Information on EC 2.3.1.87 - aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.3.1.87
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
ordered bi-bi sequential mechanism
-
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
catalytic reaction mechanism, overview
-
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
Drosophila melanogaster AANAT2
-
-
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine = CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Acyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Metabolic pathways
-
serotonin and melatonin biosynthesis
-
Tryptophan metabolism
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
acetyl-CoA:2-arylethylamine N-acetyltransferase
Narrow specificity towards 2-arylethylamines, including serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), tryptamine, 5-methoxytryptamine and phenylethylamine. This is the penultimate enzyme in the production of melatonin (5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine) and controls its synthesis (cf. EC 2.1.1.4, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase). Differs from EC 2.3.1.5 arylamine N-acetyltransferase.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
AA-NAT
-
-
-
-
AA-NAT
G5EDH7
-
AA-NAT
Caenorhabditis elegans TJ1060
G5EDH7
-
-
AA-NAT
P79774
-
AA-NAT
Q64666
-
AANAT
-
-
-
-
AANAT
Q16KL9
-
AANAT
-
-
AANAT
A0EM56
-
AANAT
-
-
AANAT1
Q6V7J8
-
AANAT1
-
-
AANAT1
Q68SL7
-
AANAT2
Q16KL9
-
AANAT2
Q9PT39
-
AANAT2
Q68SL6
-
AANAT2
-
-
acetyl-CoA:aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
-
-
acetyltransferase, arylalkylamine N-
-
-
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 1
Q6V7J8
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 1
Q68SL7
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2
Q16KL9
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity
-
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity
-
-
Bm-iAANAT
A0EM56, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
-
N-acetyltransferase
-
-
-
-
NAT
Q64666
-
PaaNAT
-
-
serotonin acetylase
-
-
-
-
serotonin acetylase
P79774
-
serotonin acetyltransferase
-
-
-
-
serotonin N-acetyltransferase
Q16KL9
-
serotonin N-acetyltransferase
-
-
serotonin N-acetyltransferase
-
-
serotonin-N-acetyltransferase
Q68SL6, Q68SL7
-
SNAT
Q16KL9
-
hAANAT
-
-
additional information
-
AANAT is a member of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase, GNAT, superfamily of acetyltransferases
additional information
-
evolution of AANAT subtypes in vertebrates, overview
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
92941-56-5
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
aaNAT1-4, aaNAT5b, aaNAT7, aaNAT9, and aaNAT11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase long mutant, i.e. arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase type 2 protein
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase short mutant, i.e. arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 protein
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase wild-type; strains Dazao and C108
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
collected from NGM plates seeded with Escherichia coli NA22
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Caenorhabditis elegans TJ1060
collected from NGM plates seeded with Escherichia coli NA22
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cDNA-coded arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Drosophila melanogaster AANAT2
AANAT2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Esox sp.
light regulation of circadian rhythm in melatonin secretion
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; embryo, light-dark regulation of enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Caucasian population
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
giant freshwater prawn
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
human filarial parasite
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, fused and cleaved form
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cockroach, two isoforms
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
regulated by a daily photocycle
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fischer
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Long Evans cinnamon
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
regulation by circadian clock at posttranscriptional level
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Fischer
Fischer
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
light regulation of circadian rhythm in melatonin secretion
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
collected from an apple, Malus pumila, cv. Fuji, orchard at Akita, Japan
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
trout
light regulation of circadian rhythm in melatonin secretion
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
-
AANAT2 evolution is mainly driven by phylogenetic relationships although catalytic properties (enzyme turnover and substrate affinity) are also under the influence of the respective species normal habitat temperature
evolution
-, Q16KL9
evolution of insect arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases, structural evidence from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, overview
malfunction
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
the abnormal Bm-iAANAT is responsible for the mln mutant, phenotype, overview. The content of dopamine in the mln mutant is about 2times higher than in the wild-type. A greater accumulation of dopamine results from the functional deficiency of Bm-iAANAT in the mutant and that the excessive dopamine is converted into dopamine melanin, causing the darker color pattern of the sclerified regions in the mln mutant compared with the wild-type; the abnormal Bm-iAANAT is responsible for the mln mutant, phenotype, overview. The content of dopamine in the mln mutant is about 2times higher than in the wild-type. A greater accumulation of dopamine results from the functional deficiency of Bm-iAANAT in the mutant and that the excessive dopamine is converted into dopamine melanin, causing the darker color pattern of the sclerified regions in the mln mutant compared with the wild-type
metabolism
-
the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step in melatonin synthesis, melatonin biosynthesis pathway overview
metabolism
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first step in melatonin biosynthesis, melatonin biosynthesis follows a 24 h day and night rhythm, which is different in fasted, fed, and refed fish, overview
metabolism
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first step in melatonin biosynthesis, melatonin biosynthesis follows a 24 h day and night rhythm, which is different in fasted, fed, and refed fish, overview
metabolism
-
the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step in melatonin synthesis
metabolism
-
the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step in melatonin synthesis
metabolism
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase is the rate-limiting enzyme of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway
physiological function
-
the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step in melatonin synthesis, melatonin is a hormone acting as a synchronizer for the circadian system, overview. Evolution of the pineal gland and the circadian system involving melatonin, overview
physiological function
-
AANAT is a key circadian rhythm enzyme that drives the nocturnal production of melatonin in the pineal
physiological function
-
Aanat2 is the main enzyme responsible of the plasma nocturnal melatonin increase in the fish
physiological function
-
the melatonin synthetic enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase is a significant element in a possible reactive oxygen species removal system. UV signals initiate melatonin synthesis for reactive oxgene species removal in mites
