Information on EC 2.4.1.242 - NDP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.242
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
NDP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
NDP-glucose + [(1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n = NDP + [(1->4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
glycosyl group transfer
B7EHV0
-
glycosyl group transfer
Q42857
-
glycosyl group transfer
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
starch biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
NDP-glucose:(1->4)-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase
Unlike EC 2.4.1.11, glycogen(starch) synthase and EC 2.4.1.21, starch synthase, which use UDP-glucose and ADP-glucose, respectively, this enzyme can use either UDP- or ADP-glucose. Mutants that lack the Wx (waxy) allele cannot produce this enzyme, which plays an important role in the normal synthesis of amylose. In such mutants, only amylopectin is produced in the endosperm [3] or pollen [5].
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
GBSS
H6VVJ0, H6VVJ1
-
GBSS
-, B2LUN5, B2LUN6
-
GBSS
B5THH5, C0KH22
-
GBSS
-
-
GBSS
H6VVJ2, H6VVJ3
-
GBSS
Q43134
-
GBSS1
-
GBSS1 exists in three isoforms, Wx-4A, Wx-7A, Wx-7D
GBSS3
G9FPD1
-
GBSSI
Q42857
-
GBSSI
B7EHV0
-
GBSSI
Oryza sativa indica
-
-
-
GBSSI
-
-
GBSSI
P04713
-
granule bound starch synthase
-
-
granule bound starch synthase I
B7EHV0
-
granule-bound SSIIa protein
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
Q9MAQ0
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
H6VVJ0, H6VVJ1
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
B5THH5, C0KH22
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
H6VVJ2, H6VVJ3
-
granule-bound starch synthase
Q43134
-
granule-bound starch synthase
Q9S7N5, Q9SXK3, Q9SXK4
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase 1
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
O64925
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
Q42857
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
B7EHV0
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
Oryza sativa indica
-
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase I
P04713
-
granule-bound starch synthase I gene
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase Ia
B2LUN5, G9FPD1
-
granule-bound starch synthase Ib
B2LUN6
-
NDP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase
Q42857
-
NDP-glucose-starch glucosyltransferase
B7EHV0
-
NDPglucose-starch glucosyltransferase
-
-
SSIIa protein
-
-
starch synthase II
-
-
starch synthase II
-
-
starch synthase IIa
-
-
starch-granule-bound starch synthase
-
-
UDPGlc: starch synthase
-
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Waxy protein
B5THH5, C0KH22
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Waxy protein
B7EHV0
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Waxy protein
Q43134
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Waxy protein
-
-
Wx protein
-
-
Wx protein
-
-
Wx-A1
-
isoform
Wx-B1
-
isoform
Wx-D1
-
isoform
Wx-D1 protein
-
-
granule-bound starch synthase II
-
-
additional information
-
the 56-kDa protein is an isozyme of the waxy protein in diploid wheat and belongs to the GBSSI family
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9031-53-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
accession KU5754, several genes in the tetraploid genome, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
accession GU1419, several genes in the tetraploid genome, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
accession KU5702C, several genes in the tetraploid genome, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
accession KU20-9, several genes in the polyploid genome, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ecotype Columbia, single copy GBSSI gene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GBSS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
complete cDNA
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
different genotypes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GBSSII-1; gene GBSSII-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GBSSII-2; gene GBSSII-2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Kokei 14
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GBSSII-1; gene GBSSII-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GBSSII-2; gene GBSSII-2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GBSSII-3; gene GBSSII-3
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GBSSII-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
varieties Meirenhong and Elian, gene Waxy
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
varieties Meirenhong and Elian, gene Wx
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Wanjing 9522
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Oryza sativa subsp. japonica
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. japonica
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
variety Haopi
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
waxy in the wx locus; wild-type strain Nippobare and Ilpumbyeogene, and mutant lines Goami2 and ami-BEIIb, a transgenic line with down-regulated SBEIIb, waxy in the wx locus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Oryza sativa indica
waxy in the wx locus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 isozymes GBSSI and GBSSII in wild-type plants, isozyme GBSSI in rug5 mutant, and isozyme GBSSII in lam mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene SSII at the rug5 locus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
round-seeded var. Alaska, 2 isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GBSSII-1; gene GBSSII-1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GBSSII-2; gene GBSSII-2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
lines B 9307, B Tx630, B TxARG1, B Wheatland, R Tx2907, and R Tx430
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 accessions N7D/T7B and N7A/T7B, several genes in the polyploid genome, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Yangmai 9 and Xuzhou 26
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Morikei CD-1479 and Chinese Spring, i.e. waxy wheat, 2 isozymes GBSSI, i.e. the waxy protein, and GBSSII
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Wx-4A; cv. Chinese Spring, 3 waxy genes in the hexaploid wheat
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Wx-7A; cv. Chinese Spring, 3 waxy genes in the hexaploid wheat
