Information on EC 2.7.1.30 - glycerol kinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.7.1.30
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glycerol kinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
glycerone and L-glyceraldehyde can act as acceptors, in some organisms UTP, ITP or GTP can act as donors
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ordered mechanism
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
random bi bi mechanism
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ping-pong mechanism
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ping-pong mechanism
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ordered bi bi mechanism with glycerol adding before the magnesium nucleotide and L-glycerol 3-phosphate are released
Candida mycoderma
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
ordered mechanism with glycerol as the first substrate to bind
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
fructose 1,6-diphosphate regulates equilibrium of dimer-tetramer, mechanism of inhibition
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
ATP + glycerol = ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
Escherichia coli C.Lin 43
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
glycerol degradation I
-
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase
Glycerone and L-glyceraldehyde can act as acceptors; UTP (and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP) can act as donors.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ASTP
-
-
-
-
ATP-stimulated glucocorticoid-receptor translocation promoter
-
-
-
-
ATP: glycerol-3-phosphotransferase
-
-
ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase
-
-
ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase
-
-
ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase
-
-
ATP:glycerol 3-phosphotransferase
-
-
-
-
ATP:glycerol-3-phosphotransferase
-
-
-
-
ATP:glycerol-3-phosphotransferase
-
-
ATP:glycerol-3-phosphotransferase
-
-
GK
-
-
-
-
GK
-
-
glycerol kinase
GK
-
glycerol kinase
GK
-
glycerol kinase
glyceric kinase
-
-
-
-
glycerokinase
-
-
-
-
glycerol kinase
B0I1G6, B0M0V1
-
glycerol kinase
Q0IID9
-
glycerol kinase
-
-
glycerol kinase
-
-
glycerol kinase
-
-
glycerol kinase
-
-
glycerol kinase
-
-
glycerol kinase
-
-
glycerol kinase
-
-
GLYK
-
glycerol kinase
GUT1
-
gene name
GYK
-
glycerol kinase
Tk-GK
-
-
-
kinase, glycerol (phosphorylating)
-
-
-
-
additional information
-
two alternatively spliced forms, one with a 87 bp insertion corresponding to exon 18 (GK+EX18), and one without insertion (GK-EX18)
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9030-66-4
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
queen bumblebee
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glycerol kinase-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glycerol kinase-2; glycerol kinase-3
B0I1G6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida tropicalis BSXDH-3
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glycerol kinase from Cellulomonas sp. is used to develop a bisensor based on flow calorimetry for quantitative analysis of glycerol during bioconversion process. Thermomeric glycerol sensor employs flow calorimeter equipped with a column packed with immobilized glycerol kinase. The glycerol kinase from Escherichia coli is able to detect glycerol in samples, but the linearity range and sensitibity are rather low and the calibration line does not pass through the origin of calibration dependence. The enzyme from Cellulomonas sp. provides a similar trend but significantly better results. The immobilized enzyme stability is excellent. The immobilized enzyme column is stored at 4C. It can do 1 month of total operation time at 30C with no significant loss of sensitivity. No interference with 1,3-propanediol and fermentation medium is observable.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pigeon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
there are five glycerol kinase-like genes in Drosophila melanogaster. The locus CG18374, located at 61B2, is the closest homolog to the X-linked glycosyl kinase gene in Homo sapiens, sharing 53% identity. Another close homolog CG7995 (located at 62B1) shares 48% homology to the human glycerol kinase. Three other loci CG1271 at 63A3, CG1216 at 61B2, and CG8298 at 48D5 do not share the same degree of homology. Most key functional residues are missing in CG1216 suggesting it has no glycerol kinase activity.; there are five glycerol kinase-like genes in Drosophila melanogaster.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glycerol kinase from Escherichia coli is tested to develop a bisensor based on flow calorimetry for quantitative analysis of glycerol during bioconversion process. Thermomeric glycerol sensor employs flow calorimeter equipped with a column packed with immobilized glycerol kinase. The glycerol kinase from Escherichia coli is able to detect glycerol in samples, but the linearity range and sensitibity are rather low and the calibration line does not pass through the origin of calibration dependence, so that the Escherichia coli enzyme is not used.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MG1655 (ATCC 47076)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain C.Lin 43
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli C.Lin 43
strain C.Lin 43
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild type and Aqp7 knock out mice (Aqp7-/-), 14- to 18-week-old animals
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild type and Aqp7 knockout male mice and mouse 3T3-L1 cell line
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium butyricum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium sp. 607
607
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
rainbow smelt
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
kidney bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty and rosiglitazone-treated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, all male and 4 weeks old.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hyperthermophilic archaeon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
trout
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense IL2343
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Trypanosoma brucei ILTat1.4
-
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Trypanosoma congolense IL1180
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
B0I530
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Trypanosoma vivax IL1392
-
B0I530
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
broad bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
a glycerol kinase knockout strain is incapable to grow on glycerol and shows higher NADPH-dependent xylitol production compared to the wild type strain
malfunction
Candida tropicalis BSXDH-3
-
a glycerol kinase knockout strain is incapable to grow on glycerol and shows higher NADPH-dependent xylitol production compared to the wild type strain
-
metabolism
-
the enzyme plays an essential role in central and lipid metabolism
physiological function
D3KVM3, -
the enzyme is essential for energy metabolism
physiological function
-
glycerol kinase expression leads to increased fat storage in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells
physiological function
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense IL2343
-
the enzyme is essential for energy metabolism
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
ATP + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
ATP + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
D3KVM3, -
-
-
-
r
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
ATP + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
B0I530, -
-
-
-
r
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
ATP + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
Q75T26
-
-
-
r
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
ATP + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
Trypanosoma vivax IL1392
B0I530
-
-
-
r
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
ATP + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense IL2343
D3KVM3
-
-
-
r
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
ATP + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
Trypanosoma brucei ILTat1.4
Q9NJP9
-
-
-
r
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
ATP + glycerol
show the reaction diagram
Trypanosoma congolense IL1180
Q75T26
-
-
-
r
ATP + 1,3-propanediol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
ATP + 1,3-propanediol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
weak
-
-
?
