Information on EC 2.4.1.242 - NDP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.4.1.242
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
NDP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
NDP-glucose + [(1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n = NDP + [(1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
glycosyl group transfer
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
starch biosynthesis
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Starch and sucrose metabolism
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Metabolic pathways
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
NDP-glucose:(1->4)-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase
Unlike EC 2.4.1.11, glycogen(starch) synthase and EC 2.4.1.21, starch synthase, which use UDP-glucose and ADP-glucose, respectively, this enzyme can use either UDP- or ADP-glucose. Mutants that lack the Wx (waxy) allele cannot produce this enzyme, which plays an important role in the normal synthesis of amylose. In such mutants, only amylopectin is produced in the endosperm [3] or pollen [5].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9031-53-2
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GBSSI
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chenopodium sp.
gene GBSSI
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
red alga
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
waxy in the wx locus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type strain Nippobare and Ilpumbyeogene, and mutant lines Goami2 and ami-BEIIb, a transgenic line with down-regulated SBEIIb, waxy in the wx locus
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
lines B 9307, B Tx630, B TxARG1, B Wheatland, R Tx2907, and R Tx430
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar KPS1
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
developed from an interspecific cross between wheat, Triticum spp., and rye, Secale cereale, var. Blue Alta and AC Ultima
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
ADP-glucose + amylopectin
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
CDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
CDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, 2.5% of the activity with UDP-glucose
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?
dTDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
dTDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
GDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
GDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
GDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
GDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, 28.7% of the activity with UDP-glucose
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?
NDP-glucose + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n
NDP + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
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UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, 10.1% of the activity with UDP-glucose
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?
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
NDP-glucose + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n
NDP + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
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the granule-bound starch synthase from Guillardia theta is demonstrated to be responsible for the synthesis of long glucan chains. Guillardia theta utilizes a UDP-glucose-based pathway to synthesize starch
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?
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
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UDP-glucose is the preferred glucosyl donor, utilized by the UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme
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?
additional information
?
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INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
adenosine
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D-glucose
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D-glucose 1-phosphate
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RNAi
transgenic amylose-free sweet potato plants are produced by using RNAi of the GBSSI gene
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UDP-galactose
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competitive
additional information
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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
citrate
PTST
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protein targeting to starch, PTST, is required for localising granule-bound starch synthase to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module. Enzyme GBSS physically interacts with protein PTST via a coiled coil. The CBM48 domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is also required for correct GBSS localisation
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UDP
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product inhibition of the UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.027 - 4.1
ADP-glucose
0.52
amylopectin
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UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme in presence of 0.5 M citrate
4
dTDP-glucose
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3.9
GDP-glucose
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0.17 - 0.69
glycogen
3.8 - 4.1
UDP-glucose
additional information
additional information
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Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
580
adenosine
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290
D-glucose
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120
D-glucose 1-phosphate
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17
UDP-galactose
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90
uridine
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SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00003
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endosperm
0.00032
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pericarp
0.229
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purified UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme
10
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partially purified isozyme I
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.7 - 8.1
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with substrate glycogen
8.1
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with substrate amylopectin
8.3
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assay at
8.4
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assay at
8.6
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assay at
