Information on EC 1.8.99.2 - adenylyl-sulfate reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.8.99.2
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
adenylyl-sulfate reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
AMP + sulfite + acceptor = adenylyl sulfate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
sulfate reduction IV (dissimilatory, to hydrogen sufide))
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sulfate reduction V (dissimilatory, to thiosulfate)
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sulfite oxidation II
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sulfite oxidation III
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sulfate reduction
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Sulfur metabolism
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Metabolic pathways
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Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
AMP, sulfite:acceptor oxidoreductase (adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate-forming)
An iron flavoprotein (FAD). Methyl viologen can act as acceptor.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9027-75-2
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain D
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Columbia ecotype
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
archaebacterium
VC-16
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
archaebacterium VC-16
VC-16
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
subunit A and subunit B
O28603 and O28604
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Astragalus tephrosioides
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
precursor
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
DBO1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DBO1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CM, genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CM, genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
strain TLS, genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
strain CaD3, genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CaD3, genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BS1, genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain BS1, genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Chromatium sp.
weak activity
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
strain MLMS-1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MLMS-1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
strain MI-1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MI-1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
strain DSM 12254
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Marburg
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Miyazaki
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F
alpha subunit and beta subunit; strain Miyazaki F
B8PS61 and B8DS74
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
weak activity
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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1040046 A+, 1040050 A+, 1040051 A+, 1040054 A+, 1040057 A+, 1040058 A+, 1040061 A+, 1040062 A+, 1266329 A+, 1299667 A+, 1309224 A+, 1317145 A+, 1379641 A+, 1404233 A+, 1407178 A+, 1436128 A+, 1439861 A+, 1442472 A+, 1467456 A+, 1492504 A+, 1605548 A+, 1629596 A+, 1705788 A+, 1756450 A+, 1756452 A+, 1756456 A+, 1756457 A+, 1756467 A+, 1756473 A+, 1756480 A+, 1756494 A+, 1756516 A+, 1756518 A+, 1756520 A+, 1756522 A+, 1756523 A+, 1756544 A+, 1756551 A+, 1756552 A+, 1756559 A+, 1756563 A+, 1756566 A+, 1756572 A+, 1756575 A+, 1756577 A+, 1756578 A+, 1756579 A+, 1756580 A+, 1756582 A+, 1756583 A+, 1756584 A+, 1756585 A+, 1756586 A+, 1756587 A+, 1756590 A+, 1756595 A+, 1756608 A+, 1756612 A+, 1756618 A+, 1756624 A+, 1756625 A+, 1756626 A+, 1756627 A+, 1756632 A+, 1756633 A+, 1756640 A+, 1756641 A+, 1756642 A+, 1756645 A+, 1756646 A+, 1756647 A+, 1756650 A+, 1756651 A+, 1756652 A+, 1756653 A+, 1756655 A+, 1756656 A+, 1756659 A+, 1756662 A+, 1756669 A+, 1756672 A+, 1756673 A+, 1756680 A+, 1756681 A+, 1756689 A+, 1756693 A+, 1756695 A+, 1756696 A+, 1756698 A+, 1756701 A+, 1756704 A+, 