ATP + 1-deoxy-sn-glycerol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-deoxyglycerol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-mercaptoethanol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-methylglycerol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + aminopropanediol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
R- and S-
-
-
?
ATP + D-glyceraldehyde
ADP + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + dihydroxyacetone
ADP + dihydroxyacetone phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + dihydroxyacetone
ADP + dihydroxyacetone phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + dihydroxyacetone
ADP + dihydroxyacetone phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + dihydroxypropyl dichloroacetate
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
glycerol analogue
-
-
?
ATP + glyceric acid
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P0A6F3
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32189
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9NJP9
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
B0I530, -
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q75T26
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high specificity for ATP, no other ribonucleoside triphosphate utilized
-
-
ir
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
high specificity for ATP, no other ribonucleoside triphosphate utilized
i.e. L-alpha-glycerophosphate
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme can utilize only ATP as phosphoryl group donor
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme can utilize only ATP as phosphoryl group donor
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
enzyme can utilize only ATP as phosphoryl group donor
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme can utilize only ATP as phosphoryl group donor
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
only glycerol active as phosphoryl group acceptor
-
-
ir
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
weak: GTP, CTP, UTP, ITP
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
CTP or UTP are as effective as ATP, not: GTP
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32189
enzyme deficiency causes hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme deficiency causes hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria, provides glycerol 3-phosphate which is an important intermediate between glucose and lipid metabolism
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, glycerol 3-phosphate is important for the synthesis of glycerides, glycerol lipids and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of glycerol metabolism in bacteria, phosphorylation of glycerol prevents diffusion through membrane
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Trypanosoma vivax IL1392
B0I530
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida tropicalis BSXDH-3
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Trypanosoma brucei ILTat1.4
Q9NJP9
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Trypanosoma congolense IL1180
Q75T26
-
-
-
r
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mycobacterium sp. 607
-
enzyme can utilize only ATP as phosphoryl group donor
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme for glycerol use in phospholipid synthesis
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme functions primarily in the utilization of glycerol as a carbon and energy source
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
dissimilation of glycerol
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
higher organisms: salvage of glycerol released upon lipolysis
-
-
-
ATP + L-glyceraldehyde
ADP + L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + L-glyceraldehyde
ADP + L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + L-glyceraldehyde
ADP + L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + L-glyceraldehyde
ADP + L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + mercaptopropanediol
1-mercaptopropanediol 1-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli, Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + mercaptopropanediol
1-mercaptopropanediol 1-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
?
ATP + monoacetin
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
glycerol analogue
-
-
?
ATP + monobutyrin
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
glycerol analogue
-
-
?
ATP + monothioglycerol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + glycerol
CDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + glycerol
CDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
CTP + glycerol
CDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + glycerol
CDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + glycerol
CDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + glycerol
CDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
CTP + glycerol
CDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
CTP + glycerol
CDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
14% of the activity with ATP
-
-
?
glycerol + ATP
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycerol + ATP
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glycerol + ATP
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8IDI4
-
-
-
?
glycerol + ATP
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
B0I1G6, B0M0V1, -
-
-
-
?
GTP + glycerol
GDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + glycerol
GDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
GTP + glycerol
GDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + glycerol
GDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + glycerol
GDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
GTP + glycerol
GDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
not
-
-
-
GTP + glycerol
GDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
not
-
-
-
ITP + glycerol
IDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ITP + glycerol
IDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
ITP + glycerol
IDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
-
-
?
ITP + glycerol
IDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
TTP + glycerol
TDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
TTP + glycerol
TDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
?
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
-
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
not
-
-
-
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
7% of the activity with ATP
-
-
?
UTP + glycerol
UDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Mycobacterium sp. 607
-
not
-
-
?
XTP + glycerol
XDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
?
ITP + glycerol
IDP + glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
not
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
D-glyceraldehyde promotes conversion of ATP to ADP + phosphate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Candida mycoderma
-
D-glyceraldehyde promotes conversion of ATP to ADP + phosphate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
overview: enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of 28 nitrogen-, sulfur- and alkyl-substituted analogues of glycerol, phosphorylated products have stereochemistry analogous to that of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
phosphate rather than D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is formed, the hydrated form of this triose is phosphorylated in position 1 to yield an unstable intermediate that decomposes to D-glyceraldehyde + phosphate
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P32189
enzyme deficiency causes hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme deficiency causes hyperglycerolemia and glyceroluria, provides glycerol 3-phosphate which is an important intermediate between glucose and lipid metabolism
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, glycerol 3-phosphate is important for the synthesis of glycerides, glycerol lipids and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
ADP + sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of glycerol metabolism in bacteria, phosphorylation of glycerol prevents diffusion through membrane
-
-
?