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene Wx-7D; cv. Chinese Spring, nullisomic-tetrasomic lines, 3 waxy genes in the hexaploid wheat
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
hexaploid lines
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
accession KU105, several genes in the diploid genome, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Stewart, several genes in the polyploid genome, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
accessions KU105 and KU199-1, several genes in the diploid genome, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar KPS1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
developed from an interspecific cross between wheat, Triticum spp., and rye, Secale cereale, var. Blue Alta and AC Ultima
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
Q9MAQ0
diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview
evolution
H6VVJ0, H6VVJ1
diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview; diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview
evolution
B2LUN5, B2LUN6, G9FPD1, -
diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview; diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview; diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview; diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview
evolution
H6VVJ2, H6VVJ3, -
diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview; diversification of GBSS genes in plants, overview
malfunction
Q43134
loss of GBSS activity results in starch granules containing mostly amylopectin and little or no amylose (phenotype waxy)
malfunction
-
waxy wheat, which accumulates amylose-free starch, is developed by the elimination of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI),1 which is responsible for amylose synthesis in endosperm tissue. Starch of Wx wheat shows a modified gelatinization curve, with a lower gelatinization onset temperature, higher peak viscosity, and lower setback compared to wild-type wheat
physiological function
Q43134
responsible for amylose synthesis in starch granules
physiological function
-
key enzyme responsible for the amylose synthesis in kernel starch granules and in non-storage tissue
physiological function
-
GBSS is responsible for the biosynthesis of the amylose
physiological function
-
GBSS1 is the key enzyme in amylose synthesis and exclusively controls all enzyme activities in this pathway, overview. GBSS1 activity is increased compared to wild-type when soluble starch synthases SS2 and SS1 are missing, and the total amount of amylose in the leaves is elevated, SS1 and SS2 activity both can influence the activity of GBSS1
physiological function
B7EHV0
the waxy protein GBSSI, encoded by the wx locus, is an enzyme essential for amylose synthesis
physiological function
-
granule-bound starch synthase I, GBSSI, which is responsible for amylose synthesis in endosperm tissue
physiological function
H6VVJ0, H6VVJ1
expression of GBSS genes is likely related to starch accumulation in fruit; expression of GBSS genes is likely related to starch accumulation in fruit
physiological function
B2LUN5, B2LUN6, G9FPD1, -
expression of GBSS genes is likely related to starch accumulation in fruit; expression of GBSS genes is likely related to starch accumulation in fruit; expression of GBSS genes is likely related to starch accumulation in fruit; expression of GBSS genes is likely related to starch accumulation in fruit
physiological function
H6VVJ2, H6VVJ3, -
expression of GBSS genes is likely related to starch accumulation in fruit; expression of GBSS genes is likely related to starch accumulation in fruit
metabolism
-
relationships among amylose and amylopectin accumulation and enzyme activities related to starch synthesis, involving GBSS, overview
additional information
B7EHV0
three-dimensional structures of free and ADP-glucose bound catalytic domain, overview
additional information
-
differences in the debranched starch molecular size distribution between Ilpumbyeo and Goami 2 are similar between Nipponbare and ami-BEIIb, a transgenic line with downregulated SBEIIb; differences in the debranched starch molecular size distribution between indica variety IR36 and its SBEIIb mutant, IR36ae, which has more amylose chains than IR36 due to more active GBSSI
additional information
Oryza sativa indica
-
differences in the debranched starch molecular size distribution between Ilpumbyeo and Goami 2 are similar between Nipponbare and ami-BEIIb, a transgenic line with downregulated SBEIIb; differences in the debranched starch molecular size distribution between indica variety IR36 and its SBEIIb mutant, IR36ae, which has more amylose chains than IR36 due to more active GBSSI
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme shows similar affinities for ADP and UDP-glucose, while the Vmax measured with UDP-glucose is twofold higher
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
Q00775
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-, Q42857
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
ADP-glucose is almost 9fold less effective than UDP-glucose, utilized by the ADP-glucose utilizing enzyme
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
O64925
i.e. starch, composition of starch granule, including amylopectin, amylose, A-type and B-type crystals
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
the Waxy protein and the granule-bound starch synthase are identical
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
the waxy protein and the granule-bound starch synthase are not identical
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
ADP-glucose is almost 9fold less effective than UDP-glucose, utilized by the ADP-glucose utilizing enzyme and UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, the latter shows 3.8% activity compared to UDP-glucose
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. starch
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
O64925
i.e. starch
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for the granule-bound enzyme are starch granules
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + amylopectin
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + amylopectin
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
CDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
CDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, 2.5% of the activity with UDP-glucose
-
-
?
dTDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
dTDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
GDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
NDP-glucose + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n
NDP + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
NDP-glucose + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n
NDP + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
B7EHV0
-
-
-
?
NDP-glucose + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n
NDP + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Q42857
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, 10.1% of the activity with UDP-glucose
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
the granule-bound starch synthase from Guillardia theta is demonstrated to be responsible for the synthesis of long glucan chains. Guillardia theta utilizes a UDP-glucose-based pathway to synthesize starch, the enzyme shows similar affinities for ADP and UDP-glucose, while the Vmax measured with UDP-glucose is twofold higher
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
UDP-glucose is the preferred glucosyl donor, utilized by the UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity with ADP-glucose
-
-
?
GDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
GDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, 28.7% of the activity with UDP-glucose
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
O64925
decreased amylose synthesis activity and altered starch granule morphology during nitrogen starvation, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is involved in the starch synthesis pathway synthesizing the amylose component, putative mechanism of regulation of GBSSI gene in photosynthetic tissue assuring the steady-state level of the isozyme, circadian oscillations of the mRNA level in leaves during day/night cycle, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme GBSSI synthesizes the amylose component of starch, while isozyme GBSSII does not, due to kinetic differences
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme GBSSII has an important function in amylose synthesis in the pericarp of seeds
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of B2 and B3 chains of amylopectin in pea
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme GBSSI in isolated starch granules elongates malto-oligosaccharides progressively, adding more than one glucose molecule for each enzyme-glucan encounter, isozyme GBSSII also elongates malto-oligosaccharides but with lower affinity and not progressively
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
most effective primer of the reaction is amylopectin, 16% activity with glycogen compared to amylopectin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the 56-kDa protein is an isozyme of the waxy protein in diploid wheat and belongs to the GBSSI family
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme requires the presence of crystalline amylopectin for granule binding and production of amylose, while unbound enzyme occuring in debranching enzyme mutants are only capable to synthesize amylose-like material
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme shows broad primer specificity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme gains most of its substrate affinity through electrostatic interactions between the enzyme and the alpha-phosphate. No activity with UDP-galactose, no phosphorylase activity
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
Q00775
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-, Q42857
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
ADP-glucose is almost 9fold less effective than UDP-glucose, utilized by the ADP-glucose utilizing enzyme
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
O64925
i.e. starch, composition of starch granule, including amylopectin, amylose, A-type and B-type crystals
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
the Waxy protein and the granule-bound starch synthase are identical
-
-
?
NDP-glucose + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n
NDP + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
NDP-glucose + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n
NDP + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
B7EHV0
-
-
-
?
NDP-glucose + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n
NDP + [(1-4)-alpha-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Q42857
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
the granule-bound starch synthase from Guillardia theta is demonstrated to be responsible for the synthesis of long glucan chains. Guillardia theta utilizes a UDP-glucose-based pathway to synthesize starch
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
UDP-glucose is the preferred glucosyl donor, utilized by the UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme
-
-
?
