Information on EC 4.1.2.9 - phosphoketolase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
4.1.2.9
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
phosphoketolase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
D-Xylulose 5-phosphate + phosphate = acetyl phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
elimination
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Bifidobacterium shunt
-
-
Carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms
-
-
heterolactic fermentation
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Pentose phosphate pathway
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
D-xylulose-5-phosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase (adding phosphate; acetyl-phosphate-forming)
A thiamine-diphosphate protein.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9031-75-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain A187
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JCM1190
EMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain JCM1190
EMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 19171 and CE51
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCYC 926
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCYC 926
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida sp.
strain 107
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 107
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 321, strain NCYC 359
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain S85, strain 095, strain HM2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces phaseolosporus
strain 108
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces phaseolosporus 108
strain 108
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MD364
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MD364
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NCIMB 8826
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 delta ldhL1 -xpk1::tkt-delta xpk
strain NCIMB 8826 delta ldhL1 -xpk1::tkt-delta xpk
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 55730
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; subsp. lactis
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1809
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Thiobacillus intermedius
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Thiobacillus thioparus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GM
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain GM
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
CBS 4732; strain NCYC 495
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ogataea angusta CBS 4732
CBS 4732
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ogataea angusta NCYC 495
strain NCYC 495
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 614
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WIS 54-1255
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WIS 54-1255
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodosporidium toruloides
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TMB3001
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain A2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and fungal phosphoketolases, fungal phosphoketolases are of bacterial origin
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-fructose 6-phosphate + phosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
D-Fructose 6-phosphate + phosphate
Acetyl phosphate + D-erythrose 4-phosphate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
D-ribulose 5-phosphate + phosphate
acetyl phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
D-xylulose 5-phosphate
pyruvate + acetyl phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
D-xylulose 5-phosphate + phosphate
acetyl phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
D-Xylulose 5-phosphate + phosphate
Acetyl phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Ribulose 5-phosphate + phosphate
Acetyl phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-fructose 6-phosphate + phosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
Q88S87, Q88U67
-
-
-
?
D-xylulose 5-phosphate
pyruvate + acetyl phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q5B3G7
-
-
-
?
D-Xylulose 5-phosphate + phosphate
Acetyl phosphate + D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
thiamine diphosphate
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acetyl-CoA
Dodecanoyl-CoA
-
-
erythrose 4-phosphate
-
-
fructose 6-phosphate
-
competitive to xylulose 5-phosphate
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
-
-
Mn2+
-
strong inhibition above 1 mM
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
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-
phosphoenolpyruvate
-
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
calcium thiamine diphosphate
;
-
EDTA
-
stimulates
magnesium thiamine diphosphate
;
-
manganese thiamine diphosphate
;
-
phosphate
Sodium borate
-
stimulate
sulfhydryl compounds
-
stimulates
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.032
D-fructofuranose 6-phosphate
apparent Km value, Mg2+
0.0004 - 24
D-fructose 6-phosphate
1.25 - 45
D-xylulose 5-phosphate
22 - 29
fructose 6-phosphate
2.9 - 7.5
phosphate
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.052
purification step crude extract, histidine tail phosphoketolase-2
0.144
-
activity with fructose 6-phosphate
0.152
-
activity with ribulose 5-phosphate
0.2
purification step Biogel P6 column, histidine tail phosphoketolase-2
0.591
-
activity with xylulose 5-phosphate
0.61
purification step Sephacryl-300 column, histidine tail phosphoketolase-2
2.3
-
activity with xylulose 5-phosphate
6.9
substrate D-xylulose 5-phosphate, pH 6.5, 37C
21
substrate D-fructose 6-phosphate, pH 6.5, 37C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.2 - 7.4
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 7
6 - 7
-
pH 6.0: maximal activity, little activity above pH 7.0
6.4 - 8.2
-
about 50% of maximal activity at pH 6.4 and 8.2
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37
enzyme assay; enzyme assay
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
27.5 - 32.5
-
27.5C: about 70% of maximal activity, 32.5C: about 30% of maximal activity
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
50000
-
gel filtration
55000
-
calculation from ultracentrifugation data
88700
calculated from amino acid sequence
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using 17% (w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.2 M NaSCN, at 18C
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4.5 - 5.5
-
most stable in the range
37327
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
phosphate is essential for stability
-
5097
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-55C, several years with little loss of activity
-
4C, 24 h, 50% loss of activity
-
thioglycerol, 12 mM, required for long-term storage
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
HisTrap HP column chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration; HisTrap Ni2+ metal affinity column chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration
-
recombinant phosphoketolase-2 is purified using Ni-NTA resin, a Biogel P6 and a Sephacryl-300 column, in a second purification approach a DEAE-Sepharose and a Sephadex-300 column are used
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expressed in Corynebacterium glutamicum
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) RIL cells; expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) RIL cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli
installation of a functional phosphoketolase pathway in xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TMB3001c by heterologous expression of phosphotransacetylase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in combination with the native phosphoketolase
-
into the vector pET21a+ for expression in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 cells; into the vectors pET21a+ and pET28b+ for expression in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 cells
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
enzymic activity is present in cells grown on arabinose but not glucose and mRNA expression is induced 185fold during growth on arabinose when compared to growth on glucose
the induction with different sugars indicates that the transcription of mpk1 can be upregulated by xylose, hexose sugars (glucose and galactose) or disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose) but not by mannitol, sorbose or sorbitol
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
synthesis
-
highest polyhydroxybutyrate production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae after 100 h is achieved with a strain harboring the phosphoketolase pathway, i.e xylulose-5-phosphate phosphoketolase EC 4.1.2.9 and acetate kinase EC 2.7.2.1 from Emericella nidulans and an acetyl-CoA synthetase variant L641P from Salmonella enterica on a single episomal plasmid to supply acetyl-CoA without the need of increased NADPH production by gapN integration
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
industry
pharmacology
-
polyketide natural products play an important role in the treatment of a wide range of human physiological disorders
synthesis
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