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme for glycerol use in phospholipid synthesis
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme functions primarily in the utilization of glycerol as a carbon and energy source
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
dissimilation of glycerol
-
-
-
ATP + glycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
higher organisms: salvage of glycerol released upon lipolysis
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
Mg2+-ATP-dependent
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
(NH4)2SO4
-
activates
Co2+
-
best effect, may be replaced by Zn2+
KCl
-
0.04 M, stimulates 30% at neutral pH
KCl
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
maximum with 2.5 mM Mg2+; other metal ions cannot substitute for Mg2+; required
Mg2+
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
required
Mg2+
-
true substrate: MgATP-complex
Mg2+
-
ommision of Mg2+ abolishes activity; other metal ions cannot substitute for Mg2+
Mg2+
-
Mg2+-ATP-dependent
Mn2+
-
can substitute for Mg2+; rate is 3-fold lower than with Mg2+
Zn2+
-
can substitute for Co2+
Mn2+
-
can substitute for Mg2+; less active at equal molar concentration than Mg2+
additional information
-
other metal ions cannot substitute for Mg2+
additional information
-
divalent metal ions activate
additional information
-
no effect: Ca2+
additional information
-
other metal ions cannot substitute for Mg2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,2-Propanediol
-
-
1-Pentanol
-
-
3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol
-
-
3-Deoxy-sn-glycerol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
ADP
-
weak, competitive to ATP, uncompetitive to glycerol
ADP
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
ADP
-
product inhibition
AMP
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
ATP
-
substrate inhibition
Butane-1,3-diol
Candida mycoderma
-
D- and L-configuration
CrATP
Candida mycoderma
-
coordination complex of Cr3+ and ATP, dead-end inhibitor
cytosolic subunit of the glucose-specific phosphotransferase system
-
allosteric inhibition
-
D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
-
-
D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
-
allosteric inhibition
DTNB
-
inactivation reversed by dithiothreitol
Erythritol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
Ethanediol
-
-
Ethanediol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
ethanol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
Candida mycoderma
-
not
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
-
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
not
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
weak inhibition
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
not
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
-
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
-
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
normal enzyme is inhibited, genetically altered enzyme not, inhibition is reduced by high pH, high ionic strength or 0.2 M guanidine HCl
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
inhibition is associated with oligomerization
fructose 1,6-diphosphate
-
mechanism
glucose 6-phosphate
-
-
glucose 6-phosphate
-
not
glucose-specific phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system
-
-
-
glucose-specific phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system (IIA(Glc))
-
allosteric inhibitor
-
glycerol
-
inhibitor of the glycerol kinase reverse reaction
glycerol
Q75T26
inhibitor of the glycerol kinase reverse reaction
glycerol
B0I530, -
inhibitor of the glycerol kinase reverse reaction
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
competitive to glycerol
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
up to 10 mM, no product inhibition of the forward reaction
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
-
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
not
glycerol 3-phosphate
-
competitive to glycerol
iodoacetamide
Candida mycoderma
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
-
iodoacetate
-
-
L(+)-Butane-2,3-diol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
L-alpha-glycerophosphate
-
no inhibition up to 3 mM in presence of 0.1 M glycerol
L-Threitol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
protection by: glycerol propane-1,2-diol, ATP, ADP, AMP, cAMP, no protection by: Mg2+, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, propane-1,3-diol
p-chloromercuribenzoate
Candida mycoderma
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
glutathione protects
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-Hydroxymercuriphenylsulfonate
-
-
phosphocarrier protein IIAGlc
-
the unphosphorylated form of the phosphocarrier protein IIAGlc is an allosteric inhibitor of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase
-
Procion Blue MX-3G
-
5 mM, inactivates after a period of increased activity
propan-1-ol
-
activates
propan-1-ol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
propan-2-ol
-
activates
propan-2-ol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
Salyrganic acid
Candida mycoderma
-
-
additional information
-
not: IIAGlc
-
additional information
-
regulation of activity by allosteric inhibition through complex formation with enzyme IIAGlc
-
additional information
-, Q8IDI4
not regulated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,3-butanediol
-
activates
1,3-Propanediol
-
activates
1,4-Butanediol
-
activates
1-butanol
-
activates
1-Chloro-2-propanol
-
activates
1-Propanol
-
activates
1-Propanol
Candida mycoderma
-
inhibits
2,3-Butanediol
-
activates
2-butanol
-
activates
2-Chloroethanol
-
activates
2-methyl-1-propanol
-
activates
2-Methyl-2-propanol
-
activates
2-Pentanol
-
activates
2-Propanol
-
activates
2-Propanol
Candida mycoderma
-
inhibits
3-methyl-1-butanol
-
activates
Cyclohexanol
-
activates
Ethanediol methyl ether
-
activates
ethanol
-
activates
methanol
-
activates
rosiglitazone
-
rosiglitazone treatment markebly increases glycerol kinase mRNA expression in both the mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissues (1085.9% and 523.8% of the abundance in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats, respectively). The magnitude of glycerol kinase induced by rosiglitazone is significantly greater in the mesenteric fat than in the epididymal fat.
