Information on EC 2.4.1.16 - chitin synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.16
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
chitin synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine + [4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->]n = UDP + [4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->]n+1
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine + [4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->]n = UDP + [4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism
-
chitin biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine:chitin 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Converts UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine into chitin and UDP.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
AaCHS-1
Q9NHE6
-
acetylglucosaminyltransferase, chitin-uridine diphosphate
-
-
-
-
AgCHS-1
Q95UA6
-
CaChs2p
-
-
chitin synthase 1
P23316
-
chitin synthase 1
P30600
-
chitin synthase 1
Q4VJB8
-
chitin synthase 1
-
-
chitin synthase 1
Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180
-
-
-
chitin synthase 1
P30598
-
chitin synthase 2
Q4VW80
-
chitin synthase 2
-
-
chitin synthase 2
Q5YCX0
-
chitin synthase 2
Q530Z6
-
chitin synthase 2
-
-
chitin synthase 2
-
-
chitin synthase 2
A6ZKY2
-
chitin synthase 2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
A6ZKY2
-
-
chitin synthase 2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499
-
-
-
chitin synthase 2
P30599
-
chitin synthase 3
Q5KCU4
-
chitin synthase 3
P29465
-
chitin synthase 3
Q99126
-
chitin synthase 3a
-
-
chitin synthase 4
Q99127
-
chitin synthase 5
O13394
-
chitin synthase 6
O13395
-
chitin synthase 7
Q4P333
-
chitin synthase A
Q3I5Q4
-
chitin synthase B
Q06BR7
-
chitin synthase II
Q30LK7, Q30LS3
-
chitin synthase III
-
-
chitin synthase III
-
-
chitin synthase III
P29465
-
chitin synthase protein 2
-
-
chitin synthetase
-
-
-
-
chitin synthetase I
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
-
chitin synthetase II
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
-
chitin synthetase III
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
-
chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 1
P30600
-
chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 1
P30598
-
chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 2
P30599
-
chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 3
Q99126
-
chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 4
Q99127
-
chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 5
O13394
-
chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 6
O13395
-
chitin-UDP acetyl-glucosaminyl transferase 7
Q4P333
-
chitin-UDP N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
-
-
-
-
chitin-uridine diphosphate acetylglucosaminyltransferase
-
-
-
-
CHS
-, Q8TFN5, Q8TFN6
-
CHS
Q06BR7
-
CHS
Q3I5Q4
-
CHS
Q6WD22, Q6WD23
-
CHS B
Q06BR7
-
chs-1
Q4VJB8
-
chs-2
Q4VW80
-
CHS-3
P30588
-
CHS-3
Neurospora crassa N623
P30588
-
-
CHS-6
Neurospora crassa N623
-
-
-
Chs1
-
-
-
-
Chs1
P23316
-
Chs1
P30598
-
CHS1p
P23316
-
CHS1p
Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499
-
-
-
Chs2
-
-
-
-
Chs2
P30572
-
Chs2
Q530Z6
-
Chs2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
A6ZKY2
-
-
Chs2
P30599
-
CHS2p
Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499
-
-
-
CHS3
P30573
-
CHS3
Q99126
-
Chs3p
Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499
-
-
-
CHS4
Q99127
-
CHS5
O13394
-
CHS6
O13395
-
CHS7
Q4P333
-
Chs8
Q5A7T2
-
Chs8
Q4P9K9
-
chsA
Q3I5Q4
-
chsB
Q00757
-
chsB
Q2V6H3
-
chsC
P30583
-
chsC
Q92197
-
chsE
P78611
-
class A chitin synthase
B4YIR0
-
class A chitin synthase
Q3I5Q4
-
class I CHS
P30588
-
class I CHS
Neurospora crassa N623
P30588
-
-
class IV CaChs3p
-
-
class IV chitin synthase
-
-
class IV CHS
-
-
class IV CHS
Neurospora crassa N623
-
-
-
class V chitin synthase
-
-
class V chitin synthase
Q8TGV2
-
class Vb chitin synthase
-
-
class VII chitin synthase
Q5YCX0
-
class-A CHS
Q6WD23
-
class-B CHS
Q6WD22
-
class-II chitin synthase 1
P30600
-
CSI
-
-
-
-
CSII
-
-
-
-
CSIII
-
-
-
-
CsmA
O13281
-
CsmB
Q2L6A0
-
LcCHS-1
Q9GU17
-
LeChs1
A0PAB0
-
LsCHS-1
Lucilia sp.
-
-
MsCHS-1
Q8T4U2
-
MsCHS1
Q8T4U2
-
MsCHS2
Q530Z6
-
myosin motor-like chitin synthase
Q5YCX0
-
trans-N-acetylglucosaminosylase
-
-
-
-
UDP-GlcNAc:chitin 4-alpha-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
-
-
UmCHS3
-
-
UmCHS6
-
-
WdCHS1
P30600
-
WdChs5p
Q8TGV2
-
Mcs1
Q4P9K9
-
additional information
Q5YCX0
ChsVb belongs to class VII chitin synthases
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9030-18-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Amylomyces rouxii IM-80
IM-80
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Apodachlya sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chs1; isozyme Chs1, gene CHS1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chs2; isozymeChs2, gene CHS2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chs3; isozyme Chs3, gene CHS3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chs8; isozyme Chs8, gene CHS8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chlorovirus CVK2
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthase B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
EhCHS-1; EhCHS-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
class 3 chitin synthase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. Exophiala dermatitidis, strain 8656, ATCC 34100, isozyme WdChs5p
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Chs5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform CHS5; isoform Chs5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform CHS1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthase 2; f. sp. lycopersici, myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene chsVb
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform CHS5
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Chs7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GZ03643
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Gibberella zeae GZ03643
strain GZ03643
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CHSI; isozye CHS I
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CHSIII; isozyme CHS III
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the fungus contains 10 chitin synthase isozymes of different classes, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
ATCC 96631
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LeChs1; an edible basidiomycetous mushroom, strain strain SB1226, gene Lechs1, isozyme LeChs1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lucilia sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Chs7; isoform CHS7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform CHS2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MsCHS2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mortierella candelabrum
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mortierella pusilla
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chs-6 gene; strain N623, isozyme CHS-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozyme CHS-3; strain N623, isozyme CHS-3
GenBank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
slime mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wall-less variant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Neurospora crassa N623
chs-6 gene; strain N623, isozyme CHS-6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Neurospora crassa N623
isozyme CHS-3; strain N623, isozyme CHS-3
GenBank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform CHSA
B4YIR0
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene chs2, fragment; gene chs2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Chs3; isoform Chs3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
an edible basidiomycetous mushroom, class IV chitin synthase isozyme, gene Pochs1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform CHSIIIa, hypothetical
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform CHSIIIb, hypothetical
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthase 1 is examide in wild-type strain ATCC 26109 and D3C (MATalphaura3-52), chitin synthase 2 is investigated in a strain D3B freed of chitin synthase 1 by gene disruption; chitin synthetase 1 and 2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthase 1, 2 and 3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthase 2; strains ECY38-38A and YPH499
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthetase 1 and 2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthetase 2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene chs3coding for the catalytic subunit of the chitin synthase III
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Y3437, isozyme Chs2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YPH499 and ECY38-38A, isozyme CHS2p encoded by gene CHS2; strain YPH499 and ECY38-38A, isozymes CHS1p and CHS3p encoded by genes CHS1 and CHS3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains ECY38-38A and YPH499
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
X2180 strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180
X2180 strains
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
strain Y3437, isozyme Chs2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae YPH499
strain YPH499 and ECY38-38A, isozyme CHS2p encoded by gene CHS2; strain YPH499 and ECY38-38A, isozymes CHS1p and CHS3p encoded by genes CHS1 and CHS3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Chs1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Chs2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthase A; gene A
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chitin synthase B; gene CHSB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
class A chitin synthase gene CHSA
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
class-A CHS; red flour beetle, gene TcCHS-A
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
class-B CHS; red flour beetle, gene TcCHS-B
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform Mcs1, class V chitin synthase
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-
gene disruption mutant is not significantly affected in either growth characteristics or pathogenicity on tomato leaves. Mutant exhibits a 31% increase in its chitin content and displays increased sensitivity to Caclofluor White and slightly enhanced tolerance to cell-wall disturbing substances and osmosis regulators
physiological function
-
mutants lacking isoform CHS7 or isoform CHS5 do not produce perithecia or cause disease on barley heads. Mutant cells form balloon-shaped hyphae and intrahyphal hyphae, their cell wall rigidity is weaker than that of wild-type
physiological function
-
deletion mutants of isoform ChsB show multilayered cell walls and intrahyphal hyphae in their hyphae. ChsB functions in the formation of normal cell walls of hyphae, as well as in conidiophore and conidia development
physiological function
-
specific disruption of the CHS1 gene results in a 58% reduction of chitin synthase activity, accompanied by decreases of 35% in chitin content, 22% in conidiation, and 16% in macroconidium length. The mutant strain has a growth rate comparable to that of the wild-type on PDA medium but has a 35% increase in the number of nuclear cellulae and exhibits a remarkably increased sensitivity to osmosis stresses. Mutant shows substantial changes in cell wall structures of the macroconidium, ascospore, and mycelium, with the most profound changes in the mycelium. The mutant displays significantly reduced pathogenicity on wheat spikes and seedlings
physiological function
B5M4A8, -
enzyme deletion mutants are unable to form appressoria on artificial surfaces, except following the application of the exogenous inducers 1,16-hexadecanediol and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The appressoria formed have a reduced chitin content and are often smaller and misshapen compared with the wild-type. Mutants are significantly reduced in their ability to enter rice plants, but growth in planta is not affected
physiological function
-
treatment of Candida albicans with low levels of echinocandins such as caspofungin, echinocandin B, cilofungin and anidulafungin stimulates chitin synthase gene expression, increases Chs activity, elevates chitin content and reduced efficacy of these drugs. Elevation of chitin synthesis is mediated via the PKC, HOG, and Ca2+-calcineurin signalling pathways. Stimulation of isoforms Chs2p and Chs8p by activators of these pathways enables cells to survive otherwise lethal concentrations of echinocandins, even in the absence of Chs3p and the normally essential Chs1p, which synthesize the chitinous septal ring and primary septum of the fungus. Under such conditions, a novel proximally offset septum is synthesized that restores the capacity for cell division, sustaines the viability of the cell, and abrogates morphological and growth defects associated with echinocandin treatment and the chs mutations
physiological function
-
in the conidia, chitin content in the cell wall of a mutant strain lacking activity of isoform csmA is less than half the amount found in the parental strain. The isoform csmB mutant strain and the isoform csmA/csmB double mutant strain do not show any modification of chitin content in their conidial cell walls. In contrast to the hydrophobic conidia of the parental strain, conidia of all of the chitin synthase mutants are hydrophilic due to the presence of an amorphous material covering the hydrophobic surface-rodlet layer. The deletion of chitin synthase genes also results in an increased susceptibility of resting and germinating conidia to echinocandins
physiological function
D0VE03, D0VE05, -