physiological function
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferases play a role in color pattern mutation in Lepidoptera, the BmiAANAT gene plays an essential role in the pigment metabolism in silkworm; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferases play a role in color pattern mutation in Lepidoptera, the BmiAANAT gene plays an essential role in the pigment metabolism in silkworm; arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferases play a role in color pattern mutation in Lepidoptera, the BmiAANAT gene plays an essential role in the pigment metabolism in silkworm
physiological function
-
serotonin N-acetyltransferase is responsible for the production of N-acetylserotonin, an intermediate of melatonin biosynthesis. Melatonin, i.e. N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, has multiple functions in vertebrates, including the regulation of circadian rhythms and photoperiodism. Plant melatonin is involved in cold stress
physiological function
G5EDH7
melatonin influences circadian rhythms and seasonal behavioral changes in vertebrates, it is synthesized from serotonin by N-acetylation by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and O-methylation by N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.4
physiological function
-
arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 is the enzyme responsible for the rhythmic production of the time-keeping hormone melatonin. It plays a crucial role in the synchronization of biological functions with changes in the environment. Annual and daily fluctuations in light are known to be key environmental factors involved in such synchronization. AANAT2 activity is also markedly influenced by temperature
physiological function
-, Q16KL9
aaNATs are involved in sclerotization and neurotransmitter inactivation in insects
physiological function
Caenorhabditis elegans TJ1060
-
melatonin influences circadian rhythms and seasonal behavioral changes in vertebrates, it is synthesized from serotonin by N-acetylation by arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and O-methylation by N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.4
-
metabolism
-
serotonin N-acetyltransferase is a rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis in vertebrates
additional information
G5EDH7
under light-dark conditions, a rhythmic pattern of melatonin levels occurs with higher levels toward the middle of the night, peaking at zeitgeber time ZT18, and with a minimum value around ZT0-6. AA-NAT activity shows a diurnal and circadian fluctuation with higher levels of activity during the early night, both under light-dark conditions and constant darkness conditions. A peak is found around ZT12 and circadian time CT12. Light acts on AA-NAT through a well-known phototransduction mechanism that originates in the retina, is mediated by the retinohypothalamic tract, and processed in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei, SCN, the site of the master circadian clock. From the SCN, the photic message is transduced through the sympathetic nervous system to the pineal, where noradrenergic receptors, among others, control the activity of AA-NAT
additional information
-, Q16KL9
three clusters of aaNAT-like sequences in insects: typical insect aaNAT, polyamine NAT-like aaNAT, and mosquito unique putative aaNAT, paaNAT. aaNAT2, a protein from the typical insect aaNAT cluster, uses histamine as a substrate as well as arylalkylamines
additional information
Caenorhabditis elegans TJ1060
-
under light-dark conditions, a rhythmic pattern of melatonin levels occurs with higher levels toward the middle of the night, peaking at zeitgeber time ZT18, and with a minimum value around ZT0-6. AA-NAT activity shows a diurnal and circadian fluctuation with higher levels of activity during the early night, both under light-dark conditions and constant darkness conditions. A peak is found around ZT12 and circadian time CT12. Light acts on AA-NAT through a well-known phototransduction mechanism that originates in the retina, is mediated by the retinohypothalamic tract, and processed in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei, SCN, the site of the master circadian clock. From the SCN, the photic message is transduced through the sympathetic nervous system to the pineal, where noradrenergic receptors, among others, control the activity of AA-NAT
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acetyl-CoA + 2,5-dimethoxyphenylethylamine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
24% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2,5-dimethoxyphenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
68% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
78% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
84% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
102% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(2-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
130% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
64% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
7% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
15% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
4.4% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(3-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
110% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(3-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(3-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
67% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(3-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
65% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(3-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(3-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
93% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(4-bromophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(4-bromophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
48% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(4-bromophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(4-bromophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
87% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
68% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
91% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
116% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
60% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
56% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
as active as with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(p-nitrophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(p-nitrophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
53% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(p-nitrophenyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(p-nitrophenyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
9% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
60% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
87% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-fluorophenylethylamine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
69% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-fluorophenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-fluorophenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
52% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-methoxyphenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-methoxyphenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
52% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-methoxyphenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-methoxyphenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
97% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-phenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 2-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-2-phenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenethylamine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
1% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
7.2% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-hydroxyphenethylamine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
24% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-hydroxyphenethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-3-hydroxyphenethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
36% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-indolebutylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-(3-indol-3-yl-butyl)-amine
show the reaction diagram
-
60-fold less efficiently than serotonin
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-indolepropylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-(3-indol-3-yl-propyl)-amine
show the reaction diagram
-
20-fold less efficiently than serotonin
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-methoxy-2-phenylethylamine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
23% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-methoxy-2-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-3-methoxy-2-phenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
55% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-methoxytyramine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
17% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 3-methoxytyramine
CoA + N-acetyl-3-methoxytyramine
show the reaction diagram
-
73% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonamide
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
1% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
7.4% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
8% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 4-methoxyphenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-4-methoxyphenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 4-methoxyphenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-4-methoxyphenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
11% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 5-hydroxydopamine
CoA + N-acetyl-5-hydroxydopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
4.4% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 5-hydroxytryptamine
CoA + N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 5-hydroxytryptamine
CoA + N-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 5-methoxytryptamine
CoA + N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 5-methoxytryptamine
CoA + N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 5-methoxytryptamine
CoA + N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 5-methoxytryptamine
CoA + N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 6-fluorotryptamine
CoA + N-acetyl-6-fluorotryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 6-hydroxydopamine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
51% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + 6-hydroxydopamine
CoA + N-acetyl-6-hydroxydopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
1.5% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine
CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine
CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q16KL9
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine
CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + alpha-methyltryptamine
CoA + N-acetyl-alpha-methyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
racemic, 9:1 stereoselectivity for R-enantiomer, less efficiently than serotonin
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + beta-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetaminde
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + beta-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetaminde
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + beta-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetaminde
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + beta-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetaminde
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + beta-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetaminde
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + beta-phenylethylamine
CoA + N-(2-phenylethyl)-acetaminde
show the reaction diagram
-
also substrate: phenylethylamine derivatives without a beta-hydroxy group
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dopamine
CoA + N-acetyldopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dopamine
CoA + N-acetyldopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dopamine
CoA + N-acetyldopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dopamine
CoA + N-acetyldopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dopamine
CoA + N-acetyldopamine
show the reaction diagram
A0EM56, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dopamine
CoA + N-acetyldopamine
show the reaction diagram
Q6V7J8
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dopamine
CoA + N-acetyldopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + histamine
CoA + N-acetylhistamine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q16KL9
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + methoxytryptamine
CoA + N-acetylmethoxytryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + Nomega-methyltryptamine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
less efficiently than serotonin
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + norepinephrine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + norepinephrine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
A0EM56, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + norepinephrine
CoA + N-acetylnorepinephrine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + octopamine
CoA + N-acetyloctopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + octopamine
CoA + N-acetyloctopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + octopamine
CoA + N-acetyloctopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + octopamine
CoA + N-acetyloctopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + octopamine
CoA + N-acetyloctopamine
show the reaction diagram
A0EM56, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + p-phenetidine
CoA + N-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-aecetamide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + phenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetyl-phenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + phenylethylamine
N-acetyl-phenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + phenylethylamine
CoA + N-acetylphenylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
A0EM56, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
G5EDH7
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. 5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
initial reaction in melatonin synthesis from serotonin
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
penultimate enzyme in melatonin pathway
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
AANAT2 acetylates serotonin about 10times faster than AANAT1
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
first step in melatonin biosynthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
penultimate step in melatonin biosynthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
rate-limiting in melatonin synthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
rate-limiting in melatonin, i.e. N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine synthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first step in melatonin biosynthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction mechanism involving Pro64 that plays a critical role in structure and catalysis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
Caenorhabditis elegans TJ1060
G5EDH7
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
trout
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
Esox sp.