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
45
-
1-deoxy-sn-glycerol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
88
-
2-deoxyglycerol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
0.046
-
2-mercaptoethanol
Candida mycoderma
-
25C, pH 8.2
5.7
-
2-methylglycerol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
0.24
-
ADP
Q75T26
in 0.1 M MOPS buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM MgSO4, temperature not specified in the publication
0.37
-
ADP
-
in 0.1 M MOPS buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM MgSO4, temperature not specified in the publication
0.56
-
ADP
-
25C, pH 8.0
0.69
-
ADP
B0I530, -
in 0.1 M MOPS buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM MgSO4, temperature not specified in the publication
0.006
-
ATP
-
mutant enzyme V61L, at pH 7.0 and 25C
0.0078
-
ATP
-
wild type enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 25C
0.009
-
ATP
-
mutant enzyme D72V, at pH 7.0 and 25C
0.015
-
ATP
-
pH 8.0, 80C
0.021
-
ATP
-, Q8IDI4
-
0.045
-
ATP
-
and also 2.5 mM, pH 7.0, 25C
0.09
-
ATP
Candida mycoderma
-
25C
0.095
-
ATP
B0I1G6, B0M0V1, -
enzyme source: crude extract from diapause eggs exposed to 5C for 200 days, Bombyx mori has 3 glycerol kinase genes; enzyme source: crude extract from diapause eggs exposed to 5C for 200 days, Bombyx mori has 3 glycerol kinase genes
0.19
-
ATP
-
pH 7.4
0.19
-
ATP
-
mutant enzyme Q37P, at pH 7.0 and 25C
0.24
-
ATP
-
25C, pH 8.0
0.246
-
ATP
-
pH 8.6
0.25
-
ATP
-
mutant enzyme M271I, at pH 7.0 and 25C
0.37
-
ATP
-
25C, pH 7.5
2.5
-
ATP
-
and also 0.045 mM, pH 7.0, 25C
3.29
-
ATP
-
pH 7.0
0.515
-
CTP
-
-
0.14
-
dichloro-monoacetin
-
pH 7.35, 37C
0.5
-
Dihydroxyacetone
-
pH 7.0, 25C
0.5
-
Dihydroxyacetone
-
25C, plus D-glyceraldehyde
5
-
Dihydroxyacetone
Candida mycoderma
-
pH 7.0, 25C
100
-
Dihydroxyacetone
Candida mycoderma, Escherichia coli
-
-
100
-
Dihydroxyacetone
-
30C
0.15
-
glyceric acid
-
-
0.01
-
glycerol
Candida mycoderma
-
25C, pH 8.2
0.018
-
glycerol
-, Q8IDI4
-
0.02
-
glycerol
-
and also 1.26 mM, 30C
0.025
-
glycerol
-
and also 0.22 mM, 30C
0.036
0.046
glycerol
-
pH 7.35, 37C, depending on culture medium
0.04
-
glycerol
-
and also 1.5 mM, 30C
0.06
-
glycerol
Candida mycoderma
-
25C
0.11
-
glycerol
-
25C, pH 7.5
0.111
-
glycerol
-
pH 7.35, 37C
0.111
-
glycerol
-
pH 8.0, 80C
0.162
-
glycerol
-
-
0.169
-
glycerol
-
pH 8.6
0.17
-
glycerol
-
pH 9.0
0.22
-
glycerol
-
and also 0.025 mM, 30C
0.26
-
glycerol
-
pH 7.4, ATP, pH 9.0
0.32
-
glycerol
B0I1G6, B0M0V1, -
enzyme source: crude extract from diapause eggs exposed to 5C for 200 days, Bombyx mori has 3 glycerol kinase genes; enzyme source: crude extract from diapause eggs exposed to 5C for 200 days, Bombyx mori has 3 glycerol kinase genes
0.44
-
glycerol
-
25C, pH 8.0
1.26
-
glycerol
-
and also 0.02 mM, 30C
1.5
-
glycerol
-
and also 0.04 mM, 30C
12.56
-
glycerol-3-phosphate
-
pH 7.0
0.145
-
GTP
-
-
3
-
L-Glyceraldehyde
-
25C
42
-
L-Glyceraldehyde
Candida mycoderma, Escherichia coli
-
-
42
-
L-Glyceraldehyde
-
30C
3.83
-
L-glycerol-3-phosphate
-
25C, pH 8.0
0.009
-
MgATP2-
-
E478C mutant protein, allosteric regulation
0.01
-
MgATP2-
-
E478C/T428V/R429N mutant protein, allosteric regulation
0.169
-
Monoacetin
-
pH 7.35, 37C
0.491
-
Monobutyrin
-
pH 7.35, 37C
4.9
-
monothioglycerol
Candida mycoderma, Escherichia coli
-
-
1.09
-
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
Q75T26
in 0.1 M MOPS buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM MgSO4, temperature not specified in the publication
1.13
-
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
in 0.1 M MOPS buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM MgSO4, temperature not specified in the publication
1.37
-
sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
B0I530, -
in 0.1 M MOPS buffer (pH 6.8) containing 1 mM EDTA, 5 mM MgSO4, temperature not specified in the publication
4.9
-
monothioglycerol
-
30C
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km of unpurified enzyme
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
assay at 25C, increasing pH or decreasing temperature rises Km for glycerol
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
Candida mycoderma
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
2 Km-values with respect to glycerol may correspond to two different molecular species
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1670
-
glycerol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
250
-
propan-1-ol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
1500
-
propan-2-ol
Candida mycoderma
-
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.001
-
glucose-specific phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system (IIA(Glc))
-
E478C mutant protein; in the presence of ZnCl2
-
0.01
-
glucose-specific phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system (IIA(Glc))
-
wild-type protein
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.054
-
-
recombinant enzyme, using 1% methanol as carbon sources in the medium, at pH 9.8 and 30C
0.13
-
-