isoform CHS5 and CHS7 single deletion mutants and the CHS5/CHS7 double mutant grow poorly and exhibit small, hyperpigmented colonies with very little aerial mycelia as compared to the wild-type strain. The mutant strains also tend to grow into the potato dextrose agar media rather than growing evenly over the surface as compared to the wild type. The addition of 0.2 M KCl into the medium suppresses the mutant phenotype. Both isoforms are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ear. Mutant strains are more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds, e.g., Nikkomycin Z, than wild type. Mutant strains are significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease; isoform CHS5 and CHS7single deletion mutants and the CHS5/CHS7 double mutant grow poorly and exhibit small, hyperpigmented colonies with very little aerial mycelia as compared to the wild-type strain. The mutant strains also tend to grow into the potato dextrose agar media rather than growing evenly over the surface as compared to the wild type. The addition of 0.2 M KCl into the medium suppresses the mutant phenotype. Both isoforms are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ear. Mutant strains are more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds, e.g., Nikkomycin Z, than wild type. Mutant strains are significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease
physiological function
B4YIR0
presence of alternative exons CHSA-2a and CHSA-2b. Transcripts of both exons are preferentially expressed in epidermis. Gene silencing of CHSA-2a causes incomplete molting, while silencing of CHSA-2b exclusively influences the head cuticle formation of the 3rd instar larval
physiological function
Q4P9K9, -
isoform Mcs1 consists of a myosin motor domain fused to a membrane-spanning chitin synthase region. Both domains are required for fungal virulence. Fungi carrying mutations in the chitin synthase domain are rapidly recognized and killed by the plant, whereas fungi carrying a deletion of the motor domain show alterations in cell wall composition but can invade host tissue and cause a moderate plant response. Mcs1-bound vesicles exhibit long-range movement for up to 20 mm at a velocity of ;1.75 microm/s. Apical Mcs1 localization depends on F-actin and the motor domain, whereas Mcs1 motility requires microtubules and persists when the Mcs1 motor domain is deleted
physiological function
D7NQS8, D7NQS9, -
isoform Chs1 protein contains N-terminal microtubule interacting and trafficking domains involved in protein recycling by endocytosis. Chitin is vital for the micro-organisms despite its very low abundance in the cell walls. It is most likely synthesized transiently at the apex of the cells before cellulose, the major cell wall component in oomycetes; isoform Chs2 protein contains N-terminal microtubule interacting and trafficking domains involved in protein recycling by endocytosis. Chitin is vital for the micro-organisms despite its very low abundance in the cell walls. It is most likely synthesized transiently at the apex of the cells before cellulose, the major cell wall component in oomycetes
physiological function
Gibberella zeae GZ03643
-
mutants lacking isoform CHS7 or isoform CHS5 do not produce perithecia or cause disease on barley heads. Mutant cells form balloon-shaped hyphae and intrahyphal hyphae, their cell wall rigidity is weaker than that of wild-type
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
?
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-GlcNAc + GlcNAc
UDP + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
P29465
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
UDP + 1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-]n
UDP + [(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9GQC3
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Apodachlya sp.
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Q9GQ90
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Mortierella pusilla, Mortierella candelabrum
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Chlorovirus CVK2
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
chitin
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
chitin
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
chitin
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
chitin
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
chitin
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme itself is capable both of initiating chitin chains without a primer and of determining their length
at low concentrations of UDP-GlcNAc, no insoluble chitin is formed. Instead N-acetylglucosamine is incorporated into water-soluble products
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
subapical branching may be regulated though an interplay between chitinolytic enzymes and chitin synthases, chitin synthase B may represent the main chitin synthase activity involved in apical hyphal extension
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthetase 2 is responsible for chitin synthesis in vivo, chitin synthase 1 is not essential
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
existence of a unique secretory pathway based on chitosome microvesicles as the main conveyors of chitin synthetase to the cell surface
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthase B is essential for hyphal growth
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthase 1 is involved in repair functions at the end of cytokinesis, chitin synthase 2 is responsible for the synthesis of the primary septum that separates mother and daughter cells, chitin synthase 3 is responsible for the formation of the ring where most of the cell wall chitin is located
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9GQC3
the enzyme is likely to be essential to oogenesis and embryonic development
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Chlorovirus CVK2
-
chlorovirus CVK2 encodes a chitin synthase gene and produces hairy chitin polysaccharides on the infected cell surface
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in chitin biosynthesis
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthetase 2 is the physiological agent for chitin deposition in strains with a disrupted CHS1 gene
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthetase 2 is essential for primary septum formation, chitin synthetase 1 is a repair enzyme
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthase activity is required for normal development of nematodes and removal of this activity delays emergency of juveniles in Meloidogyne artiellia
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
P29465
chitin synthase III activity is required for remedial septa formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthase III from Candida albicans plays an important role in maintaining cell wall integrity, being essential when invading surrounding tissues. Candida albicans strains deficient in CHS7, a key regulator of chitin synthase III, exhibit morphogenetic alterations and attenuated virulence
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
P78611
deletion of chsE causes a significant decrease in the chitin content of the cell wall during early sexual development. Expression of chsE is increased by substituting glucose with lactose or by addition of 0.6 M KCl or NaCl, but affected little by substituting glucose with sodium acetate. ChsE has a mode of expression distinct from those of the other chitin synthase genes, chsA, chsB and chsC
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
most chitin is synthesized by Chs3p, which deposites chitin in the lateral cell wall and in the bud-neck region during cell division. Chs3p-dependent chitin synthesis is regulated both by the level of intermediates of the UDP-GlcNAc-biosynthetic pathways and by an increase in the activity of the enzyme in the plasma membrane
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Amylomyces rouxii IM-80
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-)]n
UDP + [4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
A6ZKY2, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-)]n
UDP + [4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1-)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
P23316
-
-
-
?
chitobiose + N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
UDP + 1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)x
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
chitin synthesis and hydrolysis are not coupled, but both are regulated during yeast - hyphe morphogenesis in Candida albicans
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
class II CaChs1p is involved in septum formation in both the yeast and hyphal forms and for cell integrity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q530Z6, Q8T4U2
MsCHS1 appears to be inversely regulated because its mRNA is detectable only during the molt at the time when tracheal growth occurs at the basal site of the midgut
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the hyphal-specific chitin synthase gene CHS2 is not essential for growth, dimorphism, or virulence. The class I CaChs2p enzyme is responsible for part of the hyphal chitin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
chs-1 is critical for eggshell production. Complete loss of function in a chs-1 deletion results in embryos that lack chitin in their eggshells and fail to divide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS1 supports the tip growth of yeastlike cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS2 plays a minor role during infection process and becomes crucial when the plant grows under optimal conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q5KCU4
CHS3 is the most important chitin synthase for vegetative growth. Deletion of chs3 gene leads to cell death at 37C
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS3 plays a minor role during infection process and becomes crucial when the plant grows under optimal conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS4 plays a minor role during infection process and becomes crucial when the plant grows under optimal conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Chs4p (Cal2/Csd4/Skt5) is a protein factor physically interacting with Chs3p, the catalytic subunit of chitin synthase III (CSIII), and is indispensable for its enzymatic activity in vivo. Abolition of Chs4p prenylation causes about 60% decrease in CSIII activity, which is correlated with about 30% decrease in chitin content. Lack of Chs4p prenylation decreases the average chain length of the chitin polymer
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS5 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth. Chs5 is important for mating tube and dikaryotic hyphae formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS6 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth. Chs6 is important for mating tube and dikaryotic hyphae formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS7 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth. Chs7 is important for mating tube and dikaryotic hyphae formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P30583
ChsA and ChsC share overlapping roles in septum formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13281, Q2L6A0
CsmA and CsmB play compensatory roles that are essential for normal tip growth
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
insect development is dependent on the precisely tuned expression of chitin synthase genes. Ecdysterone has a regulatory role on CHS-1 (DmeChSB) and CHS-2
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
knocking down chs-2 by RNAi causes a defect in the pharynx and leads to L1 larval arrest, indicating that chitin is involved in the development and function of the pharynx
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6WD22, -
RNAi-mediated down-regulation of TcCHS2, but not TcCHS1, leads to cessation of feeding, a dramatic shrinkage in larval size and reduced chitin content in the midgut
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6WD22, -
splice variant 8a of TcCHS1 is required for both the larval-pupal and pupal-adult moults, whereas splice variant 8b is required only for the latter
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P30600
WdChs1p is more responsible than WdChs2p for normal yeast cell reproductive growth because strains with defects in the latter exhibited no morphological abnormalities, whereas those with defects in WdChs1p are frequently impaired in one or more yeast developmental processes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
chitin synthase, CsmA contains a myosin motor-like domain
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q06BR7
chitin synthase B is very important in midgut formation and development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q530Z6
chitin synthesis is controlled by an intestinal proteolytic signalling cascade linking chitin synthase activity to the nutritional state of the larvae, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6WD22, Q6WD23
chitin, synthesized by chitin synthase, is essential for the structural integrity of the exoskeletal cuticle and midgut peritrophic membrane of insects
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A6ZKY2
Chs2 synthesizes the primary septum after mitosis is completed. It is essential for proper cell separation and expected to be highly regulated. Chs2 is hyperactivated by a soluble yeast protease, which is expressed during logarithmic growth phase, when budding cells require Chs2 activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Chs4p is required for chitin synthase III activity and hence for chitin synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8TGV2
class V chitin synthase is required for sustained cell growth at the temperature of infection, 37C, with increased WdCHS5 mRNA synthesis being the major factor responsible for the increased WdCHS5 transcript
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q5YCX0
