a good tool for kinetic studies
additional information
not detectable in crude extract, but in the soluble fraction
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
2 - 9
-
no activity below pH 2 or above pH 9
3 - 7
-
active in the pH-range
3.5
inactive below
5 - 8
at least 95% of maximum activity
6
-
more than 90% of maximum activity at pH 6
7 - 9
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
pH 7: about 30% of maximal activity, pH 9: about 50% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
32
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
70
8.5% of maximum activity
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5
-
isoelectric focusing
5.5
isoelectric focusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
cerebral ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
callus tissue culture, high level of transcripts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Annona diversifolia saff.
-
in developing embryo during imbibition and germination, tyrosine dearboxylase is active together with polyphenol oxidase, amine oxidase and norcoclaurine synthase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activation of the enzyme in leaves of Solanum tuberosum treated with abscisic acid. Leaves of plants grown in the dark and in red light show significantly decreased activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
young leaf, low level of transcripts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of 2-day-old seedlings
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
recombinant TyDC5, vascular cylinder surrounding the xylem
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high level of transcripts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
higher expression levels in leaves than in flowers and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Annona diversifolia saff.
-
in seedling with leaf primordia and seedlings with two true leaves, activity of tyrosine decarboxylase, polyphenol oxidase, and amine oxidase is detected in all tissues
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
recombinant TyDC5, xylem parenchyma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
low level of transcripts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
highest expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the non-neuronal isoform of TDC, Tdc1, is expressed in the principal cells of the Malpighian tubule
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
enzyme activity decreases in the different ganglia in the following order: optic lobes, cerebral ganglia, thoracic ganglia, sub-oesophageal ganglion, abdominal ganglia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
recombinant TyDC5 expression pattern, not in poppy laticifers, about 15 members of the TyDC gene family show differences in developmental, tissue-specific and inducible gene expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
dTdc1 is expressed nonneurally; dTdc2 is expressed neurally
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
gene expressing levels are consistent with the salidroside accumulation levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Annona diversifolia saff.
-
no activity in endosperm
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Citrus sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Enterococcus faecalis DISAV1022
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
in the soluble fraction
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
in the soluble fraction
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (strain ATCC 43067 / DSM 2661 / JAL-1 / JCM 10045 / NBRC 100440)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
65000
-
SDS-PAGE
703710
70010
-
MALDI TOF mass spectrometry
706671
90000
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
native PAGE
4197
90000
gel filtration
661251
95000
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
gel filtration
4197
112000
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
653443
140000
-
gel filtration
651361
140000
gel filtration
728747
232000
-
His-tagged enzyme, non-denaturing blue native gel electrophoresis
703710
370000
-
gel filtration
653346
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
x * 56300, SDS-PAGE
?
x * 70053, calculated
?
-
x * 70300, calculated
?
x * 56800, calculated
?
Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1
-
x * 70053, calculated
-
?
Enterococcus faecium R615Z1
-
x * 70300, calculated
-
dimer
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
2 * 56300, SDS-PAGE
dimer
2 * 45000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
2 * 70000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1.2028
-
2 * 70000, SDS-PAGE
-
homodimer
-
2 * 70000, SDS-PAGE
homodimer
Eschscholzia californica, Thalictrum rugosum
-
-
homodimer
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
2 * 70000, SDS-PAGE; 2 * 70000, SDS-PAGE
-
homotetramer
-
4 * 65000, SDS-PAGE
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7.4
7 days, 92% residual activity
728747
9.5
-
at pH values above 9.5 the enzymatic activity rapidly declines
703710
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
strain IOEB 9809, in presence of L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate, half-life: 15 days
651348
25
-
strain IOEB 9809, in presence of L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate, half-life: 6 days
651348
37
-
stable up to for 10 min, after 20 min 75% loss of activity
651361
50
1 h, 14% residual activity
728747
60
-
at temperatures above 60C protein activity sharply declines
703710
100
10 min, enzyme retains full activity
661251
110
10 min, 68% loss of activity
661251
121
10 min, complete loss of activity
661251
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
rapid loss of activity during purification
-
stabilized in presence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
unstable to freezing
-
complete inactivation of purified TDC by freezing at -20C, unstable during purification, washing of purified extract with sodium acetate buffer, pH 5, by ultracentrifugation results in complete loss of activity, partially restored by 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate
-
enzyme is stable during preparation, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, glycerol, EDTA and 2-mercaptoethanol stabilize
L-tyrosine and pyridoxal 5-phosphate stabilize
-
stabilized in presence of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Thalictrum rugosum
-
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ethanol
-
12%, slight inhibition of activity in cell suspension, not: up to 10%
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
2C, purified enzyme is relatively stable
-
-20C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3.6 mM L-tyrosine, at least 2 months, stable
-
-20C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 24 h, 60% loss of activity
-
4, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3 days, stable
-
4C, 25 mM TrisHCl, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 4 weeks, over 80% of activity
4C, crude extract, progressive loss of activity
-
4C, repeated storage, half-life: 1.5 days
-