recombinant enzyme, using 1% glycerol and 1% methanol as carbon sources in the medium, at pH 9.8 and 30C
2
-
-
at pH 7.0 and 70C
15.5
-
-, Q8IDI4
for glycerol
18.3
-
-, Q8IDI4
for ATP
25.2
-
-
-
41.2
-
-
pH 7.0, 25C
100
-
-
25C
101
-
Candida mycoderma
-
25C
177
-
-
pH 7.5, 25C
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7
-
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
and pH 10.0
7
-
-
reverse reaction
8.5
9
B0I1G6, B0M0V1, -
;
8.6
-
-
reverse reaction
9
9.5
-
-
10
-
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
and pH 7.0
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.8
10.5
-
pH 6.8: about 30% of maximum activity, pH 10.5: about 80% of maximum activity
7
9.5
-
pH 7.0: about 50% of maximum activity, pH 9.5: maximum activity
7
9.5
-
pH 7: about 20% of maximum activity, pH 9.5: about 25% of maximum activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
Candida mycoderma
-
assay at
25
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
80
-
30C: about 50% of maximum activity, 80C: about 65% of maximum activity
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
lung cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
There is no difference in glycerol mRNA level between control 3T3-L1 adipocytes and 3T3-L1 Aqp7-RNAi transfected adipocytes, whereas a 4fold enzymatic activation of glycerol kinase is observable in Aqp7 knockout adipocytes (activity assay: 50 mM TrisHCl, pH 7.2, 5 mM ATP, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM KCl, 2.5 mM DTT, 4 mM glycerol, 500 microM 3H-glycerol, for 90 min at 37C).
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
glycerol kinase mRNA tends to increase by 2.5fold in the mesenteric fat from Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats compared to Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. A small increase in glycerol kinase mRNA expression is detected in the epididymal fat from Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats (124.5%). Rosiglitazone treatment markebly increases glycerol kinase mRNA expression in both the mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissues (1085.9% and 523.8% of the abundance in Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats, respectively). The magnitude of glycerol kinase induced by rosiglitazone is significantly greater in the mesenteric fat than in the epididymal fat.
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
There is no difference in the mRNA levels and activities of adipose glycerol kinase between Aqp7-/- and Aqp7+/+ mice at 10 weeks of age. Adipose glycerol kinase activity of Aqp7-/- mice is significantly higher than that of wild type mice under the 12 h fasting state. The fat pads of the Aqp7-/- knockout mice are significantily larger than those of wild type mice at 20 weeks of age.
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SS6-2 cell, stem cells from fat with myotube characteristics
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Aqp7-/- knockout mice have significantly lower plasma glycerol level under 12 h fasting conditions.
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
newborn, expresses only isoform GK-EX18
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
from patients with enzyme deficiency and normal individuals
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P32189
cultured
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
kidney cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
kidney cell line, expresses only isoform GK+EX18
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
increased level during embryonic development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
adult hepatoblastoma cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
primary culture of
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
4th instar larvae
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
adult and newborn, expresses only isoform GK-EX18
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
glycerol kinase expression in hepatic tissues shows no significant difference between the experimental groups
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida mycoderma
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q0IID9
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pancreatic islets and pancreas. The glycerol kinase mRNA level in the Aqp7-/- pancreatic islets is 655% that in Aqp7+/+ islets. The glycerol activity is increased in both total pancreases and islets isolated from Aqp7-/- mice compared with those isolated from Aqp+/+ mice (tested with cell homogenates, activity assay: 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.2, 5 mM ATP, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM KCl, 2.5 mM dithiothreitol, 4 mM glycerol, 50 microM [14C]glycerol, for 3 h at 37C). The absence of AQP7 is associated with a moderate increase in the glycerol content of the total pancreas. There is a 2fold increase in the glycerol content of pancreatic islets isolated from Aqp7-/- mice compared with those from Aqp7+/+ mice.
