Information on EC 2.5.1.32 - 15-cis-phytoene synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.5.1.32
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
15-cis-phytoene synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
overall reaction
-
-
-
2 geranylgeranyl diphosphate = diphosphate + prephytoene diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
1a
-
-
-
prephytoene diphosphate = 15-cis-phytoene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
1b
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
alkenyl group tranfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
Carotenoid biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
geranylgeranyl-diphosphate:geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase (15-cis-phytoene forming)
Requires Mn2+ for activity. The enzyme produces 15-cis-phytoene. cf. EC 2.5.1.99, 15-trans-phytoene synthase.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
AtPSY
P37271
-
CitPsy
Q2I739
-
CitPsy
Citrus sp.
-
-
CrtB
-
; gene name
fruit-specific phytoene synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl-diphosphate geranylgeranyltransferase
-
-
-
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
-
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
P37271
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
-
involved in isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
Q2VEY0
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
Q2VEY0, Q2VEY1
-
phytoene synthase
C1J5N0, C1J5N1, O04007
-
phytoene synthase
Q66UF6
-
phytoene synthase
Q1KPR4
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
Q4TUC6
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
A4F1Y6
-
phytoene synthase
A9Q2P8
-
phytoene synthase
P08196
-
phytoene synthase
Sorghum sp.
-
-
phytoene synthase
-
-
phytoene synthase
B0KYU8, Q6EI12, Q6EIC3
-
phytoene synthase 1
-
-
phytoene synthetase
-
-
-
-
phytoene-synthetase
-
-
-
-
prephytoene-diphosphate synthase
-
-
-
-
Psase
-
-
-
-
PSY
-
-
-
-
PSY
-
An ancient gene duplication event leads to a class I PSY (I) and a class II PSY (II) in Haptophyta, Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta as well as Pelagophyceae and Prasinophyceae. Both PSY classes share the essential characteristics of PSY including predicted substrate-Mg2+-binding sites (Aspartate-rich regions) and catalytic residues. Major differences between the two PSY classes appear to exist only in regions not essential to the enzymatic function.
PSY
-
gene name
PSY
-
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY
Citrus sp.
-
-
PSY
-
An ancient gene duplication event leads to a class I PSY (I) and a class II PSY (II) in Haptophyta, Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta as well as Pelagophyceae and Prasinophyceae. Both PSY classes share the essential characteristics of PSY including predicted substrate-Mg2+-binding sites (Aspartate-rich regions) and catalytic residues. Major differences between the two PSY classes appear to exist only in regions not essential to the enzymatic function.
PSY
Q2VEY0
gene name
PSY
Q2VEY0, Q2VEY1
-
PSY
C1J5N0, C1J5N1, O04007
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY
Q66UF6
-
PSY
Q66UF6
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY
Q1KPR4
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY
-
An ancient gene duplication event leads to a class I PSY (I) and a class II PSY (II) in Haptophyta, Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta as well as Pelagophyceae and Prasinophyceae. Both PSY classes share the essential characteristics of PSY including predicted substrate-Mg2+-binding sites (Aspartate-rich regions) and catalytic residues. Major differences between the two PSY classes appear to exist only in regions not essential to the enzymatic function.
PSY
Q4TUC6
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY
-
An ancient gene duplication event leads to a class I PSY (I) and a class II PSY (II) in Haptophyta, Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta as well as Pelagophyceae and Prasinophyceae. Both PSY classes share the essential characteristics of PSY including predicted substrate-Mg2+-binding sites (Aspartate-rich regions) and catalytic residues. Major differences between the two PSY classes appear to exist only in regions not essential to the enzymatic function.
PSY
-
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY
-
An ancient gene duplication event leads to a class I PSY (I) and a class II PSY (II) in Haptophyta, Rhodophyta, Heterokontophyta as well as Pelagophyceae and Prasinophyceae. Both PSY classes share the essential characteristics of PSY including predicted substrate-Mg2+-binding sites (Aspartate-rich regions) and catalytic residues. Major differences between the two PSY classes appear to exist only in regions not essential to the enzymatic function.
PSY
A4F1Y6
gene name
PSY
Q56QV1
-
PSY
A9Q2P8, P08196
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY
P08196
gene name
PSY
Sorghum sp.
