Information on EC 2.7.1.94 - acylglycerol kinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.7.1.94
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
acylglycerol kinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
ATP + acylglycerol = ADP + acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:acylglycerol 3-phosphotransferase
Acts on both 1- and 2-acylglycerols.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
kinase, monoacylglycerol (phosphorylating)
-
-
-
-
MGK
-
-
-
-
monoacylglycerol kinase
-
-
-
-
monoglyceride kinase
-
-
-
-
monoglyceride phosphokinase
-
-
-
-
MULK
-
-
multisubstrate lipid kinase
-
-
sn-2-monoacylglycerol kinase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
62213-37-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
calf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
identity of diacylglycerol kinase and monoacylglycerol kinase is established by employing purified enzyme and immunospecific antibody
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a single enzyme may function as diacylglycerol kinase and as monoacylglycerol kinase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol
ADP + 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant enzyme
-
-
?
ATP + 1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol
ADP + 1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product identified as alpha-phosphatidic acid
?
ATP + 1-arachidonoylglycerol
ADP + 1-arachidonoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-arachidoylglycerol
ADP + 1-arachidoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-caproylglycerol
ADP + 1-caproylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-capryloylglycerol
ADP + 1-capryloylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-lauroylglycerol
ADP + 1-lauroylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-linolenoylglycerol
ADP + 1-linolenoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-linoleoylglycerol
ADP + 1-linoleoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-monoolein
ADP + 1-oleoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 1-monooleolylglyerol
-
-
?
ATP + 1-myristoylglycerol
ADP + 1-myristoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol
ADP + 1-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant enzyme
-
-
?
ATP + 1-palmitoleoylglycerol
ADP + 1-palmitoleoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol
ADP + 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant enzyme
-
-
?
ATP + 1-palmitoylglycerol
ADP + 1-palmitoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-palmitoylglycerol
ADP + 1-palmitoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol
ADP + 1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant enzyme
-
-
?
ATP + 1-stearoylglycerol
ADP + 1-stearoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-arachidonoyl glycerol
ADP + 2-arachidonoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol
ADP + 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol
ADP + 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant enzyme
-
-
?
ATP + 2-arachidonoylglycerol
ADP + 2-arachidonoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-arachidoylglycerol
ADP + 2-arachidoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-caproylglycerol
ADP + 2-caproylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-lauroylglycerol
ADP + 2-lauroylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-linolenoylglycerol
ADP + 2-linolenoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-linoleoylglycerol
ADP + 2-linoleoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-monoolein
ADP + 2-oleoyoglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 2-monooleolylglyerol
-
-
?
ATP + 2-palmitoleoylglycerol
ADP + 2-palmitoleoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-palmitoylglycerol
ADP + 2-palmitoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 2-stearoylglycerol
ADP + 2-stearoylglycerol 3-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + diacylglycerol
ADP + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + diacylglycerol
ADP + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. diacyl-glycerol 3-phosphate, regulation mechanism, overview
-
?
ATP + diacylglycerol
ADP + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. diacyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
ATP + diacylglycerol
ADP + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. diacyl-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
ATP + monoacylglycerol
ADP + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + monoacylglycerol
ADP + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, regulation mechanism, overview
-
?