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expresses only isoform GK+EX18
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
fetal liver cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Mycobacterium sp. 607
-
enzyme activity in various tissues
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Mycobacterium sp. 607
-
described in the most tissues
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
gene contains PTS1-like targeting sequence for glycosomal localization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense IL2343, Trypanosoma brucei ILTat1.4, Trypanosoma congolense IL1180, Trypanosoma vivax IL1392
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
GK-EX18 has a diffuse expression pattern
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7)
Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7)
Rhizobium meliloti (strain 1021)
Staphylococcus aureus (strain COL)
Staphylococcus aureus (strain COL)
Thermococcus kodakaraensis (strain ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1)
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB8 / ATCC 27634 / DSM 579)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
54000
58000
-
gel filtration
56000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
113000
-
-
light scattering, dimer peak in the absence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, G230D mutant
120000
-
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation
127000
-
-
light scattering, dimer peak in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, G230D mutant
140000
-
-
gel filtration, zone sedimentation in sucrose density gradient
158000
-
-
dimeric native enzyme, gel filtration
177000
-
-
light scattering, dimer peak in the absence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, wild type enzyme
200000
-
-
gel filtration
210000
217000
-
equilibrium sedimentation
210000
-
-
gel filtration
220000
-
-
gel filtration
224000
-
-
tetrameric native enzyme, gel filtration
227000
-
-
light scattering, tetramer peak (about 2% of the principal peak) in the absence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, G230D mutant
230000
-
-
gel filtration
236000
-
-
gel filtration
251000
-
Candida mycoderma
-
diffusion and sedimentation data
280000
300000
-
sedimentation equilibrium light scattering method
391000
-
-
light scattering, tetramer peak (about 9% of the principal peak) in the absence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, wild type enzyme
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 56000, deduced from gene sequence
?
-
? * 56000, SDS-PAGE
?
D3KVM3, -
x * 60400, calculated from amino acid sequence
?
-
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE
?
Q75T26
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE; x * 56200, calculated from amino acid sequence
?
B0I530, -
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE; x * 54600, calculated from amino acid sequence
?
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense IL2343
-
x * 60400, calculated from amino acid sequence
-
?
Trypanosoma brucei ILTat1.4
-
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE
-
?
Trypanosoma congolense IL1180
-
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE; x * 56200, calculated from amino acid sequence
-
?
Trypanosoma vivax IL1392
-
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE; x * 54600, calculated from amino acid sequence
-
dimer
-
2 * 56000, SDS-PAGE, deduced from gene sequence
dimer
-
crystal structure analysis, probably active state of enzyme
dimer
-
light scattering analysis confirmed G230D is a dimer and is resistant to tetramer formation in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, whereas the wild type enzyme dimers are converted into putatively inactive tetramers in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.
dimer or tetramer
-
2 or 4 * 60000, in solution, the enzyme exists in a dimer-tetramer equilibrium
homodimer
-
crystal structure
homodimer
-, Q8IDI4
2 x 57289 (501 residues plus an additional six N-terminal residues from the linker region), mass spectrometry
homotetramer
-
dimer-tetramer equilibrium in solution, tetramer in the crystal
monomer
-
1 * 53000
tetramer
-
4 * 55000-57000, equilibrium ultracentrifugation in presence of 6 M guanidine HCl, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
4 * 60000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
4 * 55000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
-
tetramer
-
4 * 58000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
crystal structure
tetramer
-
4 * 58000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
4 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
composed of two dimers, crystal structure analysis
tetramer
-
crystal structure analysis, probably inactive state of enzyme
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
-
phosphorylation at His232 activates the kinase 10-15-fold
phosphoprotein
-
can be phosphorylated causing slight increase in activity
additional information
-
activity is enhanced phosphorylation of His232
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-
Candida mycoderma
-
crystals are obtained by the hanging-drop technique from a solution containing 29% polyethylene glycol 400, 0.1 M sodium acetate pH 4.5, 0.1 M calcium acetate and 10% glycerol. The crystals can grow in the presence of 33% PEG 400, which allows to mount the crystals and directyl flash-cool them. Repeated flash-annealing causes a significant decrease in the averaged mosaicity along with an increase in the overall peak counts of reflections and an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Individual reflection-profile analysis reveales a mostly dual domain structure, showing the minimization of one domain as a result of flash-annealing.
-
crystals of native and mutant enzyme with bound glycerol, hanging drop vapor diffusion method
-
in complex with glycerol, ADP and the allosteric effector enzyme IIAGlc
-
in complex with glycerol, in presence and absence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, mechanism
-
of wild type and mutant A65T, both in complex with glycerol and ADP, and of mutant I474D, in complex with IIAGlc
-
the crystal structure of glycerol kinase mutant G230D is determined to 2.0 A resolution using a microfluidics based crystallization platform; using modified microfluidic scale-up diffraction device, crystals form after one week at ambient temperature unter crystallization conditions 0.3 M magnesium chloride, 0.1 M TrisHCl (pH 8.5), and 20% PEG 1500. Using vapor diffusion crystallization, crystals appear after one week at ambient temperature using the crystallization conditions 0.1 M magnesium chloride, 0.1 M TrisHCl (pH 8.5), and 10% PEG 1500. Glycerol kinase of the mutant G230D crystallied in space group P21 with two tetramers of 222 point symmetry in the asu. The average B factor for the overall structure of the G230D mutant is 21.2 A2.