1756710 A+, 1756714 A+, 1756716 A+, 1756717 A+, 1756720 A+, 1756737 A+, 1756738 A+, 1756739 A+, 1756740 A+, 1756747 A+, 1756748 A+, 1756749 A+, 1756750 A+, 1756766 A+, 1756775 A+, 1756777 A+, 1756781 A+, 1756786 A+, 1756787 A+, 1756788 A+, 1756790 A+, 1756792 A+, 1756799 A+, 1756805 A+, 1756806 A+, 1756816 A+, 1756817 A+, 1756823 A+, 1756828 A+, 1756834 A+, 1756840 A+, 1756842 A+, 1756846 A+, 1756849 A+, 1756856 A+, 1756857 A+, 1756859 A+, 1756865 A+, 1756866 A+, 1756868 A+, 1756869 A+, 1756870 A+, 1756876 A+, 1756879 A+, 1756886 A+, 1756889 A+, 1756890 A+, 1756891 A+, 1756904 A+, 1756912 A+, 1756914 A+, 1756915 A+, 1756918 A+, 1756919 A+, 1756920 A+, 1756923 A+, 1756927 A+, 1756928 A+, 1756929 A+, 1756931 A+, 1756933 A+, 1756935 A+, 1756936 A+, 2161314 A+, 2229080 A+, 2260787 A+, 2262651 A+, 2337520 A+, 2510139 A+, 2522666 A+, 2527632 A+, 2531365 A+, 2576636 A+, 2591659 A+, 2609719 A+, 2609813 A+, 2610050 A+, 2618463 A+, 2622322 A+, 2630697 A+, 2806072 A+, 2806077 A+, 2806078 A+, 2806082 A+, 2806083 A+, 2806084 A+, 2806089 A+, 2806090 A+, 2806091 A+, 2806092 A+, 2806094 A+, 2806102 A+, 2806104 A+, 2806113 A+, 2806116 A+, 2806121 A+, 2806124 A+, 2806126 A+, 2806127 A+, 2806130 A+, 2806131 A+, 2806132 A+, 2806140 A+, 2806143 A+, 2806144 A+, 2806145 A+, 2806146 A+, 2806148 A+, 2806157 A+, 2806159 A+, 2806161 A+, 2806164 A+, 2806168 A+, 2806169 A+, 2806172 A+, 2806173 A+, 2806177 A+, 2806180 A+, 2806181 A+, 2806182 A+, 2806183 A+, 2806184 A+, 2806186 A+, 2806187 A+, 2806188 A+, 2806189 A+, 2806193 A+, 2806194 A+, 2806202 A+, 2806203 A+, 2806204 A+, 2806205 A+, 2806206 A+, 2806209 A+, 2806211 A+, 2806212 A+, 2806217 A+, 2806218 A+, 2806223 A+, 2806225 A+, 2806228 A+, 2806229 A+, 2806234 A+, 2806235 A+, 2806236 A+, 2806238 A+, 2806239 A+, 2806240 A+, 2806242 A+, 2806243 A+, 2806244 A+, 2806246 A+, 2806247 A+, 2806249 A+, 2806250 A+, 2806252 A+, 2806253 A+, 2806254 A+, 2806255 A+, 2806256 A+, 2806257 A+, 2806258 A+, 2806262 A+, 2806264 A+, 2806266 A+, 2806268 A+, 2806270 A+, 2806272 A+, 2806275 A+, 2806277 A+, 2806278 A+, 2806279 A+, 2806280 A+, 2806281 A+, 2806282 A+, 2806283 A+, 2806284 A+, 2806286 A+, 2806287 A+, 2806290 A+, 2806293 A+, 2806294 A+, 2806295 A+, 2806296 A+, 2806303 A+, 2806308 A+, 2806309 A+, 2806310 A+, 2806313 A+, 2806314 A+, 2806315 A+, 2806316 A+, 2806317 A+, 2806318 A+, 2806319 A+, 2806320 A+, 2806322 A+, 2806323 A+, 2806324 A+, 2806326 A+, 2806327 A+, 2806331 A+, 2806332 A+, 2806333 A+, 2806335 A+, 2806338 A+, 2806343 A+, 2806346 A+, 2806348 A+, 2806353 A+, 2806354 A+, 2806355 A+, 2806357 A+, 2806359 A+, 2806363 A+, 2806365 A+, 2806367 A+, 2806368 A+, 2806369 A+, 2806370 A+, 2806371 A+, 2806373 A+, 2806374 A+, 2806375 A+, 2806379 A+, 2806381 A+, 2806382 A+, 2806383 A+, 2806388 A+, 2806389 A+, 2806391 A+, 2806399 A+, 2806401 A+, 2806402 A+, 2806405 A+, 2806406 A+, 2806407 A+, 2806408 A+, 2806412 A+, 2806413 A+, 2806415 A+, 2806417 A+, 2806418 A+, 2806419 A+, 2806420 A+, 2806421 A+, 2806422 A+, 2806423 A+, 2806424 A+, 2806426 A+, 2806427 A+, 2806428 A+, 2806430 A+, 2806431 A+, 2806432 A+, 2806433 A+, 2806435 A+, 2806437 A+, 2806438 A+, 2806439 A+, 2806443 A+, 2806444 A+, 2806445 A+, 2806446 A+, 2806448 A+, 2806450 A+, 2806455 A+, 2806462 A+, 2806463 A+, 2806465 A+, 2806466 A+, 2806470 A+, 2806474 A+, 2806475 A+, 2806478 A+, 2806482 A+, 2806485 A+, 2806488 A+, 2806495 A+, 2806496 A+, 2806497 A+, 2806499 A+, 2806500 A+, 2806505 A+, 2806506 A+, 2806507 A+, 2806508 A+, 2806509 A+, 2806510 A+, 2806511 A+, 2806513 A+, 2806520 A+, 2806522 A+, 2806523 A+, 2806525 A+, 2806528 A+, 2806529 A+, 2806530 A+, 2806531 A+, 2806533 A+, 2806534 A+, 2806535 A+, 2806536 A+, 2806538 A+, 2806539 A+, 2806540 A+, 2806541 A+, 2806546 A+, 2806547 A+, 2806548 A+, 2806550 A+, 2806552 A+, 2806553 A+, 2806554 A+, 2806559 A+, 2806562 A+, 2806569 A+, 2806570 A+, 2806571 A+, 2806574 A+, 2806575 A+, 2806581 A+, 2806582 A+, 2806586 A+, 2806587 A+, 2806589 A+, 2806591 A+, 2806593 A+, 2806594 A+, 2806596 A+, 2806597 A+, 2806601 A+, 2806602 A+, 2806604 A+, 2806609 A+, 2806611 A+, 2806613 A+, 2806617 A+, 2806618 A+, 2806619 A+, 2806622 A+, 2806624 A+, 2806626 A+, 2806629 A+, 2806631 A+, 2806633 A+, 2806636 A+, 2806640 A+, 2806641 A+, 2806642 