Information on EC 2.4.1.46 - monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.46
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol = UDP + a 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(beta-D-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
glycolipid biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-galactose:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
This enzyme adds only one galactosyl group to the diacylglycerol; EC 2.4.1.241, digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase, adds a galactosyl group to the product of the above reaction. There are three isoforms in Arabidopsis that can be divided into two types, A-type (MGD1) and B-type (MGD2 and MGD3). MGD1 is the isoform responsible for the bulk of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) synthesis in Arabidopsis [4].
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
1,2-diacylglycerol 3-beta-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
atMGD2
-
-
atMGD3
Q82730
-
galactosyltransferase, uridine diphosphogalactose-1,2-diacylglycerol
-
-
-
-
MGDG synthase
-
-
-
-
MGDG synthase
O82730, Q9SI93
-
MGDG synthase
-
-
MGDG synthase
Cucumis sp.
-
-
MGDG synthase
-
-
monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
-
-
monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
Q82730
-
monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1
-
-
monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase A
Q8KFI2
-
monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase MGD1
B4FBN5
-
type A monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
-
-
type B monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
-
-
type B monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
O82730, Q9SI93
-
UDP galactose-1,2-diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose-diacylglyceride galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose:1,2-diacylglycerol 3-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose:1,2-diacylglycerol 3-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
-
-
UDP-galactose:diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
uridine diphosphogalactose-1,2-diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
37277-55-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
type B, atMGD2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene mgd1-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme mgd 1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme MGD A
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme mgd B
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme mgd C
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MGD3; type B isozyme MGD3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
three MGDG synthase genes encoding MGD1, MGD2 and MGD3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type A isozyme MGD1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type B isozyme MGD2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. pennsylvanicus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Aonagajibai
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Aonagajibai, enzyme activity increases markedly during the first 4 days in dark-grown seedlings
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cucumis sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Golf und Kleine Rheinländerin, pea
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
maximal activity in 14-18 days old rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoenzyme MGD A
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
molecular modeling using the X-ray structure of Escherichia coli UDP-alpha-D-(N-acetyl)-glucosamine:N-acetylmuramyl-(pentapeptide)pyrophosphoryl-undecaprenyl-4beta-D-(N-acetyl)-glucosaminyl transferase as a template
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
metabolism
-, O82730, Q9SI93
the enzyme catalyzes the final step of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in plants, regulation of MGDG synthesis during chloroplast development, overview; the enzyme catalyzes the final step of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in plants, regulation of MGDG synthesis during chloroplast development, overview; the enzyme catalyzes the final step of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in plants, regulation of MGDG synthesis during chloroplast development, overview
metabolism
Cucumis sp.
-
the enzyme catalyzes the final step of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthesis in plants, regulation of MGDG synthesis during chloroplast development, overview
metabolism
-
the galactolipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is the major lipid in plastids, and is mainly synthesized in inner plastid envelopes, where monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1, MGD1, catalyses the last step of its production
physiological function
-
MGD1 is the main MGDG synthase expressed in leaves and is essential for chloroplast development, and enrichment of chloroplast membranes with monogalactosyldiacylglycerols
physiological function
-, O82730, Q9SI93