-
crystals are grown at 20C by the sitting-drop vapour diffusion method. Native X-ray diffraction data are collected to 2.4 A resolution using synchrotron radiation at station BL44XU of SPring-8. The crystal belongs to the rhombohedral space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 217.48, c = 66.48 A. The protein is also cocrystallized with substrates and diffraction data are collected to 2.7 A resolution
O93623
using sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method at 293 K. Native Tk-glycerol kinase crystals appear after a few days using Wizard I solution No. 25 (0.1 M Tris pH 8.5, 0.2 M MgCl2, 30% PEG 400). Diffraction spots sufficient for structural determination at high resolution are not obtained when a crystal of Tk-glycerol kinase is mounted on a CryoLoop without cryoprotectant, diffraction patterns of the crystal are improved by using Paratone-N as cryoprotectant. Native X-ray diffraction data are collected to 2.4 A resolution using synchrotron radiation at station BL44XU of SPring-8. The crystals belong to the rhombohedral space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 217.48, c = 66.48 A. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the VM value is 2.7 A3Da-1 and the solvent content is 54.1%.
-
sitting drop vapor diffusion method, using 30% (w/v) PEG 400 and 100 mM HEPES pH 7.0, at 20C
D3KVM3, -
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5
-
-
0C, 6 h, without glycerol, completely stable
5
-
-
0C, 24 h, complete loss of activity, 30C, 30 min, 75% loss of activity
6
7
-
0C, half-life: 24 h
6
8
-
high stability
6
9
-
30C, in presence of glycerol, completely stable for 30 min
6.7
-
Candida mycoderma
-
highest stability
7
-
-
0C, 6 h, without glycerol, 90% loss of activity
7
-
-
0C, 24 h, 50% loss of activity
7.5
-
-
25C, no loss of activity after several h
9.8
-
-
25C, half-life: 6.5 min
additional information
-
-
glycerol affords considerable stabilization at the unfavorable pH values, glycerol kinases from microorganisms most stable at a neutral pH, glycerol kinases from higher organisms most stable in an acidic pH range
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
-
Candida mycoderma
-
t1/2: 4.1 days
20
-
-
t1/2 8.6 days
20
-
-
no loss of activity detectable
37
-
-
2 weeks, stable
50
-
-
5 min, 30% loss of activity
50
-
-
1 h, stable
60
-
Candida mycoderma
-
t1/2: 0.72 min
60
-
-
t1/2: 4.5 min
60
-
-
t1/2: 310 min
65
-
-
10 min, stable
68
-
-
30 min, pH 7.5, 50% activity
70
-
-
t1/2: 5 min
70
-
Candida mycoderma, Escherichia coli
-
-
70
-
-
when the enzyme fused with either polyphosphate kinase of Thermus thermophilus HB27 or an Escherichia coli membrane-intrinsic protein YedZ is incubated at 70C for 2 h, more than 80% of enzyme activity is retained in the heated Escherichia coli cells
80
-
-
t1/2: 0.53 min
100
-
-
30 min, loss of 50% of activity
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
enzyme is quite heat labile
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
normal and mutant enzyme stabilized against heat inactivation by glycerol, but not by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
dialysis, against 0.01 M phosphate buffer, at 2C, pH 6.7, 50% loss of activity without glycerol, stable in presence of 0.01 M glycerol
Candida mycoderma
-
ethanediol stabilizes
Candida mycoderma
-
pigeon liver enzyme is sensitive to extreme dilution but can be stabilized by addition of 0.01% bovine serum albumin
-
glycerol, 0.01 M, EDTA, 0.001 M and 0.001 M 2-mercaptoethanol prevent inactivation during purification
-
normal and mutant enzyme stabilized against heat inactivation by glycerol, but not by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
-
(NH4)2SO4 stabilizes
-
glycerol affords considerable stabilization at the unfavorable pH values
-
freezing without glycerol inactivates
-
the enzyme in crude extracts is stable to freezing and thawing, while more purified preparations are inactivated
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
susceptible to inactivation by oxidation of sulfhydryl groups
-
641287
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
4C, crystallized suspension in 2.2 M ammonium sulfate, stable for several months
Candida mycoderma
-
-20C, pH 5.0, partially purified enzymes have half-lives of several weeks to months
-
0C, suspension of crystals, 10 mM glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, saturated with ammonium sulfate, stable for several years
-
as crystalline suspension in saturated ammonium sulfate, solutions containing 10 mM glycerol, 1 mM EDTA and a thiol e.g. 2-mercaptoethanol, yeast enzyme stable for several months, E. coli enzyme for several years
-
-20C, pH 5.0, partially purified enzymes have half-lives of several weeks to months
-
-20C, 50% glycerol, stable for more than 1 year
-
-20C, pH 5.0, partially purified enzymes have half-lives of several weeks to months
-
as crystalline suspension in saturated ammonium sulfate, solutions containing 10 mM glycerol, 1 mM EDTA and a thiol e.g. 2-mercaptoethanol, yeast enzyme stable for several months, E. coli enzyme for several years
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-
Candida mycoderma
-
-
Culex pipiens fatigans
-
native and mutant enzyme
-
GSTrap FF column chromatography, gel filtration
-
metal-chelate affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA column, anion exchange chromatography using a Mono Q 5/50 GL column and gel filtration chromatography using s Superdex 200 10/30 GL column,all purification steps are performed in standard buffer (20 mM TrisHCl (pH 7.5), 10 mM glycerol, 1 mM beta-mercaptoethanol) at 4C excluding the affinity chromatography purification; mutant enzyme G230D
-
normal and genetically altered enzyme
-
partial
-
application of triazine dye affinity chromatography to large-scale purification
-
HiTrapQ HP column, Bio-Scale CHT20-I column, all purification procedures are carried out at 277 K.
