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addition of nitrate during anaerobic growth represses the expression of dmlA-lacZ about 2.2fold, but the expression is still higher than the expression under aerobic conditions. The presence of glucose during anaerobic growth represses dmlA expression to levels similar to those observed after nitrate addition, suggesting that there is some glucose repression (2.4fold)
in a wild-type background, D-malate and meso- and L-tartrate cause high levels of induction of dmlA-lacZ expression (up to 12.3fold). With L-malate, succinate, and D-tartrate there is only weak induction. Induction of dmlA encoding DmlA requires an intact dmlR gene, which encodes DmlR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator; the expression of dmlA-lacZ at high levels is induced under anaerobic conditions in the presence of D-malate and is more than 5fold greater than the expression under aerobic conditions
sequential fluorometric quantification of malic acid enantiomers in a single line flow-injection system using immobilized-enzyme reactors. An immobilized D-malate dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) reactor and an immobilized L-malate dehydrogenase (EC 184.108.40.206) reactor are introduced into the flowline in series. Sample and coenzyme (NAD+ or NADP+) are injected into the flow line by an open sandwich method. D-Malate is selectively oxidized by EC 220.127.116.11 when NAD+ is injected with a sample. When NADP+ is injected with a sample, L -malate is oxidized only by 18.104.22.168. NADH or NADPH produced by the immobilized-enzyme reactors is monitored fluorometrically at 455 nm