-
-
PSY
-
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY
B0KYU8, Q6EI12, Q6EIC3
Chlorophyceae, Streptophyta and Cyanophyta expresses class I PSY (I)
PSY1
-
in poaceae there are three genes encoding PSY, which are expressed in different pattern providing fine control of carotenogenesis that serves numerous physiological purposes
PSY1
P08196
expresses two different class I PSY
PSY1
Sorghum sp., Zea mays
-
in poaceae there are three genes encoding PSY, which are expressed in different pattern providing fine control of carotenogenesis that serves numerous physiological purposes
PSY1
Q6EIC3
expresses three different class I PSY
PSY1a
O04007
-
PSY1b
C1J5N0
-
PSY2
C1J5N1
-
PSY2
-
in poaceae there are three genes encoding PSY, which are expressed in different pattern providing fine control of carotenogenesis that serves numerous physiological purposes
PSY2
A9Q2P8
expresses two different class I PSY
PSY2
Sorghum sp., Zea mays
-
in poaceae there are three genes encoding PSY, which are expressed in different pattern providing fine control of carotenogenesis that serves numerous physiological purposes
PSY2
Q6EI12
expresses three different class I PSY
PSY3
Oryza sativa, Sorghum sp., Zea mays
-
in poaceae there are three genes encoding PSY, which are expressed in different pattern providing fine control of carotenogenesis that serves numerous physiological purposes
PSY3
B0KYU8
expresses three different class I PSY
synthetase, phytoene
-
-
-
-
Zmpsy1
-
gene name
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
50936-61-3
-
57219-66-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
ecotype Wassilewskija
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses two types of class II PSY, one is related to Haptophyta, the other one is related to the Rhodophyta
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a single polypeptide catalyzes the 2-step reaction from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Capsicum sp.
phytoene synthase complex consists of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (EC 2.5.1.1) and phytoene synthase (EC 2.5.1.32)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Cara Cara and Washington
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
gene crtB
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class II PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white-rooted wild carrot
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Weisse Kuettiger, a cultivar with white roots
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
genome contains four paralogous of class I PSY
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class II PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
precursor; common sunflower
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Narcissus sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PSY3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I and class II PSY which differ in regions not essential to the enzymatic function
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
20D3, ATCC 19321
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly called Erwinia uredovora 20D3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class II PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Populus x canescens, Grey poplar
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses two different class I PSY
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses two different class I PSY
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mill. Cv. Ailsa Craig
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sorghum sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PCC7942, a single polypeptide catalyzes the 2-step reaction from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to phytoene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses class I PSY
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expresses three different class I PSY
TREMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PSY3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
the recessive mutation yellow-flesh (locus r) in tomato eliminates fruit carotenoids by disrupting the activity of the fruit-specific phytoene synthase, PSY1, allele r2997 of yellow-flesh eliminates transcription of PSY1 in fruits. Fruits of the recessive mutation tangerine (t) appear orange due to accumulation of 7,9,7',9'-tetra-cis-lycopene (prolycopene) as a result of a mutation in the carotenoid cis-trans isomerase, tangerine is epistatic to yellow-flesh, interaction between tangerine and yellow-flesh at the molecular level, overview
metabolism
-
first step in the biosynthesis of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein
metabolism
-
catalyzation of the first two steps of the carotenoid biosynthesis
metabolism
-
PSY1 catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, the formation of phytoene from two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate
physiological function
-
molecular mechanism underlying the epistasis of mutations tangerine over yellow-flesh and suggest the involvement of cis-carotenoid metabolites in a feedback regulation of PSY1 gene expression
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P08196
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
-
-
-
ir
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Narcissus sp.
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Capsicum sp.
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9AU04
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9FEY7
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q66UF6
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q56QV1
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the same enzyme catalyzes two consecutive reactions: 1. the synthesis of prephytoene diphosphate and 2. the synthesis of phytoene
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the same enzyme catalyzes two consecutive reactions: 1. the synthesis of prephytoene diphosphate and 2. the synthesis of phytoene
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the same enzyme catalyzes two consecutive reactions: 1. the synthesis of prephytoene diphosphate and 2. the synthesis of phytoene
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the same enzyme catalyzes two consecutive reactions: 1. the synthesis of prephytoene diphosphate and 2. the synthesis of phytoene
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9AU04
key enzyme in astaxanthin biosynthesis. Application of environmental stress results in increased steady-state mRNA level, light-induced expression of the gene may be under photosynthetic control
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
first pathway-specific step in carotenoid biosynthesis
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
first of four specific enzymes necessary for beta-carotene biosynthesis in plants
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
first fully photoinduced step in carotenogenesis
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Capsicum sp.