MGD1 is an inner envelope membrane-associated protein of chloroplasts and is responsible for the bulk of galactolipid biosynthesis in green tissues, overview. MGD1 function is indispensable for thylakoid membrane biogenesis and embryogenesis; tye B isozyme MGD3 is localized in the outer envelopes and has no important role in chloroplast biogenesis or plant development under nutrient-sufficient conditions, but type B MGD genes are essential for alternative galactolipid biosynthesis during phosphate starvation, overview; type B isozyme MGD2 is localized in the outer envelopes and has no important role in chloroplast biogenesis or plant development under nutrient-sufficient conditions, but type B MGD genes are essential for alternative galactolipid biosynthesis during phosphate starvation, overview
physiological function
B4FBN5, -
complete loss causes kernel lethality owing to failure in both endosperm and embryo development
physiological function
-, Q8KFI2
essential gene, growth impaired in knockdown mutant, role in chlorosome biogenesis
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-, Q82730
type B MGDG synthases may have roles during pollen germination and pollen tube growth and may be acting primarily to supply MGDG as a precursor for DGDG synthesis. Expression of atMGD2 and atMGD3, but not atMGD1, is strongly induced during phosphate starvation, particularly in roots
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
type B MGDG synthases may have roles during pollen germination and pollen tube growth and may be acting primarily to supply MGDG as a precursor for DGDG synthesis. Expression of atMGD2 and atMGD3, but not atMGD1, is strongly induced during phosphate starvation, particularly in roots
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
MGD activity is reversibly regulated by reduction and oxidation in vitro
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
Q9SM44, -
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
requires the 1,2-isomer of the diglyceride substrate and prefers diglycerides with long-chain-saturated fatty acid constituents
i.e. 1,2-di-O-acyl-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dicaproylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dicaproylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-didecanoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-didecanoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dilauroylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dilauroylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
preferred substrate
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dipalmitoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-distearoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-distearoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-distearoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-distearoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-myristoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-myristoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + sn-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8KFI2
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + sn-1-oleoyl-sn-2-palmitoyl-glycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-sn-1-oleoyl-sn-2-palmitoyl-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8KFI2
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in biosynthesis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of monogalactosyl diglyceride in brain and may function significantly in myelination
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
last step in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol biosynthesis
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
last step in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol biosynthesis
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
in etiolated seedlings white light induces a transient increase in MGD mRNA, followed by a subsequent increase in enzyme activity. When cotyledons were detached from seedlings, these light-induced changes diminished
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
MGDG synthase catalyzes the final step in thylakoid membrane lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, MGDG, biosynthesis in the plastid envelope
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol constitute the bulk of membrane lipids in plant chloroplasts and are essential for chloroplast biogenesis and photoautotrophic growth. Type B monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthases are involved in phosphate starvation-induced lipid remodeling and are crucial for low-phosphate adaptation, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation of MGDGsynthesis by phosphatidic acid, which is a general precursor in the synthesis of all glycerolipids and is also a signaling molecule in plants, binding site for UDP-Gal lays in the cleft separating the two Rossmann folds involving residues of a conserved UDP-sugar binding pocket in the C-domain
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-, Q82730
type B MGDG synthases may have roles during pollen germination and pollen tube growth and may be acting primarily to supply MGDG as a precursor for DGDG synthesis. Expression of atMGD2 and atMGD3, but not atMGD1, is strongly induced during phosphate starvation, particularly in roots
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
type B MGDG synthases may have roles during pollen germination and pollen tube growth and may be acting primarily to supply MGDG as a precursor for DGDG synthesis. Expression of atMGD2 and atMGD3, but not atMGD1, is strongly induced during phosphate starvation, particularly in roots
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