-
recombinant enzyme
-
nickel affinity column chromatography
-
Ni-NTA agarose column chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration
D3KVM3, -
nickel affinity column chromatography
Q75T26
nickel affinity column chromatography
B0I530, -
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
His-tag, expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli Shot BL21 star (DE3) cells
-
both isoforms expressed in COS-7 cells
-
expressed in H4IIE cell rat hepatoma cells
-
both isoforms expressed in COS-7 cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with maltose-binding protein
-, Q8IDI4
expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 cells
-
expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta2 (DE3) pLysS cells
-
overproduced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)
-
contains PTS1-like targeting sequence for glycosomal localization
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3 + pRARE2) cells
D3KVM3, -
expressed in Escherichia coli
Q75T26
expressed in Escherichia coli
B0I530, -
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
upregulated in diapause eggs exposed to 5C
B0I1G6, B0M0V1, -
transcript is upregulated by addition of glycerol
-
in ambient smelt, activity remains constant until April when it starts to increase significantly to reach a maximum in May at levels almost 25times higher than those recorded in November
-
upregulated in sexual blood stage parasite
-, Q8IDI4
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
S329D
-
increase in thermostability, increase in Km by 100%
S329D
-
mechanism of stabilization
S414N
-
increased thermostability, mechanism of stabilization
H232A
-
lacks the site of activation by phosphorylation, activity similar to unphosphorylated native enzyme
H232A
-
residue located in the activation loop
H232E
-
residue located in the activation loop
H232R
-
residue located in the activation loop, mutant protein has enhanced activity
A65T
-
crystal structure
A65T
-
oligomeric interactions are disturbed by the amino acid substitution
D72V
-
the catalytic properties of the mutant differ little from those of the wild type enzyme. The mutant shows 14.76% expression compared to the wild type enzyme
E121C
-
mutant protein is labeled with extrinsic fluorophores for FRET
E478C
-
mutation increases the affinity for glucose-specific phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system (IIA(Glc))
E478C/T428V/R429N
-
T428V and R429N replace two coupling locus amino acids with those from Haemophilus influenzae glycerol kinase
E92C
-
mutant protein is labeled with extrinsic fluorophores for FRET
G230D
-
hyperactive mutant enzyme; structural analysis reveal that the decreased allosteric regulation in the G230D mutant is a result of the altered fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding loop conformations in the mutant that interfere with the wild-type fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding site. The altered fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding loop conformation in the G230D mutant of glycerol kinase are supported through a series of intramolecular loop interactions. The appearence of Asp230 in the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding loops also repositions the wildtype fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding residues away from the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binging site.
G304S
-
no inhibition by allosteric ligands, mechanism
G427D/T428V/R429N
-
replacement of all three of the coupling locus amino acids with those from Haemophilus influenzae glycerol kinase
I474A
-
the maximum extent of IIAGlc inhibition is reduced for the mutant enzyme
I474C
-
the maximum extent of IIAGlc inhibition is reduced for the mutant enzyme
I474D
-
crystal structure
M271I
-
the mutant shows strongly increased Km for ATP and 30.75% expression compared to the wild type enzyme
Q37P
-
the mutant shows strongly increased Km for ATP and 65.73% expression compared to the wild type enzyme
R369A
-
oligomeric interactions are disturbed by the amino acid substitution
R479A
-
the maximum extent of IIAGlc inhibition is reduced for the mutant enzyme
R479C
-
the maximum extent of IIAGlc inhibition is reduced for the mutant enzyme
V61L
-
the catalytic properties of the mutant differ little from those of the wild type enzyme. The mutant shows 12.71% expression compared to the wild type enzyme
G304S
Escherichia coli C.Lin 43
-
no inhibition by allosteric ligands, mechanism
-
E398D
P32189
naturally occurring mutation in patients with glyceroluria, causes a strong decrease in enzyme activity
G280A
-
naturally occurring mutation in a patient with glyceroluria, causes a strong decrease in enzyme activity, mutation affects a highly conserved amino acid in the ATP-binding domain
A137S
-
affinity for substrates increased 3-4 fold
L61P
P32189
naturally occurring mutation in patients with glyceroluria, causes an 5-10-fold increased Km for glycerol
additional information
P32189
a naturally occuring mutation in intron 3 causes the insertion of an additional exon
additional information
-
Aqp7-/- knock out mice. Gene replacement targeting strategy is used to inactivate the Aqp7 gene in R1 mouse ES cells. Targeted ES cell clones are injected into blastocysts of C57BL/6J mice. Glycerol kinase expression (mRNA level) and activity is increased in pancreatic islets of Aqp7-/- mice compared to Aqp+/+ mice.
additional information
-
Aqp7-knockout mice
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
synthesis
-
methodology of dosage of glycerol kinase by response surface modeling of the enzymatic reaction. This low cost method for glycerol kinase dosage in a sequence of reactions is of great importance for many industries, like food, sugar and alcohol. Response surface modeling shows to be an adequate approach for modeling the reaction and optimization of reaction conditions to maximize glycerol kinase activity