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5 - 8.5
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with substrate amylopectin, sharp drop of activity below pH 6.5 and more gradually above pH 8.0
7 - 9
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with substrate amylopectin, sharp drop of activity below pH 7.0 and above pH 9.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
35
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assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
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high temperatures enhance GBSS activity on 14 days after anthesis in Yagmai 9, but then reduces GBSS activity significantly after 14 days after anthesis, greater diurnal temperature differences enhances GBSS activity under optimum temperatures, but reduces activity slightly under high temperatures; in Xuzhou 26, high temperature affects GBSS activity slightly on 14 days after anthesis, but reduces GBSS activity on both 21 and 28 days after anthesis, greater diurnal temperature differences enhances GBSS activity under optimum temperatures, but reduces activity slightly under high temperatures
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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on trichilia at the base of the petioles
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
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starch granule-bound
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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mutation of the carbohydrate binding module of plastidial protein PTST causes GBSS to remain in the plastid stroma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
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protein targeting to starch, PTST, is required for localising granule-bound starch synthase to starch granules and for normal amylose synthesis. PTST is a plastidial protein possessing an N-terminal coiled coil domain and a C-terminal carbohydrate binding module, the CBM domain of PTST, which mediates its interaction with starch granules, is required for correct enzyme GBSS localisation. PTST remains in the stroma impliing that it interacts only transiently with starch during the GBSS localisation
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Oryza sativa subsp. japonica
Oryza sativa subsp. japonica
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
55000
SDS-PAGE
58000 - 60000
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sucrose density gradient centrifugation
309000
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three polypeptides of approximate molecular masses of 100, 104 and 105 kDa
580000
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UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
heterotrimer
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monomer
oligomer
tetramer
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4 * 145000, UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, SDS-PAGE
additional information
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
proteolytic modification
the transit peptide of the immature isozyme GBSSI is cleaved off resulting in the mature enzyme
additional information
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant His-tagged GBSSI catalytic domain, residues Met83-Pro609, free or in complex with ADP-glucose, sitting drop vapour diffusion method, mixing of 0.0003 ml of 6 mg/ml protein in 20 mM Tris, pH 8.0, and 0.2 M NaCl, with 0.0003 m of reservoir solution, containing 1.5 M lithium sulfate and 0.1 M HEPES-sodium, pH 7.5, and equilibration against 0.05 ml of reservoir solution, 20°C, 4 weeks, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.7-3.0 A resolution
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
rapid loss of activity of purified UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme within hours
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OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
UDP-glucose utilizing activity is sensitive to oxidative inhibition during extraction, while the ADP-glucose utilizing activity is unaffected
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660292
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ADP-glucose utilizing activity partially, UDP-glucose utilizing activity 368.7fold to homogeneity
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partially from dried starch granules isolated from developing embryos, solubilization with alpha-amylase, and anion chromatography
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partially from lyophilized starch extracted from developing embryos, by anion exchange chromatography
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partially from starch granules of mature seeds, solubilization and SDS-PAGE
recombinant His-tagged GBSSI catalytic domain, residues Met83-Pro609, from Escherichia coli strain BL21 by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration
soluble and starch granule-bound proteins are extracted from developing endosperms
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, genetic organization in the polyploid genome, phylogenetic analysis
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, peptide mapping
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DNA sequence determination and analysis, promotor analysis
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expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
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expression in Escherichia coli
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GBSSI genotyping in Goami 2 mutant line, Goami 2 and the wild-type Ilpumbyeo both carry the Wx allele of the Waxy gene; GBSSI genotyping in wild-type and mutant lines
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GBSSI, DNA sequence determination and analysis, expression in Escherichia coli, complementation of the sta2-1 mutation, phylogenetic tree
gene GBSS, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
gene GBSS-I, sequencing and characterization of the GBSSI alleles GBSSIa or GBSSIb, tetraploid accession, genotyping and expression analysis, phylogenetic analysis
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gene GBSS-I, sequencing and characterization of the GBSSI gene in 18 accessions of Chenopodium, including Andean quinoa and the related Mesoamerican chenopod grain species, Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae Saff. Two distinct homeologues GBSSIa and GBSSIb are identified in the tetraploid accessions, and 19 different alleles are identified, including three null mutants, one in an accession of quinoa and two in a waxy landrace of Chenopodium berlandieri subsp. nuttalliae, genotyping and expression analysis, phylogenetic analysis
Chenopodium sp.