4C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 0.2 mM pyridoxal 5-phosphate, 3.6 mM L-tyrosine, 15 days, 50% loss of activity
-
4C, TDC from strain IOEB 9809, 0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 5, 24 h, 85% loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Ni2+ agarose column chromatography
-
-
Thalictrum rugosum
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed as His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain M15
-
cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase gene dTdc1; cloning of tyrosine decarboxylase gene dTdc2
-
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression n Escherichia coli
tyrosine decarboxylase operon and gene tdc, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic organization, overview
-
gene tdc, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
expressed as fusion protein complexed with N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Oryza sativa transgenic seeds
-
expressed in Oryza sativa transgenic plants under the control of a maize ubiquitin promoter
transformation of fusion product of tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
expression of TyDC5 fused to beta-glucuronidase in Papaver somniferum and in Nicotiana tabacum
-
transgenic Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi is engineered to constitutively express tobacco THT (EC 2.3.1.110). A T1 plant overexpressing THT is crossbred with T1 tobacco expressing opium poppy TYDC2 (EC 4.1.1.25), to produce a T2 line with elevated THT and TYDC activities compared with wild type plants
-
TYDC-2, expression in Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi, altered biological and physiological phenotype of transgenic tobacco lines; TYDC transgenic lines obtained by transformation of Nicotiana tabacum with agrobacterium tumefaciens containing Papaver somniferum TYC2 cDNA
-
significant increase in glucose and sucrose and the decrease in starch content are characteristic features of tyrosine decarboxylase overexpressed transgenic tubers of Solanum tubersum
TyrDC-2, expression in Solanum tuberosum leading to an accumulation of tyrosol glucoside in the transgenic potato plants
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
Thalictrum rugosum
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
salt stress gives rise to a transient decrease of TyrDC mRNA levels by approximately 50% after 60 min
-
heat and cold stress, as well as stimulation by pathogens trigger no significant alteration of TyrDC transcripts
-
TyrDC transcription strongly responds to wounding, TyrDC levels peak within 30 min and transcript levels decline thereafter. TyrDC is rapidly activated by drought stress, reaching maximum levels after 60 min
-
there is a strong influence of substrate availability on the expression of the gene coding for tyrosine decarboxylase in Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
there is a strong influence of substrate availability on the expression of the gene coding for tyrosine decarboxylase in Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
-
the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
-
the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CCDM 824
-
-
the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
-
the highest production of tyramine is obtained within the culture with the highest (2% w/v) NaCl concentration applied. In all salt concentrations tested, the highest production of tyramine is determined during the cultivation with 0.5% (w/v) lactose without oxygen access. At the same concentrations of NaCl and lactose, a higher amount of tyramine is detected under anaerobic conditions
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CCDM 1004
-
-
gene expression is induced coordinately with the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, the last gene involved in salidroside biosynthesis, in salicylic acid/methyl jasmonate treatment. The expression of both enzymes is dramatically upregulated by salicylic acid, respectively 49 folds and 36 folds compared with control. Methyl jasmonate also significantly increases their expression in hairy root cultures
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
F338Y
-
alteration in the primary activity from decarboxylation/deamination to decarboxylation. Mutant displays a very low activity to tyrosine, i.e. about 5% of its activity to phenylalanine, and strong activity to DOPA
additional information
-
the mutant allele of Tdc1, Tdc1f03311, reduces expression of the mature Tdc1 transcript by greater than 100fold
additional information
-
fusion construct of tyrosine decarboxylase and tyramine N-hydroycinnamoyltransferase
F346Y
alteration in the primary activity from decarboxylation-deamination to decarboxylation. Mutant retains a small percentage of decarboxylation-deamination activity
additional information
generation of a chimeric protein composed of Thalictrum flavum tyrosine decarboxylase residues 1300 and Petroselinum crispum romatic acetaldehyde synthase residues 300514. The hybrid enzyme behaves primarily as a wild-type Petroselinum crispum acetaldehyde synthase
additional information
generation of a chimeric protein composed of Thalictrum flavum tyrosine decarboxylase residues 1300 and Petroselinum crispum romatic acetaldehyde synthase residues 300514. The hybrid enzyme behaves primarily as a wild-type Petroselinum crispum acetaldehyde synthase
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
food industry
-
tyrosine decarboxylase is expressed during wine fermentation
nutrition
-
information about enzyme may contribute to the prevention of tyramine formation during wine production and storage
food industry
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
tyrosine decarboxylase is expressed during wine fermentation
-
nutrition
Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809
-
information about enzyme may contribute to the prevention of tyramine formation during wine production and storage
-
agriculture
expression of tyrosine decarboxylase under the control of a methanol-inducible plant tryptophan decarboxylase promoter and generation of transgenic T2 homozygous rice plants. The plants show normal growth phenotypes with slightly increased levels of tyramine in seeds relative to wild type. Upon treatment with 1% methanol, the transgenic rice leaves produce large amounts of tyramine, whereas no increase in tyramine production is observed in wild-type plants. The methanol-induced accumulation of tyramine in the transgenic rice leaves is inversely correlated with the tyrosine level
nutrition
-
production of plant secondary metabolites
pharmacology
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids
synthesis
engineering of a salidroside biosynthetic pathway in Rhodiola crenulata hairy roots via metabolic engineering strategy of overexpression. All the transgenic lines show much higher expression levels of tyrosine decaboxylase than non-transgenic one. The transgenic lines produce tyramine, tyrosol and salidroside at higher levels, which are respectively 3.216.84, 1.502.19 and 1.273.47 folds compared with the corresponding compound in non-transgenic lines
pharmacology
-
biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important monoterpenoid indole alkaloids