class VII chitin synthase involved in septation is critical for pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum, gene chsVb is likely to function in polarized growth and confirm the critical importance of cell wall integrity in the complex infection process of this fungus, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P23316, P30572, P30573, Q5A7T2
shape and integrity of fungal cells is dependent on the skeletal polysaccharides in their cell walls of which beta-1,3-glucan and chitin are of principle importance, individual chitin synthase enzymes synthesize microfibrils of differing structure at specific locations in the Candida albicans cell wall, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q8TFN5, Q8TFN6
the chitin synthase with a myosin-like motor domain is essential for hyphal growth, appressorium differentiation, and pathogenicity of the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q3I5Q4, -
the enzyme is involved in larval development, and is important for the growth and development of cuticles and trachea in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q3I5Q4, -
Chitin synthases are large membrane proteins that catalyze the polymerization of N-acetylglucosamine into chitin, a major component of the exoskeletons and peritrophic membranes of insects
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6WD22, Q6WD23
CHS catalyzes the synthesis of chitin, the beta-1,4-linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q530Z6
CHS2 interacts with the extracellular chymotrypsin-like protease CTLP1 in the midgut, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
proper CSIII turnover is maintained through the endocytic internalization of Chs3p, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
A6ZKY2
Chs2 synthesizes the primary septum after mitosis is completed. It is essential for proper cell separation and expected to be highly regulated. Chs2 is hyperactivated by a soluble yeast protease, which is expressed during logarithmic growth phase, when budding cells require Chs2 activity
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
subapical branching may be regulated though an interplay between chitinolytic enzymes and chitin synthases, chitin synthase B may represent the main chitin synthase activity involved in apical hyphal extension
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthetase 2 is responsible for chitin synthesis in vivo, chitin synthase 1 is not essential
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
existence of a unique secretory pathway based on chitosome microvesicles as the main conveyors of chitin synthetase to the cell surface
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthase B is essential for hyphal growth
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthase 1 is involved in repair functions at the end of cytokinesis, chitin synthase 2 is responsible for the synthesis of the primary septum that separates mother and daughter cells, chitin synthase 3 is responsible for the formation of the ring where most of the cell wall chitin is located
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9GQC3
the enzyme is likely to be essential to oogenesis and embryonic development
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Chlorovirus CVK2
-
chlorovirus CVK2 encodes a chitin synthase gene and produces hairy chitin polysaccharides on the infected cell surface
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in chitin biosynthesis
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthetase 2 is the physiological agent for chitin deposition in strains with a disrupted CHS1 gene
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthetase 2 is essential for primary septum formation, chitin synthetase 1 is a repair enzyme
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthase activity is required for normal development of nematodes and removal of this activity delays emergency of juveniles in Meloidogyne artiellia
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
P29465
chitin synthase III activity is required for remedial septa formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
chitin synthase III from Candida albicans plays an important role in maintaining cell wall integrity, being essential when invading surrounding tissues. Candida albicans strains deficient in CHS7, a key regulator of chitin synthase III, exhibit morphogenetic alterations and attenuated virulence
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n
UDP + [1,4-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)]n+1
show the reaction diagram
P78611
deletion of chsE causes a significant decrease in the chitin content of the cell wall during early sexual development. Expression of chsE is increased by substituting glucose with lactose or by addition of 0.6 M KCl or NaCl, but affected little by substituting glucose with sodium acetate. ChsE has a mode of expression distinct from those of the other chitin synthase genes, chsA, chsB and chsC
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
chitin synthesis and hydrolysis are not coupled, but both are regulated during yeast - hyphe morphogenesis in Candida albicans
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
class II CaChs1p is involved in septum formation in both the yeast and hyphal forms and for cell integrity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q530Z6, Q8T4U2
MsCHS1 appears to be inversely regulated because its mRNA is detectable only during the molt at the time when tracheal growth occurs at the basal site of the midgut
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the hyphal-specific chitin synthase gene CHS2 is not essential for growth, dimorphism, or virulence. The class I CaChs2p enzyme is responsible for part of the hyphal chitin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
chs-1 is critical for eggshell production. Complete loss of function in a chs-1 deletion results in embryos that lack chitin in their eggshells and fail to divide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS1 supports the tip growth of yeastlike cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS2 plays a minor role during infection process and becomes crucial when the plant grows under optimal conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q5KCU4
CHS3 is the most important chitin synthase for vegetative growth. Deletion of chs3 gene leads to cell death at 37C
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS3 plays a minor role during infection process and becomes crucial when the plant grows under optimal conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS4 plays a minor role during infection process and becomes crucial when the plant grows under optimal conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Chs4p (Cal2/Csd4/Skt5) is a protein factor physically interacting with Chs3p, the catalytic subunit of chitin synthase III (CSIII), and is indispensable for its enzymatic activity in vivo. Abolition of Chs4p prenylation causes about 60% decrease in CSIII activity, which is correlated with about 30% decrease in chitin content. Lack of Chs4p prenylation decreases the average chain length of the chitin polymer
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS5 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth. Chs5 is important for mating tube and dikaryotic hyphae formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS6 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth. Chs6 is important for mating tube and dikaryotic hyphae formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS7 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth. Chs7 is important for mating tube and dikaryotic hyphae formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P30583
ChsA and ChsC share overlapping roles in septum formation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O13281, Q2L6A0
CsmA and CsmB play compensatory roles that are essential for normal tip growth
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
insect development is dependent on the precisely tuned expression of chitin synthase genes. Ecdysterone has a regulatory role on CHS-1 (DmeChSB) and CHS-2
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
knocking down chs-2 by RNAi causes a defect in the pharynx and leads to L1 larval arrest, indicating that chitin is involved in the development and function of the pharynx
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6WD22, -
RNAi-mediated down-regulation of TcCHS2, but not TcCHS1, leads to cessation of feeding, a dramatic shrinkage in larval size and reduced chitin content in the midgut
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6WD22, -
splice variant 8a of TcCHS1 is required for both the larval-pupal and pupal-adult moults, whereas splice variant 8b is required only for the latter
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P30600
WdChs1p is more responsible than WdChs2p for normal yeast cell reproductive growth because strains with defects in the latter exhibited no morphological abnormalities, whereas those with defects in WdChs1p are frequently impaired in one or more yeast developmental processes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q06BR7
chitin synthase B is very important in midgut formation and development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q530Z6
chitin synthesis is controlled by an intestinal proteolytic signalling cascade linking chitin synthase activity to the nutritional state of the larvae, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q6WD22, Q6WD23
chitin, synthesized by chitin synthase, is essential for the structural integrity of the exoskeletal cuticle and midgut peritrophic membrane of insects
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A6ZKY2
Chs2 synthesizes the primary septum after mitosis is completed. It is essential for proper cell separation and expected to be highly regulated. Chs2 is hyperactivated by a soluble yeast protease, which is expressed during logarithmic growth phase, when budding cells require Chs2 activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Chs4p is required for chitin synthase III activity and hence for chitin synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8TGV2
class V chitin synthase is required for sustained cell growth at the temperature of infection, 37C, with increased WdCHS5 mRNA synthesis being the major factor responsible for the increased WdCHS5 transcript
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q5YCX0
class VII chitin synthase involved in septation is critical for pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum, gene chsVb is likely to function in polarized growth and confirm the critical importance of cell wall integrity in the complex infection process of this fungus, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P23316, P30572, P30573, Q5A7T2
shape and integrity of fungal cells is dependent on the skeletal polysaccharides in their cell walls of which beta-1,3-glucan and chitin are of principle importance, individual chitin synthase enzymes synthesize microfibrils of differing structure at specific locations in the Candida albicans cell wall, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q8TFN5, Q8TFN6
the chitin synthase with a myosin-like motor domain is essential for hyphal growth, appressorium differentiation, and pathogenicity of the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q3I5Q4, -
the enzyme is involved in larval development, and is important for the growth and development of cuticles and trachea in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
A6ZKY2
Chs2 synthesizes the primary septum after mitosis is completed. It is essential for proper cell separation and expected to be highly regulated. Chs2 is hyperactivated by a soluble yeast protease, which is expressed during logarithmic growth phase, when budding cells require Chs2 activity
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
slight increase in activity
Co2+
-
in stimulation of Chs2 Co2+ is twice as effective on an enzyme activated by trypsin
Co2+
-
absolute requirement for a divalent cation. Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+
Co2+
-
slight stimulation
Co2+
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
stimulates
Co2+
-
optimal concentration is 5-20 mM
Co2+
-
divalent cation required, chitin synthase 2 shows highest activity with chitin synthase 2
Co2+
-
stimulates
Co2+
-
chitin synthase 2 requires Co2+ rather than Mg2+
Mg2+
-
best stimulator of Chs1. Mg2+ and Mn2+ lead to similar maximal stimulation of Chs2
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
Apodachlya sp.
-
required
Mg2+
-
absolute requirement for a divalent cation. Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+. Optimum concentration for Mg2+ is 1-10 mM
Mg2+
-
divalent cation required for maximal activity, Mg2+ is most efficient
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
8-20 mM, 6fold stimulation
Mg2+
-
maximal activity in presence of 1 mM MgCl2
Mg2+
-
greatly stimulated by Mg2+, optimal concentration is 2.5 mM, half-maximal activity at 17 mM
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
divalent cation required
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
required; stimulates
Mg2+
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
the best divalent cation stimulator of chitin synthase 1 and 2
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
Mg2+ or Mn2+ required
Mg2+
-
divalent cation required, chitin synthase 1 and 3 have a preference for Mg2+
Mg2+
-
required for maximal activity
Mg2+
-
significant chitin synthase activity in the presence of Mg2+ or Mn2+, even without trypsin treatment
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
A6ZKY2
activates mutant Chs2DELTAN222
Mn2+
-
Mg2+ and Mn2+ lead to similar maximal stimulation of Chs2
Mn2+
Apodachlya sp.