ADP-glucose + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n
ADP + (1,4-alpha-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
the waxy protein and the granule-bound starch synthase are not identical
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
O64925
decreased amylose synthesis activity and altered starch granule morphology during nitrogen starvation, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is involved in the starch synthesis pathway synthesizing the amylose component, putative mechanism of regulation of GBSSI gene in photosynthetic tissue assuring the steady-state level of the isozyme, circadian oscillations of the mRNA level in leaves during day/night cycle, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme GBSSI synthesizes the amylose component of starch, while isozyme GBSSII does not, due to kinetic differences
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isozyme GBSSII has an important function in amylose synthesis in the pericarp of seeds
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of B2 and B3 chains of amylopectin in pea
-
-
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
RNAi
Q42857
transgenic amylose-free sweet potato plants are produced by using RNAi of the GBSSI gene
-
UDP-galactose
-
competitive
D-glucose 1-phosphate
-
-
additional information
-
inhibition of activity by a specific antibody
-
additional information
-
UDP-glucose utilizing activity is sensitive to proteolytic inhibition during extraction, while the ADP-glucose utilizing activity is unaffected
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
citrate
-
stimulates the enzyme activity in presence of a primer
citrate
-
stimulates the UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme
UDP
-
product inhibition of the UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2.7
-
ADP-glucose
-
55°C, pH 6.5
4.1
-
ADP-glucose
-
-
0.52
-
Amylopectin
-
UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme in presence of 0.5 M citrate
4
-
dTDP-glucose
-
-
3.9
-
GDP-glucose
-
-
0.17
-
glycogen
-
UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme in presence of 0.5 M citrate
3.8
-
UDP-glucose
-
55°C, pH 6.5
4.1
-
UDP-glucose
-
-
0.69
-
glycogen
-
UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme in absence of citrate
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of isozymes
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
580
-
adenosine
-
-
290
-
D-glucose
-
-
120
-
D-glucose 1-phosphate
-
-
17
-
UDP-galactose
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.00003
-
-
endosperm
0.00032
-
-
pericarp
0.229
-
-
purified UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme
10
-
-
partially purified isozyme I
additional information
-
-
starch synthase and malto-oligosaccharide elongation activities of isozymes, overview
additional information
-
-
enzyme activity in wild-type and rug-a mutant developing embryos, overview
additional information
-
-
UDP-glucose utilizing and ADP-glucose utilizing activities in different cell fractions and with different primer substrate, overview
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.7
8.1
-
with substrate glycogen
7.5
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
-
GBSS enzyme assay
8.1
-
-
with substrate amylopectin
8.3
-
-
assay at
8.4
-
-
assay at
8.5
-
-
assay at
8.5
-
-
assay at
8.6
-
-
assay at
9
-
O64925
assay at
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
8.5
-
with substrate amylopectin, sharp drop of activity below pH 6.5 and more gradually above pH 8.0
7
9
-
with substrate amylopectin, sharp drop of activity below pH 7.0 and above pH 9.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
-
assay at
25
-
-
assay at
30
-
O64925
assay at
30
-
-
assay at
30
-
-
assay at
30
-
-
GBSS enzyme assay
35
-
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
-
high temperatures enhance GBSS activity on 14 days after anthesis in Yagmai 9, but then reduces GBSS activity significantly after 14 days after anthesis, greater diurnal temperature differences enhances GBSS activity under optimum temperatures, but reduces activity slightly under high temperatures; in Xuzhou 26, high temperature affects GBSS activity slightly on 14 days after anthesis, but reduces GBSS activity on both 21 and 28 days after anthesis, greater diurnal temperature differences enhances GBSS activity under optimum temperatures, but reduces activity slightly under high temperatures
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
of immature seed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
H6VVJ0, H6VVJ1
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B2LUN5, B2LUN6, G9FPD1, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
H6VVJ2, H6VVJ3, -
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme GBSSII
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B5THH5, C0KH22
he Wx gene is expressed at a higher level in the rhizomes of cultivar Meirenhong than in those of cultivar Elian 4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q42857
storage root
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q42857
tuberous root
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
starch granule
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
starch granules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme activities of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, souble starch synthases, granule-bound starch synthase, and starch-branching enzyme show single-peak curves in both Blue Alta and AC Ultima varieties with the highest peak occurring during the middle to late grain filling period
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Oryza sativa indica
-
starch granules
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
tissue-specific expression of isozymes GBSSI and GBSSII in different organs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
plants are grown under a 16 h light/8 h dark regime
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
enzyme is bound to starch granules in wild-type cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
the 2 isozymes, the 56-kDa protein and the waxy protein, are expressed in different seed tissues and at different stages of seed development, overview, enzyme is bound to starch granules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
spatio-temporal pattern of starch deposition
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
B5THH5, C0KH22
expression pattern, overview; expression pattern, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
starch granule-bound
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P04713
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q43134
starch granule
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B7EHV0
starch granule
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Oryza sativa subsp. japonica
Oryza sativa subsp. japonica
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
55000
-
P04713
SDS-PAGE
58000
60000
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation
58000
-
-
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
58000
-
P04713
calculated from sequence of cDNA
60000
-
Q42857
determined by SDS-PAGE
60000
-
Q00775
about 60000 Da, SDS-PAGE
60000
-
-
about 60000 Da, SDS-PAGE
309000
-
-
three polypeptides of approximate molecular masses of 100, 104 and 105 kDa
580000
-
-
UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 59000, isozyme GBSSII, SDS-PAGE, x * 61000, isozyme GBSSI, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 59200, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 59100, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 59000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 59200, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 60000, about, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 59500, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 60000, about, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 59400, SDS-PAGE
?