-
the enzyme is involved in the pathway of phytoene synthesis
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phytoene synthase-2 enzyme activity in tomato does not contribute to carotenoid synthesis in ripening fruit
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9FEY7
controlling key enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis in chloroplasts, the enzyme expression is regulated during leaf development/expansion
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, pathway overview
-
-
ir
prephytoene diphosphate
phytoene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the same enzyme catalyzes two consecutive reactions: 1. the synthesis of prephytoene diphosphate and 2. the synthesis of phytoene
-
?
prephytoene diphosphate
phytoene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the same enzyme catalyzes two consecutive reactions: 1. the synthesis of prephytoene diphosphate and 2. the synthesis of phytoene
-
-
?
prephytoene diphosphate
phytoene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the same enzyme catalyzes two consecutive reactions: 1. the synthesis of prephytoene diphosphate and 2. the synthesis of phytoene
-
-
?
prephytoene diphosphate
phytoene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the same enzyme catalyzes two consecutive reactions: 1. the synthesis of prephytoene diphosphate and 2. the synthesis of phytoene
15,15'-Z-phytoene is the sole product
?
prephytoene diphosphate
phytoene + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the phytoene formed in vitro is present in both a 15-cis and all-trans isomeric configuration
-
-
?
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
15-cis-phytoene + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9AU04
key enzyme in astaxanthin biosynthesis. Application of environmental stress results in increased steady-state mRNA level, light-induced expression of the gene may be under photosynthetic control
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
first pathway-specific step in carotenoid biosynthesis
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
first of four specific enzymes necessary for beta-carotene biosynthesis in plants
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
first fully photoinduced step in carotenogenesis
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Capsicum sp.
-
the enzyme is involved in the pathway of phytoene synthesis
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phytoene synthase-2 enzyme activity in tomato does not contribute to carotenoid synthesis in ripening fruit
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9FEY7
controlling key enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis in chloroplasts, the enzyme expression is regulated during leaf development/expansion
-
-
?
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
prephytoene diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Citrus sp.
-
enzyme is involved in carotenoid biosynthesis, pathway overview
-
-
ir
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
1.3 mM, 7fold stimulation, most probably an allosteric effector
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
Mn2+ or Mg2+ required
Mg2+
-
stimulatory in presence of Mn2+
Mg2+
-
1 mM, 40-50% stimulating effect
Mn2+
-
required
Mn2+
-
absolute requirement for Mn2+, half-maximal activity at 0.2 mM. No other divalent cation can substitute efficiently for Mn2+
Mn2+
-
Mn2+ or Mg2+ required
Mn2+
-
absolute requirement, optimum at 1 mM
Mn2+
-
maximal activity at 0.25 mM; required
Mn2+
-
Mn2+ and ATP in combination are essential for catalytic activity, the effect is stoichiometric from 0.5-2.0 mM. Km for Mn2+ is 0.4 mM
additional information
-
Mn2+ does not have any stimulatory effect
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
20 mM, inhibitory effect
CGA 103586
-
-
iodoacetamide
-
-
Mg2+
-
50 mM, inhibitory effect
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
squalestatin
-
IC50: 0.015 mM
Triton X-100
-
0.2%, total inhibition
Tween 20
-
0.2%, total inhibition
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
1.3 mM, 7fold stimulation, most probably an allosteric effector
ATP
-
Mn2+ and ATP are essential for catalytic activity, the effect is stoichiometric from 0.5-2 mM. Km for ATP is 2.0 mM
ATP
-
stimulatory to PSY activity above 5 mM
CTP
-
0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
dithiothreitol
-
activates
galactose
-
or galactose moieties in galactolipids are required
GTP
-
0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
NADP+
-
weak stimulation
Triton X-100
-
0.1 w/v, 5fold stimulation
Tween 60
-
0.1 w/v, 5fold stimulation
Tween 80
-
detergent required, maximal activity at 0.08%
UTP
-
0.67 mM, 2.5fold stimulation
light
Q9FEY7
light-dependent increase in carotinoid production
-
additional information
-
the enzyme is localized at thylakoid membranes in mature chloroplasts. Under certain light conditions, e.g. far-red light, the increase in PSY mRNA and protein levels is not accompanied by an increase in enzymatic activity. Under these conditions the enzyme is localized in the prolamellar body fraction in a mostly enzymatically inactive form. Subsequent illumination of dark-grown and/or in far-red light seedlings with white light causes the decay of these structures and a topological relocalization of PSY to developing thylakoids which results in its enzymatic activation. The light-dependent mechanism of regulation may contribute to ensuring a spatially and temporally coordinated increase in both carotenoid and chlorophyll contents
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.001
-
geranyl diphosphate
Capsicum sp.