-
required
Mn2+
-
absolute requirement for a divalent cation. Mg2+, Mn2+ or Co2+
Mn2+
-
slight activation
Mn2+
-
dependent upon presence of divalent cation, Mn2+ is most effective
Mn2+
-
slight stimulation
Mn2+
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
slight stimulation
Mn2+
-
Mn2+ or Mg2+ required
Mn2+
-
significant chitin synthase activity in the presence of Mg2+ or Mn2+, even without trypsin treatment
Mn2+
-
stimulation
Mn2+
A6ZKY2
activates the wild-type Chs2 and mutant Chs2DELTAN222
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2R,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 1.6 mM
(2R,3R,4R,5S)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 38 mM
(2S,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 4.0 mM
1-(2,2-dibutyl-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl)ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 30% residual activity
1-Geranyl-2-methylbenzimidazole
-
weak
1-[2,2-dibutyl-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 10% residual activity
1-[2,2-dibutyl-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 30% residual activity
1-[2,2-dibutyl-N-[(2,6-difluorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 20% residual activity
1-[2,2-dibutyl-N-[(2-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 15% residual activity
1-[2,2-dibutyl-N-[(2-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
0.25 mM, about 25% residual activity
2,2'-methylenebis(3,4,6-trichlorophenol)
-
0.25 mM, 56% inhibition
2,3,5,6-Tetrachloro-4-methoxyphenol
-
0.25 mM, 48% inhibition
2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-glucitol
-
IC50: 5.7 mM
3,5-Dichloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde
-
0.25 mM, 17% inhibition
3,5-Dichloro-4-methoxybenzyl alcohol
-
0.25 mM, 40% inhibition
3,5-Dichlorobenzyl alcohol
-
0.25 mM, 15% inhibition
8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one
P23316
-
8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one
A6ZKY2, -
a diterpene compoud isolated from leaves of Chamaecyparis pisifera, inhibits Chs1p; a diterpene compoud isolated from leaves of Chamaecyparis pisifera, inhibits Chs2p
ADP
-
2.0 mM, 14% inhibition
amphotericin
-
noncompetitive
Amphotericin B methyl ester
-
-
ATP
-
2.0 mM, 12% inhibition
Ba2+
-
10 mM, 61% inhibition
c3',5'-AMP
-
2 mM, slight inhibition
Ca2+
-
10 mM, 60% inhibition
Calcofluor white
-
noncompetitive
Cd2+
A6ZKY2
complete inhibition of wild-type and mutant enzymes
chitin oligosaccharides
-
slight
chitodextrins
-
-
-
Co2+
-
10 mM CoCl2, 20% inhibition
Co2+
-
strongly inhibits chitin synthase 1
Co2+
A6ZKY2
inhibits the wild-type Chs2 and mutant Chs2DELTAN222
Cu2+
Apodachlya sp.
-
strong
Cu2+
-
10 mM CuSO4, 95% inhibition
Cu2+
-
10 mM, 47% inhibition
Diflubenzuron
-
-
edifenphos
-
non-competitive
EDTA
-
0.1 mM, Chs1 and Chs2 are almost completely inhibited
EDTA
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
EDTA
-
inhibition of chitin synthase 1 and 2
EDTA
A6ZKY2
complete inhibition of wild-type and mutant enzymes
Fe3+
-
10 mM, 71% inhibition
-
Hexachlorophene
-
inhibition can be reversed by lecithin
insecticidal benzoylphenyl ureas
-
-
-
K+
-
10 mM, 14% inhibition
kanakugiol
-
inhibition of chitin synthase 2 and antifungal activity of the lignan from the stem bark of Lindera erythrocarpa, overview
linderone
-
inhibition of chitin synthase 2 and antifungal activity of the lignan from the stem bark of Lindera erythrocarpa, overview
methyllinderone
-
inhibition of chitin synthase 2 and antifungal activity of the lignan from the stem bark of Lindera erythrocarpa, overview
Mg2+
A6ZKY2
inhibits the wild-type Chs2
Mn2+
-
10 mM, 12% inhibition
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-N,N-diacetylchitobiose
-
-
-
NaCl
-
0.5 M, 86% inhibition of Chs1 and 29% inhibition of Chs2
neopolyoxin C
A6ZKY2, -
-
Ni2+
-
inhibition of chitin synthase 1 and 2, no inhibition of chitin synthase 3
Ni2+
A6ZKY2
inhibits the wild-type enzyme and mutant Chs2DELTAN222
Nikkomycin
-
nikkomycin X and nikkomycin Z
Nikkomycin
-
competitive; competitive inhibitor of chitin synthetase 2; nikkomycin X and nikkomycin Z; nikkomycin Z is more inhibitory to chitin synthetase 1 than for chitin synthetase 2
Nikkomycin
-
linear competitive inhibitor
Nikkomycin
-
nikkomycin Z
Nikkomycin
-
nikkomycin Z
Nikkomycin
-
nikkomycin Z
Nikkomycin
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
0.015 for chitin synthetase III; IC50: 0.022 mM for chitin synthetase II; IC50: 0.032 mM for chitin synthetase I
nikkomycin Z
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
-
nikkomycin Z
A6ZKY2, -
specific for Chs1
nikkomycin Z
D7NQS8, D7NQS9, -
competitive inhibition, presence of inhibitor leads to increased expression; competitive inhibition, presence of inhibitor leads to increased expression
O-methyl pisiferic acid
P23316
a diterpene compound isolated from leaves of Chamaecyparis pisifera, inhibition of chitin synthase 1
O-methyl pisiferic acid
A6ZKY2, -
; a diterpene compound isolated from leaves of Chamaecyparis pisifera, specifically inhibits Chs2p in a mixed competitive manner versus UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
oudemansin B
-
0.25 mM, 31% inhibition
Pentachlorophenol
-
0.25 mM, 67% inhibition
Polyoxin D
-
Chs2 shows less sensitivity to inhibition than Chs1
Polyoxin D
Apodachlya sp.
-
-
Polyoxin D
-
1 mM
Polyoxin D
-
0.01 mM, 80% loss of activity; 0.1 mM, complete inhibition
Polyoxin D
-
competitive inhibitor of chitin synthetase 2; more inhibitory to chitin synthetase 1 than for chitin synthetase 2
Polyoxin D
-
linear competitive inhibitor
Polyoxin D
-
no inhibition
Polyoxin D
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
-
Polyoxin D
-
competitive
Polyoxin D
A6ZKY2, -
;
Primulin
-
noncompetitive
strobilurin A
-
0.25 mM, 24% inhibition
strobilurin B
-
0.25 mM, 29% inhibition
terpenoyl benzimidazole
-
weak
UDP
-
0.05 mM, 50% loss of activity; 0.1 mM, 95% inhibition
UDP
-
linear competitive inhibitor
UDP
-
competitive with respect to UDP-GlcNAc
UDP
-
2.0 mM, 86% inhibition
UDP
-
0.5 mM, 28% inhibition
UDPgalacturonic acid
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UDPglucose
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UDPglucuronic acid
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UDPmannose
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
UDPxylose
-
1 mM, about 20% inhibition
uracil polyoxin C methyl ester
-
stereoselective synthesis routes of both the natural (C5'-S) and unnatural (C5'-R) diastereoisomers of uracil polyoxin C methyl ester as specific substrate analogue-inhibitors of chirin synthase, conjugation of the methyl ester of uracil polyoxin C with activated isoxazole carboxylic acids, detailed overview
UTP
-
2.0 mM, 50% inhibition
Zn2+
Apodachlya sp.
-
strong
Zn2+
-
10 mM ZnCl2, 95% inhibition
Zn2+
-
2.5 mM, complete inhibition of both chitin synthase 1 and 2
[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid 2-[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyloxy]-ethyl ester
-
1 mM, 32% inhibition, competitive. IC50: 2.2 mM
[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid 2-{2-[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyloxy]-ethoxy}-ethyl ester
-
1 mM 45% inhibition. IC50: 11.8 mM
Mn2+
-
2.5 mM, 50% inhibition of chitin synthase 1 and 2
additional information
-
no inhibition by BAY SIR 8514; no inhibition by diflubenzuron
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by diflubenzuron
-
additional information
-
purification of a soluble protein inhibitor from cytoplasm of Mucor rouxii, which forms part of the regulatory mechanism of chitin synthesis in the cells
-
additional information
-
a pH-dependent, heat-stable inhibitor is present in the soluble cytoplasm from the mycelium
-
additional information
-
(2S,3R,4R,5S)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine shows no inhibition at 8 mM. 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-L-iditol shows no inhibition at 5 mM
-
additional information
-
the absence of Chs4p renders CSIII functionally inactive, independently of Chs3p accumulation at the plasma membrane
-
additional information
-
no inhibition of chitin synthase 1 and 3 by methyllinderone, linderone, and kanakugiol from stem bark of Lindera erythrocarpa
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
slight stimulation
ATP
-
0.25 mM activates by 33%, concentrations up to 0.5 mM stimulate
chitodextrin F1
-
5 mg/ml, 183% increase in activity
-
chitodextrin F2
-
5 mg/ml, 170% increase in activity
-
diacetylchitobiose
-
activates
Digitonin
Apodachlya sp.
-
causes a 5fold increase in total activity
Digitonin
-
stimulates
Digitonin
-
chitin synthase 2 is maximally stimulated at the sharply defined digitonin to protein ratio of 0.042. Chitin synthase I is maximally active at a digitonin to protein ratio of 0.3-0.75
Digitonin
-
stimulates, both membrane-bound and dissociated chitin synthase show little activity in the absence of digitonin
GlcNAc
-
stimulates both Chs1 and Chs2 about 3fold
GlcNAc
-
stimulates
GlcNAc
Apodachlya sp.
