Information on EC 2.5.1.32 - 15-cis-phytoene synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.5.1.32
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
15-cis-phytoene synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
overall reaction
-
-
-
2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = diphosphate + prephytoene diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
1a
-
-
-
prephytoene diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
1b
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
alkenyl group tranfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
carotenoid biosynthesis
-
-
Carotenoid biosynthesis
-
-
isoprenoid biosynthesis
-
-
Metabolic pathways
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-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase (15-cis-phytoene forming)
Requires Mn2+ for activity. The enzyme produces 15-cis-phytoene. cf. EC 2.5.1.99, 15-trans-phytoene synthase.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
50936-61-3
-
57219-66-6
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
expresses two types of class II PSY, one is related to Haptophyta, the other one is related to the Rhodophyta
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a single polypeptide catalyzes the 2-step reaction from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Capsicum sp.
phytoene synthase complex consists of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (EC 2.5.1.1) and phytoene synthase (EC 2.5.1.32)
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
expresses class II PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white-rooted wild carrot
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Weisse Kuettiger, a cultivar with white roots
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
genome contains four paralogous of class I PSY
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class II PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Narcissus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class II PSY
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Populus x canescens, Grey poplar
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sorghum sp.
-
-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PCC7942, a single polypeptide catalyzes the 2-step reaction from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
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the recessive mutation yellow-flesh (locus r) in tomato eliminates fruit carotenoids by disrupting the activity of the fruit-specific phytoene synthase, PSY1, allele r2997 of yellow-flesh eliminates transcription of PSY1 in fruits. Fruits of the recessive mutation tangerine (t) appear orange due to accumulation of 7,9,7',9'-tetra-cis-lycopene (prolycopene) as a result of a mutation in the carotenoid cis-trans isomerase, tangerine is epistatic to yellow-flesh, interaction between tangerine and yellow-flesh at the molecular level, overview
metabolism
physiological function
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molecular mechanism underlying the epistasis of mutations tangerine over yellow-flesh and suggest the involvement of cis-carotenoid metabolites in a feedback regulation of PSY1 gene expression
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
prephytoene diphosphate
phytoene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
Mn2+ does not have any stimulatory effect
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
20 mM, inhibitory effect
beta-carotene
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-
CGA 103586
Chlorophyll
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-
iodoacetamide
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-
Mg2+
-
50 mM, inhibitory effect
Mn2+
-
above 2 mM
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
phosphate
squalestatin
Triton X-100
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0.2%, total inhibition
Tween 20
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0.2%, total inhibition
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
CTP
-
0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
dithiothreitol
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activates
galactose
-
or galactose moieties in galactolipids are required
GTP
-
0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
light
light-dependent increase in carotinoid production
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NADP+
-
weak stimulation
Triton X-100
-
0.1 w/v, 5fold stimulation
Tween 60
-
0.1 w/v, 5fold stimulation
Tween 80
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detergent required, maximal activity at 0.08%
UTP
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0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
additional information
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the enzyme is localized at thylakoid membranes in mature chloroplasts. Under certain light conditions, e.g. far-red light, the increase in PSY mRNA and protein levels is not accompanied by an increase in enzymatic activity. Under these conditions the enzyme is localized in the prolamellar body fraction in a mostly enzymatically inactive form. Subsequent illumination of dark-grown and/or in far-red light seedlings with white light causes the decay of these structures and a topological relocalization of PSY to developing thylakoids which results in its enzymatic activation. The light-dependent mechanism of regulation may contribute to ensuring a spatially and temporally coordinated increase in both carotenoid and chlorophyll contents
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.001
geranyl diphosphate
Capsicum sp.
-
pH 7.6
0.003 - 0.0374
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
0.0027
prephytoene diphosphate
-
pH 7.6, 30C
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3 - 4.3
ADP
1
AMP
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
4.3
GTP
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
0.0002
NADP+
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme and chromoplast enzyme
0.1 - 0.4
NADPH
0.2 - 0.5
phosphate
0.000007 - 0.000009
squalestatin
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.015
squalestatin
Pantoea ananatis
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IC50: 0.015 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5
-
enzyme from chloroplast
7 - 7.6
Capsicum sp.
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-
7.5
-
enzyme from chromoplast
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.4 - 7.3
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pH 6.4: about 45% of maximal activity, pH 7.3: about 70% of maximal activity
6.8 - 8.8
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about 70% of maximal activity at pH 6.8 and pH 8.8
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
12 - 37
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12C: about 60% of maximal activity, 37C: about 20% of maximal activity
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8.67
calculated from sequence of cDNA
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
inner corona of, in all stages the steady-state phytoene synthase transcript levels are low
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
isoform PSY1 is localized to amyloplast envelope membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
under certain light conditions, e.g. far-red light, the increase in PSY mRNA and protein levels are not accompanied by an increase in enzymatic activity. Under those conditions the enzyme is localized in the prolamellar body fraction in a mostly enzymatically inactive form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius subsp. acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 27009 / DSM 446 / JCM 5260 / NBRC 15652 / NCIMB 11725 / NRRL B-14509 / 104-1A)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
43000
-
native PAGE
47300
calculated from sequence of cDNA
49500
calculated from sequence of cDNA
50000
SDS-PAGE
200000
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dimer
Capsicum sp.