MGD activity is reversibly regulated by reduction and oxidation in vitro
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in biosynthesis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of monogalactosyl diglyceride in brain and may function significantly in myelination
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
last step in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol biosynthesis
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
last step in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol biosynthesis
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
in etiolated seedlings white light induces a transient increase in MGD mRNA, followed by a subsequent increase in enzyme activity. When cotyledons were detached from seedlings, these light-induced changes diminished
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
MGDG synthase catalyzes the final step in thylakoid membrane lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, MGDG, biosynthesis in the plastid envelope
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol constitute the bulk of membrane lipids in plant chloroplasts and are essential for chloroplast biogenesis and photoautotrophic growth. Type B monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthases are involved in phosphate starvation-induced lipid remodeling and are crucial for low-phosphate adaptation, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation of MGDGsynthesis by phosphatidic acid, which is a general precursor in the synthesis of all glycerolipids and is also a signaling molecule in plants
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
addition of cation stimulates, efficiency in descending order: Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, K+, Na+
Co2+
-
addition of cation stimulates, efficiency in descending order: Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, K+, Na+
Fe2+
-
addition of cation stimulates, order of efficiency in descending order: Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, K+, Na+
K+
-
addition of cation stimulates, efficiency in descending order: Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, K+, Na+
Mg2+
-
cation not required; stimulates
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
addition of cation stimulates, efficiency in descending order: Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, K+ , Na+
Mn2+
-
stimulates, cation not required
Mn2+
-
addition of cation stimulates, efficiency in descending order: Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, K+, Na+
Na+
-
addition of cation stimulates, efficiency in descending order: Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, K+, Na+
Ni2+
-
addition of cation stimulates, efficiency in descending order: Mn2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Ca2+, Ni2+, K+, Na+
Zn2+
-
1 mM, stimulation, inhibition at 10 mM
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid
-
0.01 mM, 65% inhibition
citraconic anhydride
-
0.01 and 0.05 mM, 47% and 97% inactivation after 30 min, respectively
Cu2+
-
25 mM, complete inhibition
galvestine-1
-
competitive to diacylglycerol
-
galvestine-2
-
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
0.005-0.1 mM, complete inhibition of solubilized enzyme; 0.5 mM, 57% inhibition
N-ethylmaleimide
-
5 mM, complete inactivation of enzyme in envelope membranes, 0.008 mM, complete inactivation of solubilized enzyme, preincubation with 1,2-dioleoylglycerol protects
N-ethylmaleimide
Q9SM44, -
0.15 mM, 65% inactivation after 10 min, recombinant isoenzyme MGD A, preincubation with diacylglycerol and/or phosphatidylglycerol protects
o-phenanthroline
-
0.1 mM, 55% inhibition, 1,2-dioleoylglycerol protects and activates enzyme
oleic acid
-
0.3 mM, 58% inhibition
tert-butyoxycarbonyl-L-methionine hydrosuccinimidyl ester
-
0.2 mM, almost complete inactivation after 30 min
UDP
-
0.15 mM, 79% inhibition
UDP
-
competitive vs. UDP-galactose
Zn2+
-
10 mM, complete inhibition, stimulation at 1 mM
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
illumination
-
3fold increase of activity in dark-grown seedlings 42 h after illumination
-
myristic acid
-
stimulates
palmitic acid
-
stimulates
phosphatidic acid
-
allosterically activates MGD1, half-maximal activation at about 0.2 mol%. With 0.15 mol% of phosphatidic acid, the enzyme velocity versus substrate curve is sigmoid, whereas with 1.5 mol% of phosphatidic acid, the curve is hyperbolic. MGDG synthase activity of leaf homogenates is dependent on the constant presence of phosphatidic acid, decrease of phosphatidic acid production leads to a decrease of the MGDG synthase activity. Molecular discrimination of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylglycerol binding sites, overview
phosphatidylglycerol
-
best activator of partially purified, delipidated enzyme
phosphatidylinositol
-
activation of partially purified, delipidated enzyme
sulfolipid
-
activation of partially purified, delipidated enzyme
-
Lipid
-
addition of lipids extracted from chloroplast membranes is necessary to reveal activity of highly delipidated enzyme fraction
additional information
-
purified enzyme is not activated by lipids
-
additional information
-
intramolecular disulfide bonds are involved in MGD activation
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1
-
diacylglycerol
-
-
0.0022
-
dilinoleoylglycerol
-
in envelope membrane vesicles
0.02
-
dioleoylglycerol
-
in envelope membrane vesicles, at 0.25 mg/ml protein