-
slight increase in activity
GlcNAc
-
required
GlcNAc
-
Km: 4.7 mM; stimulates
GlcNAc
-
20 mM stimulates, allosteric activator
GlcNAc
-
stimulates
GlcNAc
-
Km: 3.9 mM
GlcNAc
-
stimulates
GlcNAc
-
activates
GlcNAc
-
required
GlcNAc
-
no significant activation
GlcNAc
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
stimulates
GlcNAc
-
stimulates
glucose
-
slight stimulation
glucose
-
activates
Nystatin
-
0.05 mM, marked stimulation
Papain
-
fairly good activator of Chs1, poor activator of Chs2
-
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
stimulates
phosphatidylinositol
-
stimulates
phosphatidylserine
-
stimulates
phosphatidylserine
-
required, phosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylserine are the best activators
Phospholipid
-
required, phosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylserine are the best activators
Pronase
-
stimulates both Chs1 and Chs2
-
proteinase B
-
from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stimulates Chs1, no effect on Chs2
-
proteinase K
-
stimulates both Chs1 and Chs2
-
Staphylococcus V8 protease
-
best activator of Chs2 in presence of Co2+, elicits little Mg2+-stimulatable activity
-
Trypsin
Apodachlya sp.
-
activates
-
Lysophosphatidylserine
-
required, phosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylserine are the best activators
additional information
A6ZKY2
Chs2 is hyperactivated by a soluble yeast protease, addition of leupeptin, a serine and cysteine protease inhibitor, almost completely abolishes the stimulatory effect, while it does not affect the activity of Chs2 or Chs2DELTAN222 by itself
-
additional information
-
blockade of endocytosis, independent of Chs4p function, stops Chs3p internalization, triggering a significant increase in chitin synthesis, overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.5
-
6-O-dansyl N-acetylglucosamine
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase II
0.0133
-
6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase I
0.2
-
6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase III
3.1
-
N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
-
reaction with UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
0.5
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
chitin synthase 1
0.6
0.8
UDP-GlcNAc
-
chitin synthase 2
0.7
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
-
0.8
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
Chs1
0.9
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
Chs1
1
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
wild-type enzyme
1.6
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
-
1.8
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
-
1.8
-
UDP-GlcNAc
Mortierella pusilla
-
-
2
-
UDP-GlcNAc
Mortierella candelabrum
-
-
2.2
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
-
2.5
-
UDP-GlcNAc
-
-
2.6
-
UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine
-
reaction with chitobiose
1.5
-
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
3.1
-
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0009
-
5-((2-amino-5-O-(aminocarbonyl)-2-deoxy-L-xylonoyl)amino)-1-(5-carboxy-3,4-dihydro-2,4-dioxo-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-1,5-dideoxy-beta-D-allofuranuronic acid
-
chitin synthetase 1
0.13
-
Amphotericin B
-
-
0.054
-
edifenphos
-
-
0.0085
-
Hexachlorophene
-
-
0.002
-
Nikkomycin
-
-
0.00014
-
nikkomycin X
-
chitin synthetase 1
0.0001
-
nikkomycin Z
-
-
0.00025
-
nikkomycin Z
-
chitin synthetase 1
0.0068
-
nikkomycin Z
-
-
0.005
-
O-methyl pisiferic acid
A6ZKY2, -
versus UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine; versus UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
0.00065
-
polyoxin
-
-
-
0.032
-
Polyoxin B
-
-
0.003
-
Polyoxin D
-
Chs1
0.004
-
Polyoxin D
-
-
0.0058
-
Polyoxin D
Mortierella candelabrum
-
-
0.006
-
Polyoxin D
-
-
0.0069
-
Polyoxin D
Mortierella pusilla
-
-
0.01
-
Polyoxin D
-
-
0.015
-
Polyoxin D
-
Chs2
0.014
-
Primulin
-
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.6
-
(2R,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 1.6 mM
38
-
(2R,3R,4R,5S)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 38 mM
4
-
(2S,3R,4R,5R)-2-[(1-ethylphosphonyl)-1,1-difluoromethyl]-3,4-dihydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidine
-
IC50: 4.0 mM
0.0079
-
1-[2,2-dibutyl-5-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
-
0.0056
-
1-[2,2-dibutyl-N-[(2-chlorophenyl)carbonyl]-5-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-3(2H)-yl]ethanone
-
-
5.7
-
2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-D-glucitol
-
IC50: 5.7 mM
0.171
-
8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one
P23316
inhibition of Chs1p
0.2264
-
8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs2p
0.44
-
8,20-dihydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs1p
0.0238
-
kanakugiol
-
-
0.0214
-
linderone
-
-
0.0233
-
methyllinderone
-
-
0.0011
-
neopolyoxin C
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs1p
0.015
-
neopolyoxin C
P23316
inhibition of Chs1p
0.355
-
neopolyoxin C
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs2p
0.022
-
Nikkomycin
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
IC50: 0.022 mM for chitin synthetase II
0.032
-
Nikkomycin
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
IC50: 0.032 mM for chitin synthetase I
0.0058
-
O-methyl pisiferic acid
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs2p
0.076
-
O-methyl pisiferic acid
P23316
inhibition of Chs1p
0.424
-
O-methyl pisiferic acid
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs1p
0.0059
-
Polyoxin D
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs3p
0.0071
-
Polyoxin D
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs1p
0.0427
-
Polyoxin D
P23316
inhibition of Chs1p
0.0886
-
Polyoxin D
A6ZKY2, -
inhibition of Chs2p
2.2
-
[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid 2-[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyloxy]-ethyl ester
-
1 mM, 32% inhibition, competitive. IC50: 2.2 mM
11.8
-
[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethyl]-carbamic acid 2-{2-[5-(2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrimidin-1-yl)-3,4-dihydroxy-tetrahydro-furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyloxy]-ethoxy}-ethyl ester
-
1 mM 45% inhibition. IC50: 11.8 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0025
-
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase III, activity at the end of exponential growth phase
0.0028
-
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase II, activity at the end of exponential growth phase
0.0055
-
-
-
0.008
-
Kluyveromyces bulgaricus
-
chitin synthetase I, activity at the end of exponential growth phase
0.01639
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
nonradioactive, high throughput assay
additional information
-
P23316, P30572, P30573, Q5A7T2
recombinant YFP-tagged isozymes in BWP17 cells; recombinant YFP-tagged isozymes in BWP17 cells; recombinant YFP-tagged isozymes in BWP17 cells; recombinant YFP-tagged isozymes in BWP17 cells
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
-
Mortierella pusilla
-
-
6.2
-
Mortierella candelabrum
-
-
6.5
7.5
-
trypsin-activated enzyme
7
-
-
chitin synthase 1
7.5
8
P23316
assay at
7.5
8
A6ZKY2, -
assay at; assay at
7.5
8.5
Apodachlya sp.
-
-
7.5
8.5
A6ZKY2
-
7.5
-
-
Hepes buffer
7.5
-
-
and a secondary peak at pH 6.2
7.5
-
-
activation by Mg2+
8
-
-
chitin synthase 2
8
-
P29465
assay at
8.5
-
-
10 mM Tris/HCl buffer
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5
8
-
pH 5.5: 40% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: 95% of maximal activity
6.5
8.5
-
pH 6.5: about 85% of maximal activity, pH 8.5: about 70% of maximal activity
7.1
8.3
-
50% of maximal activity at pH 7.1 and pH 8.3
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
-
chitin synthase 1
28
-
Mortierella pusilla
-
-
30
-
Mortierella pusilla
-
-
30
-
A6ZKY2
assay at
30
-
P23316
assay at
30
-
A6ZKY2, -
assay at; assay at
30
-
P29465
assay at
40
-
-
chitin synthase 2
42
46
Apodachlya sp.
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
9
43
-
50% of maximal activity at 9C and at 43C
17.5
41
-
50% of maximal activity at 17.5C and at 41C
20
40
-
20C: about 80% of maximal activity, 40C: about 55% of maximal activity
21
30
-
21C: 50% of maximal activity, 30C: optimum
25
50
-
25C: about 60% of maximal activity, 50C: about 90% of maximal activity, chitin synthase 1
27
42
-
50% of maximal activity at 17C and at 42C
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.8
-
-, Q2V6H3
calculated
6.1
-
Q9NHE6
-
6.2
-
Q95UA6
-
6.4
-
Q95UA6
-
6.6
-
-
-
8.05
-
-
EhCHS-1
8.05
-
-
EhCHS-2
8.05
-
-
EhCHS-1
8.4
-
C0LT25, -
calculated
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS5 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Chs3p and Chs4p appear to co-localize at the neck region of the budding yeast
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P78611
strong expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of midgut. The enzyme is restricted to the apical tips of microvilli
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P78611
moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ChsA is localized in the plasma membrane of growing apices of hyphal branches, conidiophores, and falcate and oval conidia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ChsA is localized in the plasma membrane of growing apices of hyphal branches, conidiophores, and falcate and oval conidia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme predominantly localizes at polarized growth sites and between vesicles and metulae, between metulae and phialides, and between phalides and conidia in asexual development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q3I5Q4, -
class A CHS
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
substantial amounts of CHS-1 and CHS-2 RNA are present 4 to 8 hours after induction of cyst formation by glucose deprivation. In contrast to CHS-1 RNA, expression of CHS-2 RNA is more transient and no plateau is observed between 8 and 16 hours of encystation. Both CHS RNAs are no longer detectable after 48 hours when most of the cells are transformed into mature cysts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
synthesis of chitin continues to take place in nematode eggs within the egg sac in the parasitic nematode. The removal of the activity affects egg development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q9GQC3
early embryos contain large amounts of Bm-chs-1 transcripts, later stage embryos within the maternal uterus show little or no Bm-chs-1 transcripts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lucilia sp.