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
Q64666
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
A0EM56, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
Q6V7J8
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
Drosophila melanogaster AANAT2
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
N-acetyltryptamine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptophol
CoA + N-acetyltryptophol
show the reaction diagram
-
structural analogue to tryptamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
A0EM56, -
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
-
very poor substrate
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + N-acetyltyramine
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q16613
8% of the activity with 2-phenylethylamine
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tyramine
CoA + N-acetyl5-hydroxytyramine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrates are phenylethanolamine derivatives with a beta-hydroxy group
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
arylamines, such as aniline or p-phenetidine are very poor substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
arylamines, such as aniline or p-phenetidine are very poor substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
further substrates: selected synthetic amines
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
AANAT1 may carry out an as yet unknown function that involves acetylation of arylalkylamines other than serotonin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
AANAT2 is responsible for the production of large amounts of melatonin that is released into the circulation and exerts an endocrine role
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme activity in cultured cells is suppressed by light, as it is in vivo. The ability to express circadian regulation of the enzyme activity is an intrinsic property of retinal cells that can develop in vitro
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NAT could be a clock-controlled gene functioning as an output regulator of the circadian clock
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step in melatonin synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
insignificant activity in presence of phenylethylamine or tyramine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with 2-(4-aminophenyl)-ethylamine, 3,4-(dibenzyloxy)phenethylamine or 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q16613
no activity with 2-(4-aminophenyl)-ethylamine, 3,4-(dibenzyloxy)phenethylamine, 5-hydroxydopamine, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonamide or 2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AANAT is a key regulatory enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
overexpression of inducible cAMP early repressor can suppress the norepinephrine induction of aa-nat
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9PT39
the enzyme catalyzes the limiting step for melatonin synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme light and diurnal regulation involves phosphorylation on key AANAT Ser and Thr residues, which results in 14-3-3 protein recruitment and changes in catalytic activity and protein stability
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q16KL9
aaNAT2, a protein from the typical insect aaNAT cluster, uses histamine as a substrate as well as arylalkylamines
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity, aaNAT1 and aaNAT2 show a broad substrate specificity and their affinity and catalytic efficiency to each of the seven arylalkylamines tested. The affinity between aaNAT1 and aaNAT2 to most of the arylalkylamines is similar except that aaNAT2 has less affinity than aaNAT1 to norepinephrine. Also aaNAT1 is more efficient in catalyzing all the tested substrates than that of aaNAT2
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine
CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine
CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q16KL9
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + a 2-arylethylamine
CoA + an N-acetyl-2-arylethylamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + dopamine
CoA + N-acetyldopamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + histamine
CoA + N-acetylhistamine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q16KL9
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
G5EDH7
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
initial reaction in melatonin synthesis from serotonin
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
penultimate enzyme in melatonin pathway
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
first step in melatonin biosynthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
penultimate step in melatonin biosynthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
rate-limiting in melatonin synthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
rate-limiting in melatonin, i.e. N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine synthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first step in melatonin biosynthesis
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + serotonin
CoA + N-acetylserotonin
show the reaction diagram
Caenorhabditis elegans TJ1060
G5EDH7
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tryptamine
CoA + N-acetyltryptamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
AANAT1 may carry out an as yet unknown function that involves acetylation of arylalkylamines other than serotonin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q68SL6, Q68SL7, -
AANAT2 is responsible for the production of large amounts of melatonin that is released into the circulation and exerts an endocrine role
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme activity in cultured cells is suppressed by light, as it is in vivo. The ability to express circadian regulation of the enzyme activity is an intrinsic property of retinal cells that can develop in vitro