0.0183
-
UDP-galactose
-, Q8KFI2
pH 7.8, 30°C
0.04
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.087
-
UDPgalactose
-
cosubstrate dioleoylglycerol
0.1
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.18
-
dioleoylglycerol
-
bulk concentration
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km value for 1,2-dioleyolglycerol and 1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol in mixed micelles and envelope membrane vesicles expressed as mol fractions
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.026
-
UDP
-
UDPgalactose as the varied substrate
0.052
-
UDP
-
dioleoylglycerol as the varied substrate
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.01
-
galvestine-1
-
pH 7.8, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.012
-
galvestine-2
-
pH 7.8, temperature not specified in the publication
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0531
-
-, Q8KFI2
purified His tagged protein, not significantly influenced by phosphatidic acid, pH 7.8, 30°C
7.04
-
-, Q8KFI2
membrane fraction of mgdA expressing Escherichia coli, not significantly influenced by phosphatidic acid, pH 7.8, 30°C
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.3
-
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
isoenzyme mgd A
7
-
-
approx. value
7.5
8.5
Q9SM44, -
recombinant isoenzyme MGD A
7.5
-
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
isoenzyme mgd A
7.8
-
-
assay at
8.5
-
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
isoenzyme mgd C
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5
9
-
55% of maximal activity at pH 5.5, 85% of maximal activity at pH 9.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
-
-
assay at, activity maximum in long-term incubation
50
-
-
activity maximum in short-term incubation
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-, Q82730
high expression of atMGD1::GUS is detected in all green tissues
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cucumis sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O81770
isoenzyme mgd1 is the most important MGDG synthase in green tissues
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, O82730, Q9SI93
isozyme MGD1; isozyme MGD2; isozyme MGD3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, O82730, Q9SI93
isozyme MGD2; isozyme MGD3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in etiolated seedlings white light induces a transient increase in MGD mRNA, followed by a subsequent increase in enzyme activity. When cotyledons are detached from seedlings, these light-induced changes diminish
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cucumis sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, O82730, Q9SI93
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
chloroplast envelope membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
MGD1 is located in the intermembrane space between the outer and the inner envelope and appears to at least partly cross the inner envelope
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
integral membrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
inner and outer membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9SM44, -
inner membrane; monotopic membrane enzyme imbedded within 1 of the 2 leaflets
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O81770
mutant deficient of isoenzyme mgd1 shows abnormal chloroplast development and galactolipid deficiency
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, O82730, Q9SI93
isozyme MGD1 in the inner envelope; isozyme MGD2 in the outer envelope; isozyme MGD3 in the outer envelope
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cucumis sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cucumis sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
import of pMGD1 is reduced by thermolysin pretreatment of chloroplasts
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
22000
-
-
gel filtration
97000
-
Q9SM44, -
inactivation after gamma-ray irradiation
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Q9SM44, -
x * 45000, most likely a dimer, processed mature enzyme, immunoblot; x * 58000, precursor, deduced from nucleotide sequence
?
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
x * 46870, mature isoenzyme mgd A, deduced from nucleotide sequence; x * 52730, mature isoenzyme mgd B, deduced from nucleotide sequence; x * 52860, mature isoenzyme mgd C, deduced from nucleotide sequence
?
-, O82730, Q9SI93
x * 47000, SDS-PAGE; x * 47000, SDS-PAGE; x * 47000, SDS-PAGE
?
Cucumis sp.
-
x * 47000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 22000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
the structure model for an MGD monomer comprises 2 Rossman domains, C- and N-domains
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
dithiothreitol is essential to prevent loss of activity during purification
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
native isozyme from chloroplast envelope membranes from leaf samples; native isozyme from chloroplast envelope membranes from leaf samples; native isozyme from chloroplast envelope membranes from leaf samples
-, O82730, Q9SI93
recombinant wild-type and mutant C-terminally His6-tagged MGD1 from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration
-
immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography
-, Q8KFI2
native isozymes from chloroplast envelope membranes from leaf samples
Cucumis sp.