-
underlying the procuticle
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
CHS-A gene is exclusively expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B4YIR0
presence of alternative exons CHSA-2a and CHSA-2b. Transcripts of both exons are preferentially expressed in epidermis. During growth and development of Ostrinia furnacalis, CHSA-2a is mainly expressed during larval-larval molting and larval-pupal transformation, as well as in newly-laid eggs, while CHSA-2b is expressed only during the larval-larval molting
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q2V6H3
very low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q00757, Q92197
chsB is ubiquitously expressed throughout the fungal body and quite indenpendently of the change in status of the cell
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
tips of germ tube
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q2XVY1, Q2XVY2
isoform IIIa is restricted to fungal infection structures growing on the surface of the plant, such as germ tubes and, predominantly, appressoria and may be involved in cell wall construction during germ tube and, particularly, appressoria development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of CHS-B gene is restricted to gut epithelial cells that produce chitin in the formation of the peritrophic matrix
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q2XVY1, Q2XVY2
isoform IIIb appears to be involved exclusively in cell wall construction during haustorium development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P78611
strong expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
hyphal-specific chitin synthase gene CHS2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P30583
ChsC, but not of ChsA, is observed at hyphal tips
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O13281, Q2L6A0
CsmA is concentrated at hyphal tips and forming septa; CsmB is concentrated at hyphal tips and forming septa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS2 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS3 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS4 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS5 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS6 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS7 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ChsA is localized in the plasma membrane of growing apices of hyphal branches, conidiophores, and falcate and oval conidia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, P30588
hyphal apex, septa, and Spitzenkoerper; hyphal apex, septa, and Spitzenkoerper
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q8TFN5, Q8TFN6
vegetative; vegetative; vegetative
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0PAB0
vegetative
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
localization to hyphal tips and forming septa during hyphal growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D7NQS8, D7NQS9, -
hyphal tip; hyphal tip
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Neurospora crassa N623
-
hyphal apex, septa, and Spitzenkoerper; hyphal apex, septa, and Spitzenkoerper
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS5 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth; CHS6 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth; CHS7 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chlorovirus CVK2
-
the chitin synthase gene from chlorovirus CVK2 is expressed 10 min postinfection in Chlorella cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity decreases in starved larva or larva about to pupa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q3I5Q4, -
CHS is localized in the underlying epidermal cells of the integument and tracheal cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
maximally active after 72 h of larval growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q530Z6
distribution of CTLP1 and CHS2 in cryosections of the anterior midgut from fifth instar larvae, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme predominantly localizes at polarized growth sites and between vesicles and metulae, between metulae and phialides, and between phalides and conidia in asexual development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
larval, columnar cell of
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q530Z6
larval, expression of MsCHS1 and MsCHS2. MsCHS1 appeared to be inversely regulated because its mRNA is detectable only during the molt at the time when tracheal growth occurs at the basal site of the midgut; larval, expression of MsCHS1 and MsCHS2. MsCHS1 appeared to be inversely regulated because its mRNA is detectable only during the molt at the time when tracheal growth occurs at the basal site of the midgut
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
chitin synthase is expressed in brush border of columnar cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q06BR7
specific expression of chitin synthase B, constitutively in the midgut from the 3rd instar larval stage to prepupae reaching highest expression on the first day of the fifth instar larval stage, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q530Z6
chitin is synthesized by columnar cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
located at the apical tips of the brush border microvilli
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P78611
vegetative, moderate expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q00757, Q92197
chsC is moderately expressed in young vegetative mycelia, weak expression of chsC in old vegetative mycelium
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the transcriptional level of gene Pochs1 in mycelia increases significantly by the temperature-downshift treatment, which is one of the important factors for inducing the onset of fruit-body formation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme predominantly localizes at polarized growth sites and between vesicles and metulae, between metulae and phialides, and between phalides and conidia in asexual development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
tracheal cell of midgut
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q530Z6
of midgut, MsCHS1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
CHS-A gene is exclusively expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q3I5Q4, -
class A CHS is localized in the trachea and the underlying epidermal cells of the tracheal cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q2V6H3
mainly expressed in midgut
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
chitin synthase II shows highest specific activities in extracts from logarithmically growing cultures. Chitin synthetase I, whether from growing cultures or stationary phase cultures, is only measurable after trypsin treatment, and levels of zymogen do not change
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
level of chitin synthase 1 remains constant during vegetative growth in synchronised cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-, Q9GQC3
enzyme is transcribed in adult females, independent of their fertilization status, but is also expressed in males and microfilariae
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Lucilia sp.
-
GlcNAc acceptors functioning as primers for chain assembly transcripts are detectable in all developmental stages of the fly
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
P78611
little expression in mature sexual structures
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q00757, Q92197
chsA is expressed specifically during asexual differentiation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
stage-specific expression of the chitin synthase DmeChSA and DmeChSB genes during the onset of metamorphosis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
total specific activity is higher in hyphal form than in yeast form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
genes corresponding to CHS-1 and CHS-2 are not expressed in Entamoeba trophozoites
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS6 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth; CHS7 is localized at the growing bud and hyphal tips, indicating that they participate in tip growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
A6ZKY2
expression, localization and degradation of Chs2 are cell cycle dependent
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q06BR7
CHSB is not expressed in the cuticle, fat body, tracheae, and the Malpighian tubules, CHSB tissue distribution and developmental expression, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-, P30588
suncellular localization study of CHS-3, CHS proteins are delivered to the cell surface via an alternative route distinct from the classical ER-Golgi body secretory pathway, overview; suncellular localization study of CHS-6, CHS proteins are delivered to the cell surface via an alternative route distinct from the classical ER-Golgi body secretory pathway, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q3I5Q4, -
developmental expression and tissue distribution of CHSA, CHSA mRNA is highly expressed in the early and late stages of each larval instar, and consistently expressed in high level during the pupal stage, CHS is further localized in the underlying epidermal cells of the integument and tracheal cells, but not in the fat body or Malpighian tubules, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q6WD22, Q6WD23
gene TcCHS-A expression during embryonic and adult development, overview; gene TcCHS-B expression during embryonic and adult development, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
P23316, P30572, P30573, Q5A7T2
the architecture of the chitin skeleton of Candida albicans is shaped by the action of more than one chitin synthase at the site of cell wall synthesis; the architecture of the chitin skeleton of Candida albicans is shaped by the action of more than one chitin synthase at the site of cell wall synthesis; the architecture of the chitin skeleton of Candida albicans is shaped by the action of more than one chitin synthase at the site of cell wall synthesis; the architecture of the chitin skeleton of Candida albicans is shaped by the action of more than one chitin synthase at the site of cell wall synthesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-, Q8TFN5, Q8TFN6
chitin synthase expression during vegetative and pathogenic growth; chitin synthase expression during vegetative and pathogenic growth; chitin synthase isozymes of different classes are all expressed during vegetative and pathogenic growth
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the transcriptional level of Pochs1 is higher in the stage of immature fruit body than in the stages of mycelia and mature fruit body
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
enzyme predominantly localizes at polarized growth sites and between vesicles and metulae, between metulae and phialides, and between phalides and conidia in asexual development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Neurospora crassa N623
-
suncellular localization study of CHS-3, CHS proteins are delivered to the cell surface via an alternative route distinct from the classical ER-Golgi body secretory pathway, overview; suncellular localization study of CHS-6, CHS proteins are delivered to the cell surface via an alternative route distinct from the classical ER-Golgi body secretory pathway, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
-
expression, localization and degradation of Chs2 are cell cycle dependent
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
CsmA tagged with 9*HA epitopes is localized near actin structures at the hyphal tips and septation sites. Its myosin motor-like domain is able to bind to actin. Interaction between the myosin motor-like domain and actin is not only necessary for the proper localization of CsmA, but also for CsmA function
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O13394, O13395, P30598, P30599, Q4P333, Q99126, Q99127
CHS2 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS3 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS4 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS5 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS6 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae; CHS7 is localized at the septum of yeast-like cells and hyphae
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ChsA is localized in nascent septa, and during septum conversion to an end wall after hyphal breakage
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Neurospora crassa N623
-
;
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P30583
ChsA and ChsC transiently exist at the septation sites during and shortly after septum formation. Their localizations are not identical but partly overlapp at the septation sites; ChsA and ChsC transiently exist at the septation sites during and shortly after septum formation. Their localizations are not identical but partly overlapp at the septation sites
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ChsA is localized in nascent septa, and during septum conversion to an end wall after hyphal breakage
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P23316, P30572, P30573, Q5A7T2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8TGV2
localizes in regions of cell wall growth in an actin dependent fashion. In unbudded, stationary-phase cells incubated at 37C Chs5 is found in a punctuate fashion just under the cell wall surface. In contrast in yeast cells with smaller buds, Chs5 is mostly localized at the bud apex, whereas in cells with larger buds Chs5 is spread more widely toward the mother cell and less infrequently localized to a septal region in the mother-bud neck when both are approximately equal size, presumably just before or concomitantly with cytokinesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
chitin synthase 1 and 2; the culture medium affects the relative abundance of chitin synthase 1 in chitosomes and plasma membrane populations
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Chs3p is present in an inactive form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q2V6H3
expression of recombinant protein leads to puncta structures co-localized with the Golgi marker
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
membrane-bound vesicle, Chs3p is present in an active form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lucilia sp.
-
integral membrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q06BR7
CHSB contains 5 transmembrane regions
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q3I5Q4, -
integral, analysis of the transmembrane helices of CHSA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q530Z6
transmembrane CHS2 with an extracellular C-terminal domain
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q2V6H3
predicted to be a transmembrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Neurospora crassa N623
-
;
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
most of the enzyme is associated with
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
integral membrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
chitin synthase 1 and 2; the culture medium affects the relative abundance of chitin synthase 1 in chitosomes and plasma membrane populations
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Chs3p is present in an active form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ChsA is localized in the plasma membrane of growing apices of hyphal branches, conidiophores, and falcate and oval conidia
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
chitin synthase III requires Chs4p-dependent translocation of Chs3p into the plasma membrane, Chs4p thus promotes Chs3p translocation into the plasma membrane in a stable and active form. In the absence of Chs4p, Chs3p is delivered to the plasma membrane but fails to accumulate there because it is rapidly endocytosed and accumulates in intracellular vesicles. The C-terminal region of Chs4p is required for its association with plasma membrane but not for biological function
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme is restricted to the apical tips of microvilli from columnar cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Apodachlya sp.