-
pH 7.6
0.003
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.6, 30C
0.005
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
pH 8.0, 28C, enzyme from chloroplast
0.01
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
pH 8.0, 28C, enzyme from chromoplast
0.026
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0374
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
in 400 mM Tris (pH 6.5), 10 mM sodium ascorbate, 5 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM MnCl2, 3 mM ATP and 0.02 mM FAD
0.0027
-
prephytoene diphosphate
-
pH 7.6, 30C
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3
-
ADP
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
4.3
-
ADP
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chromoplast enzyme
1
-
AMP
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
4.3
-
GTP
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
0.0002
-
NADP+
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme and chromoplast enzyme
0.1
-
NADPH
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
0.4
-
NADPH
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chromoplast enzyme
0.2
-
phosphate
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme and chromoplast enzyme
0.5
-
phosphate
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chromoplast enzyme
7e-06
-
squalestatin
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chloroplast enzyme
9e-06
-
squalestatin
-
pH 8.0, 28C, chromoplast enzyme
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.015
-
squalestatin
-
IC50: 0.015 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.067
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
-
-
enzyme from chloroplast
7
7.6
Capsicum sp.
-
-
7.5
-
-
enzyme from chromoplast
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.4
7.3
-
pH 6.4: about 45% of maximal activity, pH 7.3: about 70% of maximal activity
6.8
8.8
-
about 70% of maximal activity at pH 6.8 and pH 8.8
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
12
37
-
12C: about 60% of maximal activity, 37C: about 20% of maximal activity
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
8.67
-
-, Q66UF6
calculated from sequence of cDNA
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
isoform PSY1 is localized to amyloplast envelope membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FEY7
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
carotenoid accumulation in endosperm requires expression of isoform PSY1. Total carotenoid content correlates with endosperm transcript levels at day 20 after pollination for PSY1, but not for isoforms PSY2 or PSY3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
inner corona of, in all stages the steady-state phytoene synthase transcript levels are low
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Capsicum sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q56QV1
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity in young leaf
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FEY7
young and mature, high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
abiotic stress leads to increases in isoform PSY2 transcript levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
carotenogenesis requires phytochrome-dependent and phytochrome-independent photoregulation of isoform PSY2 plus non-photoregulated expression of isoform PSY1; isoform PSY1 is required for carotenogenesis in the dark and for heat stress tolerance
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FEY7
very low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
drought-stressed root shows elevated levels of isoform PSY3 transcripts and abscisic acid, the effect is reversed by hydratation. Increase in isoform PSY3 mRNA correlates with carotenoid accumulation and with increase in 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase transcripts, and blocking of carotenoid biosynthesis interferes with stress-induced accumulation of abscisic acid
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
intense up-regulation of transcripts during increasing abscisic acid formation upon salt treatment and drought
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FEY7
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
more activity in green leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q9FEY7
the enzyme expression is regulated during leaf development/expansion, organ-specific enzyme expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
isoform PSY1 mRNA is not increased by abiotic stress in any tissue examined
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
isoform PSY3 transcript levels show almost no tissue-specific differences and are not affected by light. Transcripts are up-regulated during increasing abscisic acid formation upon salt treatment and drought, with simultaneous induction of genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Capsicum sp.
-
more highly expressed in chromoplasts compared to chloroplasts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
localized at thylakoid membranes in mature chloroplasts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Citrus sp.
-
enzyme contains a chloroplast transit peptide
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FEY7
enzyme contains a putative N-terminal chloroplast transit peptide
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
sequence contains a 51-residue transit peptide
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Capsicum sp.
-
more highly expressed in chromoplasts compared to chloroplasts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
peripheral plastid membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
under certain light conditions, e.g. far-red light, the increase in PSY mRNA and protein levels are not accompanied by an increase in enzymatic activity. Under those conditions the enzyme is localized in the prolamellar body fraction in a mostly enzymatically inactive form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
peripheral plastid membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the soluble enzyme is complexed and inactive, the membrane-bound enzyme is active
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
membrane-associated. Treatment with high ionic strength buffer or mild non-ionic detergent is required for solubilization
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isoform PSY1 is localized to amyloplast envelope membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the soluble enzyme is complexed and inactive, the membrane-bound enzyme is active
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
upon induction the recombinant enzyme constitutes 5-10% of the total soluble protein
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius subsp. acidocaldarius (strain ATCC 27009 / DSM 446 / 104-1A)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
43000
-
-
native PAGE
47300
-
-, Q66UF6
calculated from sequence of cDNA
49500
-
Q2I739
calculated from sequence of cDNA
50000
-
Q2I739
SDS-PAGE
200000
-
-
gel filtration
200000
-
-
phytoene synthesizing enzyme system, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 35800, calculation from nucleotide sequence
?