O64925
x * 76000, immature wild-type GBSSI, SDS-PAGE, x * 69000, mature wild-type GBSSI, SDS-PAGE, x * 58000, truncated mutant sta2-1, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 77000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 56000, the 56-kDa protein, SDS-PAGE, x * 59500, the waxy protein, SDS-PAGE
?
B7EHV0
x * 59000, recombinant His-tagged catalytic domain comprising residues Met83-Pro609, SDS-PAGE
heterotrimer
-
-
tetramer
-
4 * 145000, UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 60000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
peptide mapping, protein sequencing
additional information
-
the enzyme requires the presence of crystalline amylopectin for granule binding
additional information
-
minor bands of 57 kDa and 92 kDa are recognized by the specific antibody
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
proteolytic modification
O64925
the transit peptide of the immature isozyme GBSSI is cleaved off resulting in the mature enzyme
additional information
Q9S7N5, Q9SXK3, Q9SXK4
immature enzyme contains a transit peptide; immature enzyme contains a transit peptide; immature enzyme contains a transit peptide
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
recombinant His-tagged GBSSI catalytic domain, residues Met83-Pro609, free or in complex with ADP-glucose, sitting drop vapour diffusion method, mixing of 0.0003 ml of 6 mg/ml protein in 20 mM Tris, pH 8.0, and 0.2 M NaCl, with 0.0003 m of reservoir solution, containing 1.5 M lithium sulfate and 0.1 M HEPES-sodium, pH 7.5, and equilibration against 0.05 ml of reservoir solution, 20°C, 4 weeks, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.7-3.0 A resolution
B7EHV0
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
rapid loss of activity of purified UDP-glucose utilizing enzyme within hours
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-glucose utilizing activity is sensitive to oxidative inhibition during extraction, while the ADP-glucose utilizing activity is unaffected
-
660292
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
partially from starch granules of mature seeds, solubilization and SDS-PAGE
-
ADP-glucose utilizing activity partially, UDP-glucose utilizing activity 368.7fold to homogeneity
-
recombinant His-tagged GBSSI catalytic domain, residues Met83-Pro609, from Escherichia coli strain BL21 by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration
B7EHV0
partially from dried starch granules isolated from developing embryos, solubilization with alpha-amylase, and anion chromatography
-
partially from lyophilized starch extracted from developing embryos, by anion exchange chromatography
-
partially from starch granules of mature seeds, solubilization and SDS-PAGE
-
soluble and starch granule-bound proteins are extracted from developing endosperms
-
partially from starch granules of mature seeds, solubilization and SDS-PAGE
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, genetic organization in the polyploid genome, phylogenetic analysis
-
DNA sequence determination and analysis, promotor analysis
-
gene GBSS, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
Q9MAQ0
GBSSI, DNA sequence determination and analysis, expression in Escherichia coli, complementation of the sta2-1 mutation, phylogenetic tree
O64925
gene GBSSII-1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
H6VVJ0, H6VVJ1
into the vector pUC18 and the binary plasmid pCAM35SBar
Q42857
gene GBSSII-1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-3, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
B2LUN5, B2LUN6, G9FPD1, -
gene waxy, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic structure, phylogenetic analysis; gene wx, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic structure, phylogenetic analysis
B5THH5, C0KH22
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
GBSSI genotyping in Goami 2 mutant line, Goami 2 and the wild-type Ilpumbyeo both carry the Wx allele of the Waxy gene; GBSSI genotyping in wild-type and mutant lines
-
overexpression of the His-tagged GBSSI catalytic domain, residues Met83-Pro609, in Escherichia coli strain BL21
B7EHV0
gene GBSSII-1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GBSSII-2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
H6VVJ2, H6VVJ3, -