-
enzyme is localized in the mixed membrane fraction
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the enzyme is mainly associated with the mixed membrane fraction
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the culture medium affects the relative abundance of chitin synthase 1 in chitosomes and plasma membrane populations
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the enzyme sediments with membranous components of high specific gravity
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
ChsA is localized in growing tips of multiple cell types
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
Chs4p is transported in vesicles in a polarized fashion independently of the other Chs proteins. Its association with membranes depends not only on prenylation, but also on its interaction with other proteins, mainly Chs3p, which is the catalytic subunit of CSIII and is able to properly direct Chs4p to the bud neck in the absence of prenylation
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
52000
-
-
PAGE
178600
-
-
-
179400
-
Q9NHE6
-
180700
-
-
-
181300
-
Q95UA6
-
186400
-
Q95UA6
-
440000
670000
-
gel filtration
520000
-
-
gel filtration
540000
-
-
calculation from sedimentation data
570000
-
-
gel filtration, calculation from sedimentation coefficient
700000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Q06BR7
x * 174600, about, sequence calculation
?
Q3I5Q4, -
x * 172000, about, full-length enzyme, sequence calculation
?
C0LT25, -
x * 102000, calculated
?
A9XTF8, A9XTF9
x * 206900, calculated
?
Q8TGV2
x * 210000, SDS-PAGE
?
O94191
x * 136800, calculated
oligomer
-
x * 174500, calculated, x * 190000 + x * 119000 + x * 60000, SDS-PAGE
polymer
-
x * 30000, SDS-PAGE
polymer
-
x * 67000, reversible aggregation into large multimolecular units, SDS-PAGE
?
-, Q2V6H3
x * 174000, calculated
additional information
-
in SDS-PAGE, the purified enzyme shows a major band of 63000 Da and a weaker band at 74000 Da
additional information
-
SDS-PAGE results in 19 bands from 27000 Da to 125000 Da. Five of them show intensities that parallele the chitin synthase activity: 83000 Da, 72000 Da, 67000 Da, 36000 Da and 31000 Da
additional information
Q06BR7
SeCHSB has an N-terminal domain with several membrane-spanning regions, a central domain that shares high sequence identity among different insects, and a C-terminal domain with additional transmembrane regions characteristic of glycosyltransferase family 2 enzymes
additional information
Q8TGV2
epitope tagging of WdChs5p
additional information
-
the C-terminal region of Chs4p is required for its association with plasma membrane but not for biological function
additional information
-, Q8TFN5, Q8TFN6
class V CHS isozyme contains an N-terminal myosin-like motor domain
additional information
A0PAB0
LeChs1 contains a myosin motor-like domain, domain structure of LeChs1, overview
additional information
-
INN1 protein, which is required for ingreesion, associates with isoform CHS2 in cell extracts, and interacts with the amino terminal part of isoform CHS2 carrying the catalytic domain
additional information
Q4P9K9, -
protein consists of a myosin motor domain fused to a membrane-spanning chitin synthase region. Both domains are required for fungal virulence. Fungi carrying mutations in the chitin synthase domain are rapidly recognized and killed by the plant, whereas fungi carrying a deletion of the motor domain show alterations in cell wall composition but can invade host tissue and cause a moderate plant response
additional information
D7NQS8, D7NQS9, -
isoform Chs1 protein contains N-terminal microtubule interacting and trafficking domains involved in protein recycling by endocytosis; isoform Chs2 protein contains N-terminal microtubule interacting and trafficking domains involved in protein recycling by endocytosis
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
glycoprotein
-
-
proteolytic modification
-
activity increases up to 20times by digestion with trypsin
proteolytic modification
-
enzyme exists in the zymogenic form and requires proteolytic activation
proteolytic modification
Apodachlya sp.
-
trypsin activates
proteolytic modification
-
no significant activation by trypsin treatment
proteolytic modification
-
enzyme exists as a zymogen and requires proteolytic activation
proteolytic modification
-
preincubation with trypsin results in approximately 4fold increase in activity
proteolytic modification
-
enzyme exists chiefly in a zymogenic form. Endogenous activation of chitin synthase zymogen is observed over many days in preparations stored in glycerol, 33% w/v at -12C and over many hours in preparations stored at 30C The zymogen is preferentially retarded on the column matrices in comparison with the active enzyme
proteolytic modification
-
-
proteolytic modification
-
activated by acid proteases, slightly activated by trypsin, inhibited by neutral proteases; activated by all proteases
proteolytic modification
-
activity can be increased 6fold by digestion of the enzyme preparation with trypsin
proteolytic modification
-
-
proteolytic modification
-
activated by trypsin
proteolytic modification
-
the activity of chitin synthase 3 is not potentated by controlled proteolysis
proteolytic modification
Q8TGV2
affinity-purified enzyme requires protease treatment to give rise to enzyme activity
glycoprotein
-
purified chitin synthase complex can be stained with Calcofluor White suggesting that it is either glycosylated, or still associated with chitin fibrils
proteolytic modification
Mortierella candelabrum, Mortierella pusilla
-
moderate degree of activation by trypsin
proteolytic modification
-
following treatment with trypsin, the chitin synthase activity is increased by 6fold, indicating that most of the chitin synthase activity is zymogenic
proteolytic modification
-
-
phosphoprotein
A6ZKY2
phosphorylation site mapping, Chs2 contains twelve phosphorylation sites, all in the N-terminal domain, phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain is important for Chs2 stability, these sites might play an important role in the cell cycle-dependent degradation of the enzyme, and thus in cell division
proteolytic modification
-
pronase and proteinase K stimulates both Chs1 and Chs2. Proteinase B from Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulates Chs1 and has no effect on Chs2, Staphylococcus V8 protease is the best activator of Chs2 in presence of Co2+, elicits little Mg2+-stimulatable activity
proteolytic modification
-
enzyme is present in the cell in a zymogen form
proteolytic modification
-
chitin synthetase zymogen is activated by proteinase B
proteolytic modification
-
enzyme exists as a zymogen
proteolytic modification
-
chitin synthetase 2 is not activated by proteolysis; chitin synthetase I exists as zymogen and is only measurable after trypsin treatment
proteolytic modification
-
several proteases, including trypsin and chymotrypsin activate chitin synthase 1 and 2. Chitin synthase 3 requires the presence of substrate during protease treatment in order to be activated to some extent
proteolytic modification
-
chitin synthase 2 activity is independent of the N-terminal 193 amino acid truncation, because partially purified full length enzyme also exhibits the activity without trypsin treatment in the presence of appropriate cations
side-chain modification
-
prenylation of CSIII components is involved in proper subcellular localization of the enzyme, overview
phosphoprotein
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
-
phosphorylation site mapping, Chs2 contains twelve phosphorylation sites, all in the N-terminal domain, phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain is important for Chs2 stability, these sites might play an important role in the cell cycle-dependent degradation of the enzyme, and thus in cell division
-
proteolytic modification
-
enzyme probably exists as zymogen
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
-
rapid decrease in activity within 5 h
4
-
-
gradual decrease in activity with time
25
-
-
2 h, solubilized preparations retain 80% of its activity
40
50
-
5 min, 20-25% loss of activity
60
-
-
5 min, complete loss of activity
additional information
-
Mortierella candelabrum
-
-
additional information
-
Mortierella pusilla
-
activity increases during low temperature storage
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
the zymogen is highly stable
-
treatment with digitonin causes an increase in specific activity and stability
-
enzyme is very sensitive to proteolytic degradation
Q8TGV2
high sensitivity of chitosomal chitin synthase 2 to high centrifugal forces
-
upon lyophilization, about 70% of the activity is recovered
-
wild-type isozyme Chs2 has a half-life of 25 min
A6ZKY2
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-80C, 20% glycerol, stable
-
4C, 20% glycerol, 50% loss of activity after several days
-
-20C, solubilized preparations show no loss of activity after 5 weeks
-
-80C, digitonin-solubilized enzyme is stable for several months, purified enzyme is stable for at least a few weeks
-
-80C, quite stable for several months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
partial purification of recombinant Chs2 from Pichia pastoris membranes by nickel affinity chromatography
A6ZKY2
recombinant His-tagged enzyme fragment by nickel affinity chromatography
Q3I5Q4, -
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
-
gene CHS1, expression of YFP-tagged wild-type and mutant isozymes in strain BWP17, location of the YFP-tagged Chs proteins in yeast and hyphal cells, overview; gene CHS2, expression of YFP-tagged wild-type and mutant isozymes in strain BWP17, location of the YFP-tagged Chs proteins in yeast and hyphal cells, overview; gene CHS3, expression of YFP-tagged wild-type and mutant isozymes in strain BWP17, location of the YFP-tagged Chs proteins in yeast and hyphal cells, overview; gene CHS8, expression of YFP-tagged wild-type and mutant isozymes in strain BWP17, location of the YFP-tagged Chs proteins in yeast and hyphal cells, overview
P23316, P30572, P30573, Q5A7T2
-
Chlorovirus CVK2
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the GAL1 promoter in a multicopy plasmid
-
the entire region of csmB cDNA is cloned by 5' and 3' RACE methods
O13281, Q2L6A0
expression of a 12 kDa Myo12p epitope located in the C-terminal end of the N-terminal myosin motorlike domain with a P-loop and use for generation of antibodies
Q8TGV2
overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
WdChs5p-myc protein has a differential expression feature that is similar to the differential transcription of the WdCHS5 gene, transcriptional regulation is the first and probably the most important control point of the expression ofWdCHS5, overview, expression of wild-type and myc-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha, expression of WdChs5p-myc protein in Wangiella dermatitidis, expression patterns, overview
Q8TGV2
myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene chsVb, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression analysis, phylogenetic tree and analysis
Q5YCX0
cloning and expression of class I CHS isozyme; cloning and expression of class III CHS isozyme; cloning and expression of class IV and V CHS isozymes
-, Q8TFN5, Q8TFN6
gene Lechs1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, genetic structure, expression in Escherichia coli strain JM109
A0PAB0
-
Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sp.