-
x * 34500, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
?
Citrus sp.
-
x * 28000, about, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
?
A1KYX8, -
x * 47200, calculated
?
-
x * 47300, protein including transit peptide, x * 41900, mature form, calculated
?
-
x * 43000, SDS-PAGE, mature protein
dimer
Capsicum sp.
-
2 * 36000-37000
monomer
-
1 * 47500, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
the enzyme is functional in a monomeric state, under optimal native conditions it is associated with a large protein complex, at least 200000 Da, which contains other terpenoid enzymes
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
proteolytic modification
-
sequence contains a 53-residue chloroplast transit peptide
proteolytic modification
-
expression during fruit ripening as a 47000 Da protein which, upon import into isolated chloroplasts, is processed to a mature 42000 Da form
proteolytic modification
-
the size of the transit peptide of phytoene synthase from ripe fruit is approximatyle 9000 Da, corresponding to about 80 amino acid residues
proteolytic modification
-
sequence contains a 51-residue chloroplast transit peptide. Protein is predicted to be 47300 Dalton and to be processed to a 41900 Dalton mature form
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
-
10 h, stable
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.6, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 0.3 M NaCl, 30% glycerol, stable for 1 year
-
flash frozen in liquid N2 and stored at -80C, stable for at least 6 months
-
-70C, 50 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 10% v/v glycerol, 80% of the activity retained
-
activity can be maintained if 30% glycerol and 10 mM dithiothreitol are present during storage of the enzyme system
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-
Capsicum sp.
-
to facilitate purification of the recombinant enzyme, the structural gene for Psase is modified by site-directed mutagenesis to incorporate a C-terminal Glu-Glu-Phe tripeptide to allow purification by immunoaffinity chromatography on an immobilized monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin antibody YL1/2 column
-
Sephadex G-25 gel filtration and ammonium sulfate fractionation
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
after transformation psy is not only expressed in leaves but also in roots and seed derived calli, leading to coloured roots
P37271
expressed in Brassica naupus
Citrus sp.
-
gene crtB, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, functional expression of the His-tagged enzyme lacking the chloroplast transit peptide in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) mostly in inclusion bodies
Citrus sp.
-
after transformation with bacterial crtB PSY was not only expressed in leaves but also in roots, leading to coloured roots (roots of wild carrots are white)
-
after transformation with bacterial crtB PSY transcrips are detectable and the white roots get coloured; after transformation with bacterial crtB PSY transcrips are detectable and the white roots get coloured
Q2VEY0, Q2VEY1
isolation of the gene
Q9AU04
Psy gene, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
Q9FEY7
overexpressed in insect Sf9 cells using the baculovirus lipofection system. The full-length overexpressed enzyme exhibits very reduced catalytic activity compared with an overexpressed N-truncated form, with its transit sequence of 214 base pairs removed from the psy cDNA at the 5'-end by site-directed mutagenesis. The shortened form readily binds to lipid bilayers
-
the Japonica rice model variety Taipei 309 is transformed by microprojectile bombardment with a cDNA coding for phytoene synthase under the control of either a constitutive or an endosperm-specific promoter. In transgenic rice plants the enzyme is active
-
expression in pea
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyl explants of Brassica napus, 50fold increase in carotenoid levels
-
expressed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S constitutive promoter or the Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid elongase 1 gene seed-specific promoter in linseed flax Linum usitatissimum after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, in both cases transcripts are only detectable in seeds but not in leaves
-
expression in Escherichia coli. Two genes for the two reaction steps: 1. formation of phytoene diphosphate from geranylgeranyl diphosphate and 2. formation of phytoene from prephytoene diphosphate
-
overexpressed to about 20% of the total cellular protein in Escherichia coli. Formation of the active phytoene synthase has the effect of suppressing the growth of the expressing strain. Inhibition of growth arises from the depletion of the substrate geranylgeranyl diphosphate which, in Escherichia coli, is necesssary for the synthesis of essential propyldiphosphate derivatives. In order to overcome the poor growth characteristics of the phytoene expressing strain, the enzyme level is increased by co-expressing the isoprenoid biosynthetic genes crtE and idi, encoding Erwinia geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase and Rhodobacter isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, respectively
-
overexpression in Lycopersicon esculentum, fruit-specific expression is achieved by using the tomato polygalacturonase promoter, and the enzyme is targeted to the chromoplast by the tomato phytoene synthase-1 transit sequence, total fruit carotenoids of primary transformants are 2-4fold higher than the control
-
expression in Arabidopsis thaliana
A1KYX8, -
cloning and genetic analysis of fruit-specific phytoene synthase, PSY1, and mutant lines tangerine and yellow-flesh with mutant alleles t3183 and r2997, respectively
-
full length and truncated cDNA expression constructs of the phytoene synthase gene from tomato ligated into a pUC8 cloning vector, expression in Escherichia coli carrying Erwinia uredovora geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in peanut Arachis hypogaea under control of the Arabidopsis thaliana oleosin promoter after transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
mRNA level increases when dark-grown seedlings come from dark to light, which leads to a deetiolation and the forming of chloroplasts, similar results can be observed with seedlings growing in the dark when treated with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of the regulatory hormone gibberellin
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
G520R
-
naturally occuring mutation in allele t3406
G546E
-
naturally occuring mutation in allele t9776
additional information
Citrus sp.