ATP + monoacylglycerol
ADP + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
ATP + monoacylglycerol
ADP + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
1-monostearin amongst the 1-acylglycerols and 2-monoarachidonin amongst the 2-acylglycerols give the highest activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
increasing activity in the order: 1-monoacylglycerol, 2-monoacylglycerol, 1,2-diacylglycerol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
preference for substrates with unsaturated fatty acids except for 1- and 2-monostearins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
when saturated fatty acids are present the order of decreasing activity varies directly with increasing chain length for C10 to C20, a single enzyme may function as diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol kinase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
lysophosphatidic acid induces the cytokine interleukin-8 correlated with angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and cancer cell proliferation, the enzyme modulates cross talk with EGFR in prostate cancer cells, enzyme regulates the synthesis of the bioactive phospholipids lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid, activation of extracellular signal related kinase 1 and 2, thus being involved in pathenogenesis of cancer via enhanced cell proliferation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme modulates cross talk with EGFR in prostate cancer cells, enzyme regulates the synthesis of the bioactive phospholipids lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid, activation of extracellular signal related kinase 1 and 2, thus being involved in pathenogenesis of cancer via enhanced cell proliferation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor-induced mitogenesis of prostate cancer cells via EGF and IFG-II, and lysophosphatidic acid, the first way can be inhibited by enzyme suppression, the second cannot, enzyme function and regulation in initiation and progression of prostate cancer, lysophosphatidic acid enhances surival and suppresses apoptosis by reducing levels of the apoptosis-promoting protein Bax, and is involved in signal transduction pathways, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity by the recombinant enzyme with C6-ceramide and sphingosine
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + diacylglycerol
ADP + phosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. diacyl-glycerol 3-phosphate, regulation mechanism, overview
-
?
ATP + monoacylglycerol
ADP + lysophosphatidic acid
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, regulation mechanism, overview
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
lysophosphatidic acid induces the cytokine interleukin-8 correlated with angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and cancer cell proliferation, the enzyme modulates cross talk with EGFR in prostate cancer cells, enzyme regulates the synthesis of the bioactive phospholipids lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid, activation of extracellular signal related kinase 1 and 2, thus being involved in pathenogenesis of cancer via enhanced cell proliferation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme modulates cross talk with EGFR in prostate cancer cells, enzyme regulates the synthesis of the bioactive phospholipids lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid, activation of extracellular signal related kinase 1 and 2, thus being involved in pathenogenesis of cancer via enhanced cell proliferation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays a critical role in epidermal growth factor-induced mitogenesis of prostate cancer cells via EGF and IFG-II, and lysophosphatidic acid, the first way can be inhibited by enzyme suppression, the second cannot, enzyme function and regulation in initiation and progression of prostate cancer, lysophosphatidic acid enhances surival and suppresses apoptosis by reducing levels of the apoptosis-promoting protein Bax, and is involved in signal transduction pathways, overview
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
requirement for divalent cation is best fulfilled by Mg2+. Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+, in that order are fair to poor substitutes for Mg2+
Ca2+
-
5 mM, 58% as effective as Mg2+ in activation
Co2+
-
5 mM, 60% as effective as Mg2+ in activation
Cu2+
-
5 mM, 51% as effective as Mg2+ in activation
Fe2+
-
5 mM, 60% as effective as Mg2+ in activation
Mg2+
-
required; requirement for divalent cation is best fulfilled by Mg2+. Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+, in that order are fair to poor substitutes for Mg2+, optimal concentration of Mg2+ is 0.03 M
Mg2+
-
optimal concentration is 10 mM; required
Mn2+
-
requirement for divalent cation is best fulfilled by Mg2+. Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+, in that order are fair to poor substitutes for Mg2+
Mn2+
-
5 mM, as effective as Mg2+ in activation
Ni2+
-
5 mM, 60% as effective as Mg2+ in activation
Zn2+
-
requirement for divalent cation is best fulfilled by Mg2+. Mn2+, Zn2+ and Ca2+, in that order are fair to poor substitutes for Mg2+
Zn2+
-
5 mM, 48% as effective as Mg2+ in activation
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
DTT prevents inhibition
NEM
-
DTT prevents inhibition
octyl-beta-glucopyranoside
-
inhibits the recombinant enzyme in cell extract of transfected NIH 3T3 cells
p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonate
-
-
p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonate
-
DTT prevents inhibition
phosphatidylcholine
-
inhibition alone, synergistic activation with the protein peak eluted from hydroxylapatite by 25 mM phosphate
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