-
cloning from anterior midguts of fifth instar larvae, expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH109 cells and protein interaction analysis by yeast two hybrid screening, identifying a chymotrypsin-like protease CTLP1 that binds to the extracellular carboxyterminal domain of CHS2
Q530Z6
gene chs-3, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression of GFP-labeled CHS-3 in hyphae and subcellular localization, overview; gene chs-6, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression of GFP-labeled CHS-6 in hyphae and subcellular localization, overview
-, P30588
expression in CF203/2.5 insect cell
-, Q2V6H3
gene chs2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis; gene chs2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
Q30LK7, Q30LS3
gene Pochs1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons, quantitative expression analysis
-
chitin synthase 2
-
expression of Chs4p-GFP and Chs3p-GFP in CRM233 and CRM103 strains, respectively
-
high level expression of wild-type Chs2 and a mutant Chs2DELTAN222 lacking the N-terminal region in Escherichia coli strain C41 and in Pichia pastoris strain SMD1163 membranes in an active form, the latter system results in higher enzyme activity, overview
A6ZKY2
overexpression of CHS2p isozyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains; overexpression of CHS isozymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains
-
since chitin synthase 2 can not expressed in bacterial cells or insect cells in an active form, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as the host for overexpression
-
; functional expression in Pichia pastoris
D7NQS8, D7NQS9, -
gene CHSA, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, expression of a fragment comprising base pairs 2040-2495 as His-tagged protein
Q3I5Q4, -
gene CHSA, expression analysis
Q3I5Q4
gene CHSB, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic structure,phylogenetic analysis, expression analysis, sequence comparisons
Q06BR7
expression in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
treatment of Candida albicans with low levels of echinocandins such as caspofungin, echinocandin B, cilofungin and anidulafungin stimulates chitin synthase gene expression, increases Chs activity, elevates chitin content and reduced efficacy of these drugs
-
CHS7 transcription is strongly induced on germination of spores, and a tagged Chs7 protein is produced abundantly during infection-related morphogenesis
B5M4A8, -
presence of alternative exons CHSA-2a and CHSA-2b. Transcripts of both exons are preferentially expressed in epidermis. During growth and development of Ostrinia furnacalis, CHSA-2a is mainly expressed during larval-larval molting and larval-pupal transformation, as well as in newly-laid eggs, while CHSA-2b is expressed only during the larval-larval molting
B4YIR0
the transcription level is relatively constant at the 4th instar stage but decreases between the 4th and the 5th instar molting time, with gradually increase throughout the 5th instar. Transcription level drops dramatically when the feeding ceases at the 6th day of the 5th instar. At the larval-pupal molting time, only minor amounts of transcripts can be detected. During the pupal stages, the transcription level increases at the 3rd day and then drops at the 4th day, suggesting that the enzyme might be involved in tissue reconstruction during the pupa-adult metamorphosis
-, Q2V6H3
decrease in transcription under higher osmotic conditions, e.g., in the presence of 0.3 M KCl; decrease in transcription under higher osmotic conditions, e.g., in the presence of 0.3 M KCl; low glucose concentrations of 0.05% instead of 3% provoke a derepression of transcription. Oxidative stress due to mycelial growth in presence of 5 mM H2O2, induces higher transcription levels; low glucose concentrations of 0.05% instead of3% provoke a derepression of transcription. Oxidative stress due to mycelial growth in presence of 5 mM H2O2, induces higher transcription levels
A9XTF8, A9XTF9
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
D562A
-
almost complete loss of activity
Q601A
-
almost complete loss of activity
R563A
-
almost complete loss of activity
R602A
-
almost complete loss of activity
R603A
-
almost complete loss of activity
R604A
-
almost complete loss of activity
V377I
-
enhanced emzymic activity in vitro. Mutation suppresses mutations in the C2 domain of INN1 protein, which is required for ingression
W605A
-
almost complete loss of activity
additional information
-
expression of the central domain of chitin synthase isoform 3a, i.e. Spsa GntI Core, as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The fragment does not show chitin synthase activity but shows specific binding for the substrate UDP-GlcNAc with a dissociation constant similar to the Michaelis constant, and a major contribution of the uracil moiety for recognition is confirmed
additional information
P23316, P30572, P30573, Q5A7T2
construction of isozyme deficient mutant cells, analysis of chitin ghosts of chs mutant strains by shadow-cast transmission electron microscopy show that the long-chitin microfibrils are absent in chs8 mutants and the short-chitin rodlets are absent in chs3 mutants. The inferred site of chitin microfibril synthesis of these Chs enzymes is corroborated by their localization determined in Chsp-YFP-expressing strains, overview; construction of isozyme deficient mutant cells, analysis of chitin ghosts of chs mutant strains by shadow-cast transmission electron microscopy show that the long-chitin microfibrils are absent in chs8 mutants and the short-chitin rodlets are absent in chs3 mutants. The inferred site of chitin microfibril synthesis of these Chs enzymes is corroborated by their localization determined in Chsp-YFP-expressing strains, overview; construction of isozyme deficient mutant cells, analysis of chitin ghosts of chs mutant strains by shadow-cast transmission electron microscopy show that the long-chitin microfibrils are absent in chs8 mutants and the short-chitin rodlets are absent in chs3 mutants. The inferred site of chitin microfibril synthesis of these Chs enzymes is corroborated by their localization determined in Chsp-YFP-expressing strains, overview; construction of isozyme deficient mutant cells, analysis of chitin ghosts of chs mutant strains by shadow-cast transmission electron microscopy show that the long-chitin microfibrils are absent in chs8 mutants and the short-chitin rodlets are absent in chs3 mutants. The inferred site of chitin microfibril synthesis of these Chs enzymes is corroborated by their localization determined in Chsp-YFP-expressing strains, overview
additional information
Q8TGV2
expression of a 12 kDa Myo12p epitope located in the C-terminal end of the N-terminal myosin motorlike domain with a P-loop, and use for generation of antibodies
additional information
Q5YCX0
targeted disrupted single DELTAchsVb and double DELTAchsVDELTAchsVb mutants are unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue, the strains are hypersensitive to compounds that interfere with fungal cell wall assembly, produce lemon-like shaped conidia, and show swollen balloon-like structures in hyphal subapical regions, thickened walls, aberrant septa, and intrahyphal hyphae, phenotypes, overview
additional information
-, Q8TFN5, Q8TFN6
construction of null mutants of CHS V isozyme, which shows srongly impaired vegetative growth and pathogenicity, CHS class V mutants do not develop macroscopically visible anthracnose disease symptoms and are nonpathogenic, phenotype, overview; mutants of class III isozyme do not differ from the wild-type isozyme; mutants of class I isozyme do not differ from the wild-type isozyme
additional information
Q30LK7, Q30LS3
determination and analysis of the polymorphism patterns of the class II chitin synthase gene chs2, sequence tree, detailed overview; determination and analysis of the polymorphism patterns of the class II chitin synthase gene chs2, sequence tree, detailed overview
additional information
O94191
functional expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae chs3 null mutant results in an increase in total chitin synthase activity and in chitin content in its cell wall
E561A
-
almost complete loss of activity
additional information
A6ZKY2
construction of a Chs2 mutant Chs2DELTAN222 lacking the N-terminal region
additional information
P29465
screening for mutations synthetically lethal with chs3 in the indicator strain ECY46-4-1B, the thin cell wall phenotype is caused by a mutation of the Cdc28-activating kinase CAK1 gene, phenotype, reduced or increased CSIII activity, overview
additional information
-
mutations in isoform CHS2 may suppress mutations in the C2 domain of INN1 protein, which is required for ingression. The dominant CHS2 alleles also suppress cytokinesis defects produced by lack of the Cyk3 protein
Y521A
-
almost complete loss of activity
additional information
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y3437
-
construction of a Chs2 mutant Chs2DELTAN222 lacking the N-terminal region
-
additional information
D7NQS8, D7NQS9, -
recombinant protein does not show in vitro activity
additional information
Q3I5Q4
disruption of Spodoptera exigua larval development by silencing chitin synthase gene A with RNA interference, injection of synthesized dsRNA/siRNA into the 4th instar larvae, resulting in cuticles that are disordered and epithelial walls of larval trachea that do not expand uniformly in injected individuals, phenotype, overview
additional information
Q6WD22, Q6WD23
adults treated with dsRNA for TcCHS-B exhibit little or no chitin in their PM and die about 2 weeks after injection, none of the TcCHS-B-treated females oviposite, which is probably a secondary effect caused by starvation, overview; when dsRNA for gene TcCHS-A is injected into male or female pharate adults, all insects die 5-7 d after the adult molt, and the females fail to oviposit prior to death, when dsTcCHS-A is injected into young adults 1-2 d post-eclosion, a similar lethal phenotype is obtained after 5 d and no oviposition occurs, when dsTcCHS-A injections are delayed until after adult maturation 7-10 d post-eclosion, the treated females do oviposit and the resulting embryos appear to develop normally, however, the chitin content of the eggs is dramatically reduced, the embryos became twisted and enlarged, and the eggs do not hatch, overview
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
agriculture
-
gene disruption mutant is not significantly affected in either growth characteristics or pathogenicity on tomato leaves. Mutant exhibits a 31% increase in its chitin content and displays increased sensitivity to Caclofluor White and slightly enhanced tolerance to cell-wall disturbing substances and osmosis regulators
agriculture
-
enzyme inhibitors can be useful as potential pesticidal agents
agriculture
-
specific disruption of the CHS1 gene results in a 58% reduction of chitin synthase activity, accompanied by decreases of 35% in chitin content, 22% in conidiation, and 16% in macroconidium length. The mutant displays significantly reduced pathogenicity on wheat spikes and seedlings
agriculture
B5M4A8, -
enzyme deletion mutants are unable to form appressoria on artificial surfaces, except following the application of the exogenous inducers 1,16-hexadecanediol and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Mutants are significantly reduced in their ability to enter rice plants, but growth in planta is not affected
agriculture
-
enzyme inhibitors can be useful as potential pesticidal agents
analysis
P29465
the chs3 gene encoding the chitin synthase 3 is used for synthetically lethality screening for mutation determination, overview