-
recombinant in vivo reconstitution of carotinoid biosynthesis by expression of genes crtE, crtX, crtY, crtI, and crtB encoding enzymes involved in the pathway from Pantoea ananatis and citrus genes crtB and crtZ encoding CitPsy and CitChx, i.e. phytoene synthase and beta-carotene hydroxylase, in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), carotinoid pigment content analysis of recombinant bacteria, overview
additional information
-
the full-length overexpressed enzyme exhibits very reduced catalytic activity compared with an overexpressed N-truncated form, with its transit sequence of 214 base pairs removed from the psy cDNA at the 5'-end by site-directed mutagenesis. The shortened form readily binds to lipid bilayers
additional information
-
to facilitate purification of the recombinant enzyme, the structural gene for Psase is modified by site-directed mutagenesis to incorporate a C-terminal Glu-Glu-Phe tripeptide to allow purification by immunoaffinity chromatography on an immobilized monoclonal anti-alpha-tubulin antibody YL1/2 column
additional information
A1KYX8, -
overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhances the growth of plants. In presence of 0.1 M NaCl, the photosynthesis rate and photosystem II activity increase by about 50%, compared to wild-type seedling. Transgenic lines display higher activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase and lower contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde
L241K
-
naturally occuring mutation in allele t4838
additional information
-
the size of the transit peptide of phytoene synthase from ripe fruit is approximatyle 9000 Da, corresponding to about 80 amino acid residues. Removal of further N-terminal amino acids up to 114 from the enzyme, to yield a protein of apparent molecular mass 3400 Da, increases its catalytic activity in Escherichia coli
additional information
-
a frameshift mutation due to a single-nucleotide insertion in codon 226 of CRTISO, which leads to an early stop codon, was found in t3002. The other alleles in the M82 variety carry missense mutations: L241K in t4838, G520R in t3406, and G546E in t9776. Expression analysis of wild-type and mutant enzymes in vivo and comparisons, overview
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
agriculture
-
psy gene of tea cultivars is closely correlated to accumulation of carotenoids which are precursors of tea flavour volatiles, thus the expression strength of psy gene can be used as an indicator for screening quality of tea cultivars
analysis
-
psy gene of tea cultivars is closely correlated to accumulation of carotenoids which are precursors of tea flavour volatiles, thus the expression strength of psy gene can be used as an indicator for screening quality of tea cultivars
nutrition
-
engineering of a critical step in provitamin A biosynthesis in a non-photosynthetic, carotenoid-lacking plant tissue, important implications for long-term prospects of overcoming worldwide vitamin A deficiency
biotechnology
-
developement nutritional plants enriched with carotenoids
food industry
-
developement nutritional plants enriched with carotenoids
nutrition
-
50fold increase in carotenoid levels in green embryos of Brassica napus after overexpression of bacterial phytoene synthase. Brassica and perhaps other oil seed crops may be used as commercial sources of carotenoids
nutrition
-
elevation of lycopene in tomato fruit by genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis using the fruit-specific expression of a bacterial phytoene synthase
agriculture
A1KYX8, -
Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing Salicornia europea phytoene synthase gene show higher tolerance to salt stress than wild-type by increased photosynthesis efficiency and antioxidative capacity
agriculture
-
creation of marker-free transgenic plants
biotechnology
-
creation of marker-free transgenic plants