Information on EC 2.4.1.16 - chitin synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.4.1.16
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
chitin synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine + [4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->]n = UDP + [4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->]n+1
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
-
-
chitin biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Converts UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine into chitin and UDP.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9030-18-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IM-80
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Apodachlya sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chlorovirus CVK2
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
EhCHS-1; EhCHS-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform CHS1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GZ03643
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GZ03643
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthase 2; f. sp. lycopersici, myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene chsVb
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
ATCC 96631
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LeChs1; an edible basidiomycetous mushroom, strain strain SB1226, gene Lechs1, isozyme LeChs1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lucilia sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Chs7; isoform CHS7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mortierella candelabrum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mortierella pusilla
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
an edible basidiomycetous mushroom, class IV chitin synthase isozyme, gene Pochs1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
X2180 strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Y3437, isozyme Chs2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YPH499 and ECY38-38A, isozyme CHS2p encoded by gene CHS2; strain YPH499 and ECY38-38A, isozymes CHS1p and CHS3p encoded by genes CHS1 and CHS3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
?
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
-
-
-
?
chitobiose + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
UDP + 1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)x
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-GlcNAc + GlcNAc
UDP + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
UDP + 1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-]n
UDP + [(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-]n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-)]n
UDP + [4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2R,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 1.6 mM
(2R,3R,4R,5S)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 38 mM
(2S,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 4.0 mM
1-(2,2-dibutyl-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl)ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 30% residual activity
1-Geranyl-2-methylbenzimidazole
-
weak
1-[2,2-dibutyl-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 10% residual activity
1-[2,2-dibutyl-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 30% residual activity
1-[2,2-dibutyl-N-[(2,6-difluorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 20% residual activity
1-[2,2-dibutyl-N-[(2-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 15% residual activity
1-[2,2-dibutyl-N-[(2-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 25% residual activity
2,2'-methylenebis(3,4,6-trichlorophenol)
-
0.25 mM, 56% inhibition
2,3,5,6-Tetrachloro-4-methoxyphenol
-
0.25 mM, 48% inhibition
2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-glucitol
-
IC50: 5.7 mM
3,5-Dichloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde
-
0.25 mM, 17% inhibition
3,5-Dichloro-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol
-
0.25 mM, 40% inhibition
3,5-Dichlorobenzyl alcohol
-
0.25 mM, 15% inhibition
8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one
AMP
-
6.25 mM
amphotericin
-
noncompetitive
Amphotericin B methyl ester
-
-
Ba2+
-
10 mM, 61% inhibition
c3',5'-AMP
-
2 mM, slight inhibition
Calcofluor white
-
noncompetitive
Captan
Cd2+
complete inhibition of wild-type and mutant enzymes
chitin oligosaccharides
-
slight
chitodextrins
-
-
-
Cl-
-
10 mM
Diflubenzuron
-
-
edifenphos
-
non-competitive
Filipin
-
weak
Hexachlorophene
-
inhibition can be reversed by lecithin
insecticidal benzoylphenyl ureas
-
-
-
K+
-
10 mM, 14% inhibition
kanakugiol
-
inhibition of chitin synthase 2 and antifungal activity of the lignan from the stem bark of Lindera erythrocarpa, overview
linderone
-
inhibition of chitin synthase 2 and antifungal activity of the lignan from the stem bark of Lindera erythrocarpa, overview
methyllinderone
-
inhibition of chitin synthase 2 and antifungal activity of the lignan from the stem bark of Lindera erythrocarpa, overview
Mg2+
inhibits the wild-type Chs2
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-N,N-diacetylchitobiose
-
-
-
NaCl
-
0.5 M, 86% inhibition of Chs1 and 29% inhibition of Chs2
Nikkomycin
nikkomycin X
-
-
nikkomycin Z
Nystatin
-
-
O-methyl pisiferic acid
oudemansin B
-
0.25 mM, 31% inhibition
Pentachlorophenol
-
0.25 mM, 67% inhibition
Polyoxin B
Polyoxin D
polyoxin L
Primulin
-
noncompetitive
SO42-
-
10 mM
strobilurin A
-
0.25 mM, 24% inhibition
strobilurin B
-
0.25 mM, 29% inhibition
terpenoyl benzimidazole
-
weak
UDPgalacturonic acid
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UDPglucose
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UDPglucuronic acid
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UDPmannose
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UDPxylose
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UMP
-
6.25 mM
uracil polyoxin C methyl ester
[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid 2-[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyloxy]-ethyl ester
-
1 mM, 32% inhibition, competitive. IC50: 2.2 mM
[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid 2-{2-[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyloxy]-ethoxy}-ethyl ester
-
1 mM 45% inhibition. IC50: 11.8 mM
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
chitodextrin F1
-
5 mg/ml, 183% increase in activity
-
chitodextrin F2
-
5 mg/ml, 170% increase in activity
-
diacetylchitobiose
-
activates
Digitonin
glucose
lysophosphatidylserine
-
required, phosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylserine are the best activators
Nystatin
-
0.05 mM, marked stimulation
papain
-
fairly good activator of Chs1, poor activator of Chs2
-
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
stimulates
phosphatidylinositol
-
stimulates
phosphatidylserine
Phospholipid
-
required, phosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylserine are the best activators
Pronase
-
stimulates both Chs1 and Chs2
-
proteinase B
-
from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stimulates Chs1, no effect on Chs2
-
proteinase K
-
stimulates both Chs1 and Chs2
-
Staphylococcus V8 protease
-
best activator of Chs2 in presence of Co2+, elicits little Mg2+-stimulatable activity
-
Trypsin
Apodachlya sp.