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gene GBSSII-1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
gene GBSSII-1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-3, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
gene MaGBSSI-1, located along chromosome 3, cloned from fruit, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree; gene MaGBSSI-2, located along chromosome 3, cloned from fruit, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree; gene MaGBSSI-3, located along chromosome 3, cloned from fruit, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree; gene MaGBSSI-4, located on chromosome 9, cloned from fruit, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree; gene MaGBSSII-1, located on chromosome 4, cloned from fruit, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree; gene MaGBSSII-2, located on chromosome 8, cloned from fruit, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis and tree
gene waxy, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic structure, phylogenetic analysis; gene wx, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic structure, phylogenetic analysis
granule-bound starch synthase I gene or Waxy gene, alleles can be classified into seven groups that reflect differences in apparent amylose content, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression analysis
identification of 3 waxy gene homologues in the hexaploid wheat located on chromosomes 7A, 4A, and 7D, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, phylogenetic tree, overview; identification of 3 waxy gene homologues in the hexaploid wheat located on chromosomes 7A, 4A, and 7D, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, phylogenetic tree, overview; identification of 3 waxy gene homologues in the hexaploid wheat located on chromosomes 7A, 4A, and 7D, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, phylogenetic tree, overview
into the vector pUC18 and the binary plasmid pCAM35SBar
overexpression of the His-tagged GBSSI catalytic domain, residues Met83-Pro609, in Escherichia coli strain BL21
recombinant expression of C-terminally HA and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) tandem tagged wild-type nd mutant enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves via Agrobactrium tumefaciens transformation and in Nicotiana tabacum epidermal cells. Wild-type GBSS enzyme is only detected in the immunoprecipitate when TAP-tagged PTST is coexpressed, confirming the protein-protein interaction
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
analysis of 352 Vietnamese rice cultivars reveals a wide range of variation in apparent amylose content and the expression level of granule-bound starch synthase I. Alleles can be classified into seven groups that reflect differences in apparent amylose content. The very low and low apparent amylose content levels are tightly associated with a G to T in the first intron whereas intermediate and high amylose is associated with a T genotype at a single-nucleotide polymorphism in exon 10. The correlation between the combination of T genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphism in the first intron, C in exon 6, or C in exon 10 is predominant among low amylose rice varieties. The low amylose properties of Vietnamese local rice germplasm are attributable to spontaneous mutations at exons, and not at the splicing donor site
GBSS activities decline significantly at the late grain-filling stage under rainfed conditions
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GBSS activity is highest 28 days after anthesis
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maximal expression of granule-bound starch synthase occurs in mid-stage of endosperm development, GBSS activity of Wanjing 9522 grains increases after anthesis and reaches ist maximal activity at day 18 and keeps this high level for about 6 days, and then decreases steadily
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the GBSS activity in grains of two kernel types shows a similar pattern throughout the filling period, i.e. reaches the highest peak at 28 days after anthesis and then decreases rapidly
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the starch associated SSIIa protein content is negatively correlated with the fraction of chains with DP6-11 and short chain ratio
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the starch associated SSIIa protein content is positively correlated with gelatinization temperature and level of amylopectin chains with degree of polymerization 12-24
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the transcript encoding granule-bound starch synthase GBSS1 accumulates to a higher level in carbon catabolite repressor CCR4a/CCR4b double mutant plants than in the control plants. GBSS1 has a longer poly(A) tail in the double mutant than in the control plant, suggesting that CCR4a and CCR4b can influence the poly(A) length of transcripts related to starch metabolism
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
D165G
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the mutation has no detectable effect on GBSSI activity in vitro, however, it notably reduces the binding of GBSSI to starch granules, resulting in a reduction of amylose content in rice seeds
Q268H
the mutation results in the phenotype described as waxy
A258T
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construction of a waxy mutant wheat by exchange of alanine to threonine, the mutant shows reduced isozyme GBSSI activity, but no reduction in amylose content
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
analysis
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based on a generated monoclonal antibody, a high throughput ELISA is developed that allows the quick idenification of wheat lines carrying the 7A allele of GBSS1 with minute amounts of sample
nutrition
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serum from patients allergic to maize shows IgE binding to a 56 kDa protein present in both maize and rice, that is abundant in the rice endosperm. The protein is identical with granule-bound starch synthase, a product of the Waxy gene. In a Waxy mutant of rice, the IgE-binding protein is absent. Waxy mutants of rice may be a potential source of hypoallergenic diet for patients sensitized to the 56 kDa rice allergen