inhibition alone, synergistic activation with the protein peak eluted from hydroxylapatite by 25 mM phosphate
sphingomyelin
-
inhibition alone, synergistic activation with the protein peak eluted from hydroxylapatite by 25 mM phosphate
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Cutsum
-
no absolute requirement, optimal concentration: 0.1%
-
Phospholipids
-
e.g. phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine or sphingomyelin, inhibition alone, synergistic activation with the protein peak eluted from hydroxylapatite by 25 mM phosphate
glutathione
-
stimulates
additional information
-
protein peak eluted from hydroxylapatite by 25 mM phosphate activates and stabilizes
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7.2
-
-
assay at
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
7.5
-
about 35% of maximal activity at pH 6.5 and pH 7.5
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
37
-
-
assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low expression in normal and very low expression level in tumor cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
prostate cancer cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cell lines, high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme expression is upregulated in prostate cancer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low expression level in normal and tumor cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy epiretinal membranes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
no expression in ovary, lung, small intestine, and thymus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy epiretinal membranes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 72000, SDS-PAGE, enzyme exists as a complex that is stabilized by 0.5 M NaCl and, on complete dissociation yields a major protein of MW 72000
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
DTT, EDTA or ATP stabilizes during purification
-
protein peak eluted from hydroxylapatite by 25 mM phosphate activates and stabilizes
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression in human PC-3 cells and HEK-293 cells, in mouse NIH 3T3 cells, and in rat RH7777 cells
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expressions of enzyme is significantly correlated with primary Gleason grade of cancer foci and capsular invasion
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
G126E
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutation of the conserved glycine residue of the glycine-rich loop of the ATP binding site, catalytically inactive mutant
additional information
-
inactivation of all genes by siRNA transfection, overview
additional information
Q53H12
identification of a novel autosomal recessive cataract locus on 7q33-q36.1 in a multiplex consanguineous family with isolated congenital cataractl. Mutation is a splice-site mutation in AGK, encoding acylglycerol kinase, which leads to aberrant splicing and predicted premature truncation
additional information
-
homozygous mutation c.3G>A, p.M1I in the gene encoding acylglycerol kinase has been identified in two brothers who presented with vascular strokes, lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy and cataracts, abnormal muscle cell histopathology and mitochondrial function. One proband had very abnormal mitochondria with citrate synthase crystals visible in electron micrographs, associated with markedly high citrate synthase activity. Homozygous c.979A>T, p.K327* mutation has been identified in a family with four affected members, of which two have been examined. They presented with similar clinical symptoms, but no strokes. Postmortem heart and skeletal muscle tissues showed low complex I, III and IV activities in the heart, but normal in the muscle. Skin fibroblasts showed elevated lactate/pyruvate ratios and low complex I+III activity
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
medicine
-
in membranes from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, vascular endothelial cells express autotaxin and acylglycerol kinase in 16 and 19 out of 22 membranes, respectively. Stromal cells express autotaxin and acylglycerol kinase in 19 and 22 out of membranes, respectively. There are significant correlations between number of blood vessels expressing the panendothelial cell marker CD34 and number of blood vessels and stromal cells expressing autotaxin and acylglycerol kinase. In proliferative diabetic retinopathy membranes, spindle-shaped myofibroblasts expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin co-express autotaxin, acylglycerol kinase and LPA1 receptor
medicine
Q53H12
identification of a novel autosomal recessive cataract locus on 7q33-q36.1 in a multiplex consanguineous family with isolated congenital cataractl. Mutation is a splice-site mutation in AGK, encoding acylglycerol kinase, which leads to aberrant splicing and predicted premature truncation
medicine
-
homozygous mutation c.3G>A, p.M1I in the gene encoding acylglycerol kinase has been identified in two brothers who presented with vascular strokes, lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy and cataracts, abnormal muscle cell histopathology and mitochondrial function. One proband had very abnormal mitochondria with citrate synthase crystals visible in electron micrographs, associated with markedly high citrate synthase activity. Homozygous c.979A>T, p.K327* mutation has been identified in a family with four affected members, of which two have been examined. They presented with similar clinical symptoms, but no strokes. Postmortem heart and skeletal muscle tissues showed low complex I, III and IV activities in the heart, but normal in the muscle. Skin fibroblasts showed elevated lactate/pyruvate ratios and low complex I+III activity