-
activates
-
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.5
6-O-dansyl N-acetylglucosamine
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase II
0.0133 - 0.2
6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine
2.3
chitobiose
-
-
3.1
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
-
reaction with UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
0.5 - 2.5
UDP-GlcNAc
2.6
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
-
reaction with chitobiose
1.5 - 3.1
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0009
5-((2-amino-5-O-(aminocarbonyl)-2-deoxy-L-xylonoyl)amino)-1-(5-carboxy-3,4-dihydro-2,4-dioxo-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-1,5-dideoxy-beta-D-allofuranuronic acid
-
chitin synthetase 1
0.13
Amphotericin B
-
-
0.054
edifenphos
-
-
0.0085
Hexachlorophene
-
-
0.002
Nikkomycin
-
-
0.00014
nikkomycin X
-
chitin synthetase 1
0.0001 - 0.0068
nikkomycin Z
0.005
O-methyl pisiferic acid
versus UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine; versus UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
0.00065
polyoxin
-
-
-
0.032
Polyoxin B
-
-
0.001 - 2.5
Polyoxin D
0.014
Primulin
-
-
0.19 - 2.2
UDP
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.6
(2R,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
IC50: 1.6 mM
38
(2R,3R,4R,5S)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
IC50: 38 mM
4
(2S,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
IC50: 4.0 mM
0.0079
1-[2,2-dibutyl-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
0.0056
1-[2,2-dibutyl-N-[(2-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
5.7
2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-glucitol
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
IC50: 5.7 mM
0.171 - 0.44
8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one
0.0238
kanakugiol
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
0.0214
linderone
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
0.0233
methyllinderone
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
0.0011 - 0.355
neopolyoxin C
0.022 - 0.032
Nikkomycin
0.0058 - 0.424
O-methyl pisiferic acid
0.0059 - 0.0886
Polyoxin D
2.2
[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid 2-[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyloxy]-ethyl ester
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
1 mM, 32% inhibition, competitive. IC50: 2.2 mM
11.8
[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid 2-{2-[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyloxy]-ethoxy}-ethyl ester
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
1 mM 45% inhibition. IC50: 11.8 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.0025
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase III, activity at the end of exponential growth phase
0.0028
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase II, activity at the end of exponential growth phase
0.0055
-
-
0.008
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase I, activity at the end of exponential growth phase
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.8 - 6.2
-
-
6
Mortierella pusilla
-
-
6.5 - 7.5
-
trypsin-activated enzyme
7.5 - 8.5
Apodachlya sp.
-
-
7.5 - 8
assay at
7.5
-
Hepes buffer
7.5 - 8
assay at; assay at
8.5
-
10 mM Tris/HCl buffer
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 8
-
pH 5.5: 40% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: 95% of maximal activity
6.5 - 8.5
-
pH 6.5: about 85% of maximal activity, pH 8.5: about 70% of maximal activity
7.1 - 8.3
-
50% of maximal activity at pH 7.1 and pH 8.3
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
25
-
chitin synthase 1
40
-
chitin synthase 2
42 - 46
Apodachlya sp.
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
9 - 43
-
50% of maximal activity at 9C and at 43C
17.5 - 41
-
50% of maximal activity at 17.5C and at 41C
20 - 40
-
20C: about 80% of maximal activity, 40C: about 55% of maximal activity
21 - 30
-
21C: 50% of maximal activity, 30C: optimum
25 - 50
-
25C: about 60% of maximal activity, 50C: about 90% of maximal activity, chitin synthase 1
27 - 42
-
50% of maximal activity at 17C and at 42C
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
CHS5 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Chs3p and Chs4p appear to co-localize at the neck region of the budding yeast
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
class A CHS
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
substantial amounts of CHS-1 and CHS-2 RNA are present 4 to 8 hours after induction of cyst formation by glucose deprivation. In contrast to CHS-1 RNA, expression of CHS-2 RNA is more transient and no plateau is observed between 8 and 16 hours of encystation. Both CHS RNAs are no longer detectable after 48 hours when most of the cells are transformed into mature cysts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
synthesis of chitin continues to take place in nematode eggs within the egg sac in the parasitic nematode. The removal of the activity affects egg development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
early embryos contain large amounts of Bm-chs-1 transcripts, later stage embryos within the maternal uterus show little or no Bm-chs-1 transcripts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lucilia sp.
-
underlying the procuticle
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform IIIb appears to be involved exclusively in cell wall construction during haustorium development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strong expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CHS5 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth; CHS6 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth; CHS7 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chlorovirus CVK2
-
the chitin synthase gene from chlorovirus CVK2 is expressed 10 min postinfection in Chlorella cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme predominantly localizes at polarized growth sites and between vesicles and metulae, between metulae and phialides, and between phalides and conidia in asexual development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme predominantly localizes at polarized growth sites and between vesicles and metulae, between metulae and phialides, and between phalides and conidia in asexual development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information