-
cholate-solubilization, gel filtration, Zn2+-Sepharose affinity chromatography
-
hydroxyapatite, partial purification
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21
-
expression in Escherichia coli; expression in Escherichia coli; expression in Escherichia coli
O81770, O82730, Q9SI93
expression of wild-type and mutant C-terminally His6-tagged MGD1 in Escherichia coli
-
His tagged protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana
-, Q8KFI2
overexpressed in Escherichia coli
-
expression of isoenzyme MGD A in Escherichia coli
Q9SM44, -
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
cytokinins strongly suppress MGD2 expression in the root, regulation, overview; cytokinins strongly suppress MGD3 expression in the root, regulation, overview
-, O82730, Q9SI93
mgd1-1 knockdown does not affect targeting of chloroplast proteins, but increases the photoactive to photoinactive protochlorophyllide ratio, and photoprotective responses are induced. Mutant mgd1-1 cannot withstand high light intensities, apparently due to impairment of another photoprotective mechanism, the xanthophyll cycle, mediated by increased conductivity of the thylakoid membrane leading to a higher pH in the thylakoid interior, which impairs the pH-dependent activation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase and PsbS, phenotype, overview
-
expression of MGD2 is induced by phosphate starvation and hydrogen peroxide treatment. Auxin is required for the Pi starvation-induced expression of MGD2, regulation, overview; expression of MGD3 is induced by phosphate starvation and hydrogen peroxide treatment. Auxin is required for the Pi starvation-induced expression of MGD3, regulation, overview; MGD1 expression is induced by light and cytokinin treatment
-, O82730, Q9SI93
in cucumber seedlings, MGDG synthase activity is strongly increased by treatment with greening-promoting factors such as light and cytokinins
Cucumis sp.
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
P189A
-
the mutant shows wild-type catalytic capability, but modified phosphatidylglycerol binding capability compared to the wild-type enzyme
R260A
-
the mutant shows enhanced activation by phosphatidylglycerol binding, but unaltered activation by phosphatidic acid compared to the wild-type enzyme
W287A
-
the mutant shows wild-type catalytic capability, but modified phosphatidylglycerol binding capability compared to the wild-type enzyme
G430C
B4FBN5, -
naturally occuring mutation, Gly is invariant in vascular plants
G94D
B4FBN5, -
naturally occuring mutation
M144V
B4FBN5, -
naturally occuring mutation, invariant residue, essential for function
D150N
-
the mutant shows enhanced activation by phosphatidylglycerol binding, but unaltered activation by phosphatidic acid compared to the wild-type enzyme
additional information
-
construction of MGD2 and MGD3 mutants, the mgd3-1 mutant shows a drastic reduction in DGDG accumulation, particularly in the root, under Pi-starved conditions, phenotypes, overview
additional information
-
identification of a naturally occuring Arabidopsis MGD1 mutant showing a complete defect in MGDG synthase 1, the mutant seedlings show a lack in galactolipids and disrupted photosynthetic membranes, leading to the complete impairment of photosynthetic ability and photoautotrophic growth, Dwarf and Albino phenotypes, overview
additional information
-, O82730, Q9SI93
isolation of loss-of-function mutant atMGD3. During etiolated growth in darkness, mgd1-2 seedlings show hypocotyl elongation and root growth, although they are smaller than the wild-type; isolation of loss-of-function mutant of atMGD2. During etiolated growth in darkness, mgd1-2 seedlings show hypocotyl elongation and root growth, although they are smaller than the wild-type
additional information
-
construction of a mgd1-1 knockdown mutant, targeting of chloroplast proteins is not affected in mgd1-1 mutants, but in dark-grown mgd1-1 plants the photoactive to photoinactive protochlorophyllide ratio is increased, and photoprotective responses are induced. Mutant mgd1-1 cannot withstand high light intensities, apparently due to impairment of another photoprotective mechanism, steady-state capacity of the xanthophyll cycle is reduced in mgd1-1 mutants mediated by increased conductivity of the thylakoid membrane leading to a higher pH in the thylakoid interior, which impairs the pH-dependent activation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase and PsbS, phenotype, overview. Knockdown mgd1-1 mutant accumulates about 40% less galactolipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol than wild type