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Information on EC - mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC2.7.11.25
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EC Tree
IUBMB Comments
This enzyme phosphorylates and activates its downstream protein kinase, EC, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) but requires MAPKKKK for activation. Some members of this family can be activated by p21-activated kinases (PAK/STE20) or Ras. While c-Raf and c-Mos activate the classical MAPK/ERK pathway, MEKK1 and MEKK2 preferentially activate the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase(JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) pathway . Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways are among the most widespread mechanisms of cellular regulation. Mammalian MAPK pathways can be recruited by a wide variety of stimuli including hormones (e.g. insulin and growth hormone), mitogens (e.g. epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor), vasoactive peptides (e.g. angiotensin-II and endothelin), inflammatory cytokines of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) family and environmental stresses such as osmotic shock, ionizing radiation and ischaemic injury.
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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms
Reaction Schemes
b-raf, c-raf, mekk1, c-mos, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, ste11, mixed lineage kinase, mekk3, mapkkk, map3k1, more
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein
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