-
2 * 36000-37000
monomer
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1 * 47500, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
the enzyme is functional in a monomeric state, under optimal native conditions it is associated with a large protein complex, at least 200000 Da, which contains other terpenoid enzymes
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
proteolytic modification
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4
-
10 h, stable
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 0.3 M NaCl, 30% glycerol, stable for 1 year
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-70C, 50 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 10% v/v glycerol, 80% of the activity retained
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activity can be maintained if 30% glycerol and 10 mM dithiothreitol are present during storage of the enzyme system
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flash frozen in liquid N2 and stored at -80C, stable for at least 6 months
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Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ammonium sulfate fractionation
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to facilitate purification of the recombinant enzyme, the structural gene for Psase is modified by site-directed mutagenesis to incorporate a C-terminal Glu-Glu-Phe tripeptide to allow purification by immunoaffinity chromatography on an immobilized monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin antibody YL1/2 column
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
after transformation psy is not only expressed in leaves but also in roots and seed derived calli, leading to coloured roots
after transformation with bacterial crtB PSY transcrips are detectable and the white roots get coloured; after transformation with bacterial crtB PSY transcrips are detectable and the white roots get coloured
after transformation with bacterial crtB PSY was not only expressed in leaves but also in roots, leading to coloured roots (roots of wild carrots are white)
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Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyl explants of Brassica napus, 50fold increase in carotenoid levels
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cloning and genetic analysis of fruit-specific phytoene synthase, PSY1, and mutant lines tangerine and yellow-flesh with mutant alleles t3183 and r2997, respectively
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expressed in Brassica naupus
Citrus sp.
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expressed in peanut Arachis hypogaea under control of the Arabidopsis thaliana oleosin promoter after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens
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expressed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S constitutive promoter or the Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid elongase 1 gene seed-specific promoter in linseed flax Linum usitatissimum after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in both cases transcripts are only detectable in seeds but not in leaves
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expression in Arabidopsis thaliana
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Escherichia coli. Two genes for the two reaction steps: 1. formation of phytoene diphosphate from geranylgeranyl diphosphate and 2. formation of phytoene from prephytoene diphosphate
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expression in pea
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full length and truncated cDNA expression constructs of the phytoene synthase gene from tomato ligated into a pUC8 cloning vector, expression in Escherichia coli carrying Erwinia uredovora geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene
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gene crtB, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, functional expression of the His-tagged enzyme lacking the chloroplast transit peptide in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) mostly in inclusion bodies
Citrus sp.
-
isolation of the gene
overexpressed in insect Sf9 cells using the baculovirus lipofection system. The full-length overexpressed enzyme exhibits very reduced catalytic activity compared with an overexpressed N-truncated form, with its transit sequence of 214 base pairs removed from the psy cDNA at the 5'-end by site-directed mutagenesis. The shortened form readily binds to lipid bilayers
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overexpressed to about 20% of the total cellular protein in Escherichia coli. Formation of the active phytoene synthase has the effect of suppressing the growth of the expressing strain. Inhibition of growth arises from the depletion of the substrate geranylgeranyl diphosphate which, in Escherichia coli, is necesssary for the synthesis of essential propyldiphosphate derivatives. In order to overcome the poor growth characteristics of the phytoene expressing strain, the enzyme level is increased by co-expressing the isoprenoid biosynthetic genes crtE and idi, encoding Erwinia geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase and Rhodobacter isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, respectively
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overexpression in Lycopersicon esculentum, fruit-specific expression is achieved by using the tomato polygalacturonase promoter, and the enzyme is targeted to the chromoplast by the tomato phytoene synthase-1 transit sequence, total fruit carotenoids of primary transformants are 2-4fold higher than the control
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Psy gene, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
the Japonica rice model variety Taipei 309 is transformed by microprojectile bombardment with a cDNA coding for phytoene synthase under the control of either a constitutive or an endosperm-specific promoter. In transgenic rice plants the enzyme is active
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
mRNA level increases when dark-grown seedlings come from dark to light, which leads to a deetiolation and the forming of chloroplasts, similar results can be observed with seedlings growing in the dark when treated with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of the regulatory hormone gibberellin
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
G520R
-
naturally occuring mutation in allele t3406
G546E
-
naturally occuring mutation in allele t9776
L241K
-
naturally occuring mutation in allele t4838
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
analysis
-
psy gene of tea cultivars is closely correlated to accumulation of carotenoids which are precursors of tea flavour volatiles, thus the expression strength of psy gene can be used as an indicator for screening quality of tea cultivars
biotechnology
food industry
-
developement nutritional plants enriched with carotenoids
nutrition
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