A+, 2806643 A+, 2806644 A+, 2806646 A+, 2806647 A+, 2806649 A+, 2806650 A+, 2806652 A+, 2806656 A+, 2806658 A+, 2806659 A+, 2806660 A+, 2806661 A+, 2806666 A+, 2806667 A+, 2806673 A+, 2806674 A+, 2806676 A+, 2806677 A+, 2806679 A+, 2806681 A+, 2806683 A+, 2806686 A+, 2806689 A+, 2806691 A+, 2806692 A+, 2806693 A+, 2806694 A+, 2806695 A+, 2806697 A+, 2806698 A+, 2806699 A+, 2806701 A+, 2806702 A+, 2806703 A+, 2806704 A+, 2806705 A+, 2806712 A+, 2806713 A+, 2806717 A+, 2806719 A+, 2806724 A+, 2806725 A+, 2806730 A+, 2806733 A+, 2806738 A+, 2806739 A+, 2806741 A+, 2806746 A+, 2806749 A+, 2806751 A+, 2806756 A+, 2806757 A+, 2806758 A+, 2806759 A+, 2806760 A+, 2806762 A+, 2806764 A+, 2806766 A+, 2806767 A+, 2806768 A+, 2806770 A+, 2806772 A+, 2806776 A+, 2806778 A+, 2806785 A+, 2806786 A+, 2806787 A+, 2806789 A+, 2806790 A+, 2806794 A+, 2806800 A+, 2806804 A+, 2806811 A+, 2806812 A+, 2806813 A+, 2806817 A+, 2806818 A+, 2806819 A+, 2806820 A+, 2806821 A+, 2806824 A+, 2806826 A+, 2806827 A+, 2806828 A+, 2806831 A+, 2806832 A+, 2806835 A+, 2806836 A+, 2806838 A+, 2806841 A+, 2806842 A+, 2806843 A+, 2806845 A+, 2806847 A+, 2806849 A+, 2806850 A+, 2806851 A+, 2806857 A+, 2806858 A+, 2806859 A+, 2806860 A+, 756022 A+, 946428 A+
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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methylotrophic bacterium
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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strain BU-1, genes aprA and aprB
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
f. sp. thiosulfatophilum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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beta-subunit
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Tetraselmis sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
trout
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
large subunit AprA and small subunit AprB
F6KEW4 and F6KEW3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
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APS reductase is a key enzyme involved in the pathways of sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation in the biological sulfur cycle
physiological function
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key enzyme of the dissimilatory sulfate respiration
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
5'-adenylylsulfate + dithioerythritol
adenosine 5'-monophosphate + sulfite + oxidized dithioerythritol
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
5'-adenylylsulfate + dithiothreitol
adenosine 5'-monophosphate + sulfite + oxidized dithiothreitol
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + cofactor sulfide
AMP + sulfite + cofactor disulfide
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + dithioerythritol
AMP + sulfite + ?
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + dithioerythritol
AMP + sulfite + oxidized dithioerythritol
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
adenylyl sulfate + dithionite
AMP + sulfite + ?
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + dithiothreitol
AMP + sulfite + ?
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
adenylyl sulfate + ferrocytochrome c3
AMP + sulfite + ferricytochrome
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + GSH
AMP + sulfite + GSSG
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + reduced acceptor
AMP + sulfite + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + reduced glutaredoxin 1
AMP + sulfite + oxidized glutaredoxin 1
show the reaction diagram
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can use 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate as sulfate donor
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?
adenylyl sulfate + reduced methyl viologen
AMP + sulfite + methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + reduced thioredoxin
AMP + sulfite + oxidized thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + reduced thioredoxin 1
AMP + sulfite + oxidized thioredoxin 1
show the reaction diagram
adenylylsulfate + thioredoxin
AMP + sulfite + ?
show the reaction diagram
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?