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, genetic organization in the polyploid genome, phylogenetic analysis
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, peptide mapping
-
identification of 3 waxy gene homologues in the hexaploid wheat located on chromosomes 7A, 4A, and 7D, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, phylogenetic tree, overview; identification of 3 waxy gene homologues in the hexaploid wheat located on chromosomes 7A, 4A, and 7D, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, phylogenetic tree, overview; identification of 3 waxy gene homologues in the hexaploid wheat located on chromosomes 7A, 4A, and 7D, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, phylogenetic tree, overview
Q9S7N5, Q9SXK3, Q9SXK4
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, gene structure, genetic organization in the polyploid genome, phylogenetic analysis
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
the starch associated SSIIa protein content is negatively correlated with the fraction of chains with DP6-11 and short chain ratio
-
maximal expression of granule-bound starch synthase occurs in mid-stage of endosperm development, GBSS activity of Wanjing 9522 grains increases after anthesis and reaches ist maximal activity at day 18 and keeps this high level for about 6 days, and then decreases steadily
-
the starch associated SSIIa protein content is positively correlated with gelatinization temperature and level of amylopectin chains with degree of polymerization 12-24
-
GBSS activities decline significantly at the late grain-filling stage under rainfed conditions
-
the GBSS activity in grains of two kernel types shows a similar pattern throughout the filling period, i.e. reaches the highest peak at 28 days after anthesis and then decreases rapidly
-
GBSS activity is highest 28 days after anthesis
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Q268H
Q43134
the mutation results in the phenotype described as waxy
additional information
-
construction of transgenic plants overexpressing the transcription factor CCA1 that show an altered circadian rhythm, overexpression of both transcription factor CCA1 and LHY causes elimination of mRNA level oscillation
additional information
-
construction of diverse soluble starch synthases ss mutants, with or without mutation of GBSS1, e.g. gbss1- ss2-double mutant and gbss1- ss1- ss2-triple mutant, waxy gene, phenotypes, overview
additional information
O64925
the sta2-29::ARG7 mutation causes loss of GBSSI activity, the Sta2-1 mutation results in production of a truncated 58 kDa GBSSI isozyme
additional information
-
construction of glycogen-accumulating debranching enzyme mutants, lacking amylopectin synthesis activity, which contain an unbound GBSSI form synthesizing insoluble starch-like polysaccharides with an altered structure
D165G
-
the mutation has no detectable effect on GBSSI activity in vitro, however, it notably reduces the binding of GBSSI to starch granules, resulting in a reduction of amylose content in rice seeds
additional information
-
identification of 3 mutations, mutation rug-a introduces a stop codon in the gene SSII of the rug5 locus encoding starch synthase II, which causes a dramatic loss of enzyme activity and profoundly alters amylopectin structure in pea embryos, overview
A258T
-
construction of a waxy mutant wheat by exchange of alanine to threonine, the mutant shows reduced isozyme GBSSI activity, but no reduction in amylose content
additional information
-
waxy wheat, which accumulates amylose-free starch, is developed by the elimination of granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI),1 which is responsible for amylose synthesis in endosperm tissue
additional information
-
construction of a waxy mutant which shows no enzyme activity in endosperm but in all other seed tissues
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
agriculture
Q42857
the RNAi is an effective method to inhibit the gene expression in the starch metabolic pathway and be useful technology for genetic improvement of crops
analysis
-
based on a generated monoclonal antibody, a high throughput ELISA is developed that allows the quick idenification of wheat lines carrying the 7A allele of GBSS1 with minute amounts of sample