Information on EC 1.5.1.31 - berberine reductase

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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.5.1.31
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
berberine reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(R)-canadine + 2 NADP+ = berberine + 2 NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
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redox reaction
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reduction
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(R)-tetrahydroberberine:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Involved in alkaloid biosynthesis in Corydalis cava to give (R)-canadine with the opposite configuration to the precursor of berberine (see EC 1.3.3.8 tetrahydroberberine oxidase). Also acts on 7,8-dihydroberberine.
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-canadine + 2 NADP+
berberine + 2 NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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?
7,8-dihydroberberine + NADPH
canadine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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at 64% of the activity with palmatine and NADPH
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r
berberine + NADH
canadine + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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at 59% of the activity with palmatine. At 15% of the activity with berberine and NADPH
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r
berberine + NADPH
canadine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
columbamine + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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at 39% of the activity with palmatine and NADPH
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r
coptisine + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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at 47% of the activity with palmatine and NADPH
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r
dehydroscoulerine + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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at 5% of the activity with palmatine and NADPH
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r
dihydrosinactine + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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at 52% of the activity with palmatine and NADPH
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r
jatrorrhizine + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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at 25% of the activity with palmatine and NADPH
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r
palmatine + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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r
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-canadine + 2 NADP+
berberine + 2 NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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?
berberine + NADPH
canadine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
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(R)-tetrahydroberberines are formed from protoberberines by a highly stereoselective reduction system
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r
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADH
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at 15% of the activity with NADPH
NADP+
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
codon-optimized gene yBwSTOX is expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae from plasmid pCS3203, coexpression with 6 other enzyme required for production of protoberberine
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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recombinant coexpression of enzyme STOX and six other enzymes, including the three membrane-bound enzymes: the flavin-dependent oxidase berberine bridge enzyme, the cytochrome P450 canadine synthase, and a cytochrome P450 reductase, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in protoberberine alkaloid production from a simple benzylisoquinoline alkaloid precursor rac-norlaudanosoline. Improvement of flux through the pathway, by methods including enzyme variant screening, genetic copy number variation, and culture optimization, leading to an over 70fold increase in canadine titer up to 1.8 mg/l
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
synthesis
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heterologous production of berberine and the optimization of the engineered biosynthetic pathway from rac-norlaudanosoline to (S)-canadine in yeast involving the recombinant berberine reductase