ADP + sulfite + ferricyanide
? + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
AMP + sulfite + acceptor
adenylyl sulfate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
AMP + sulfite + cytochrome c
adenylyl sulfate + ?
show the reaction diagram
AMP + sulfite + ferricyanide
adenylyl sulfate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
AMP + sulfite + [Fe(CN)6]3-
adenylyl sulfate + [Fe(CN)6]4-
show the reaction diagram
F6KEW4 and F6KEW3
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ATP + sulfite + ferricyanide
? + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
CMP + sulfite + cytochrome c
cytidylyl sulfate + ?
show the reaction diagram
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7% of the activity with AMP
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?
CMP + sulfite + ferricyanide
cytidylyl sulfate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
dAMP + sulfite + cytochrome c
deoxyadenylyl sulfate + ?
show the reaction diagram
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80% of the activity with AMP
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?
deoxyAMP + sulfite + ferricyanide
deoxyadenylyl sulfate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
GMP + sulfite + cytochrome c
guanylyl sulfate + ?
show the reaction diagram
GMP + sulfite + ferricyanide
guanylyl sulfate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
guanylyl sulfate + reduced methyl viologen
GMP + methyl viologen + sulfite
show the reaction diagram
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?
IMP + sulfite + cytochrome c
?
show the reaction diagram
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62% of the activity with AMP
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?
IMP + sulfite + ferricyanide
? + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
UMP + sulfite + cytochrome c
uridylyl sulfate + ?
show the reaction diagram
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9% of the activity with AMP
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?
UMP + sulfite + ferricyanide
uridylyl sulfate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
adenylyl sulfate + cofactor sulfide
AMP + sulfite + cofactor disulfide
show the reaction diagram
adenylyl sulfate + reduced acceptor
AMP + sulfite + acceptor
show the reaction diagram
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4Fe-4S-center
dihydroriboflavin
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can donate electrons directly to adenylyl sulfate reductase
FADH2
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can donate electrons directly to adenylyl sulfate reductase
flavin
FMNH2
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can donate electrons directly to adenylyl sulfate reductase
heme
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contains 2 heme groups of cytochrome c characterper mol of enzyme
iron-sulfur centre
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two [4Fe-4S] clusters are enveloped by cluster-binding motifs
additional information
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the enzyme contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster cofactor
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4Fe-4S cluster
flavoenzyme.The two electrons required for adenylyl sulfate reduction are transferred via two [4Fe-4S] clusters from the surface of the protein to FAD. The large difference in reduction potential of these clusters (-60 mV and -500 mV) can be explained by interactions of the clusters with the protein matrix
Fe2+
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the enzyme contains a [4Fe-4S] cluster cofactor
Iron-sulfur cluster
iron-sulfur clusters
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iron-sulfur flavoprotein containing two distinct [4Fe-4S] dusters
additional information
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stimulation by high ionic strength
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-[2-(1,2-dicarboxyethylamino)ethylamino]butanedioic acid
O28603 and O28604
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2-[2-[bis(carboxymethyl)amino]ethyl-(2-hydroxymethyl)amino]acetic acid
O28603 and O28604
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3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate
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cysteine
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1 mM, significant inhibition
EDTA
O28603 and O28604
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iodoacetamide
NaN3
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10 mM, no loss of the activity with ferricyanide, 52% loss of the activity with cytochrome c
potassium phosphate
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inhibits reaction with cytochrome c
Sodium arsenite
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10 mM, no loss of the activity with ferricyanide, 88% loss of the activity with cytochrome c
additional information
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inhibitor binding structure, binding energies, dissociation constants, and inhibition mechanisms, overview
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
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buthionine sulfoximine
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1 mM, 2fold stimulation of activity
menadione
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stimulates oxidation of ferrocytochrome c3 with adenylyl sulfate and FAD as electron mediator
Na2SO4
NaCl
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APR activity of all three isoforms increases 3fold in roots after 5 h of treatment with 150 mM NaCl
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.011
5'-adenylylsulfate
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0.0065 - 0.25
adenylyl sulfate
0.0025 - 1
AMP
3.1
CMP
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reaction with cytochrome c
0.021 - 0.033
cytochrome c
0.0002
dithiothreitol
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0.089 - 4.2
ferricyanide
0.022
glutaredoxin 1
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pH 8 and saturating adenylyl sulfate
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0.01 - 3
GMP
0.025
guanylyl sulfate
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