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NAT could be a clock-controlled gene functioning as an output regulator of the circadian clock
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the rate-limiting step in melatonin synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
AANAT is a key regulatory enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
overexpression of inducible cAMP early repressor can suppress the norepinephrine induction of aa-nat
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9PT39
the enzyme catalyzes the limiting step for melatonin synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme light and diurnal regulation involves phosphorylation on key AANAT Ser and Thr residues, which results in 14-3-3 protein recruitment and changes in catalytic activity and protein stability
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q16KL9
aaNAT2, a protein from the typical insect aaNAT cluster, uses histamine as a substrate as well as arylalkylamines
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
acetyl-CoA
-
-
acetyl-CoA
G5EDH7
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
NaCl
Q68SL6, -
optimal activity at 0.5 M
additional information
-
activation by salts as a function of ionic strength
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-bromo-N-[2-(5-fluoro-1-benzothien-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide
-
IC50: 0.00039 mM
9-carboxy-11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
-
significantly reduces norepinephrine-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity
acetyl-CoA-tryptamine
Q16613
IC50: 0.00041 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
acetyl-CoA-tryptamine
-
IC50: 0.00062 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
acetyl-CoA-tryptamine
-
IC50: 0.0008 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
alpha-trifluoromethyltryptamine
-
modest, competitive
bromoacetyltryptamine
-
IC50: 0.0014 mM
bromoacetyltryptamine
Q16613
IC50: 0.00143 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
bromoacetyltryptamine
-
IC50: 0.00128 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
bromoacetyltryptamine
-
IC50: 0.0051 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
cannabidiol
-
significantly reduces norepinephrine-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity
cannabinoid
-
cannabinoids inhibit AANAT activity and attenuate melatonin biosynthesis through intracellular actions without involvement of classical cannabinoid receptor-dependent signaling cascades
cannabinol
-
significantly reduces norepinephrine-induced arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity
CoA-S-N-acetyl-7-hydroxynaphthylethylamine
-
fluorescent variant of CoA-T, a bisubstrate inhibitor, synthesis and enzyme binding structure, molecular modelling, overview
desulfo-CoA
-
dead end inhibitor analog, competitive versus CoA
Disulfides
-
in vivo and in vitro, reversible by dithiothreitol
glutathione
-
reversible, acetyl-CoA protects
Melatonin
-
IC50 0.16 mM
Melatonin
Q68SL6, -
IC50: 0.26 mM
N-acetylserotonin
Q68SL6, -
IC50: 0.68 mM; very slightly
N-ethylmaleimide
-
irreversible, acetyl-CoA protects
N-[2-(2-benzyl-5-methoxy-benzofuran-3-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.0087 mM
N-[2-(2-phenyl-benzo [b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.001 mM
N-[2-(3-ethyl-7-methoxy-napht-1-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.0006 mM
N-[2-(5-bromo-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00378 mM
N-[2-(5-chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00018 mM
N-[2-(5-ethyl-1-benzothien-3-yl)ethyl]-2-iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
N-[2-(5-ethyl-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00071 mM
N-[2-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.0056 mM
N-[2-(5-hydroxy-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00018 mM
N-[2-(7-ethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapht-1-yl)ethyl]iodooacetamide
-
IC50: above 0.1 mM
N-[2-(7-ethyl-napht-1-yl)ethyl]-bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00177 mM
N-[2-(7-hydroxy-naphth-1-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00072 mM
N-[2-(7-methoxy-3-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-napht-1-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.045 mM
N-[2-(7-methoxy-8-propenyl-napht-1-yl)ethyl]-iodoacetamide
-
IC50: above 0.1 mM
N-[2-(7-methoxy-napht-1-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
N-[2-(7-propoxy-napht-1-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.0042 mM
oxygen
-
reversible, acetyl-CoA protects
p-chloro-mercuribenzoate
-
-
Peptides containing a disulfide bond
-
-
-
S 20251
Q16613
IC50: 0.002 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 20251
-
IC50: 0.0013 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 20251
-
IC50: 0.0024 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 23823
Q16613
IC50: 0.005 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
-
S 23823
-
IC50: 0.031 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
-
S 27244
Q16613
IC50: 0.00072 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 27244
-
IC50: 0.00026 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 27244
-
IC50: 0.00036 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 27481
Q16613
IC50: 0.00018 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 27481
-
IC50: 0.0004 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 28036
Q16613
IC50: 0.0056 mM,GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 28036
-
IC50: 0.00073 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
S 28036
-
IC50: 0.0017 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
serotonin
-
strong, mixed kinetics
serotonin
Q68SL6, -
above 1 mM
tryptamine
Q68SL6, -
above 1 mM
tryptamine
A0EM56
above 0.01 mM
tryptamine
-
0.01 mM
tryptamine-coenzyme A
-
a bisubstrate inhibitor, enzyme binding structure, molecular modelling, overview
tryptophol
-
dead end inhibitor analog, competitive versus tryptamine
UV light
-
NAT activity and melatonin content are suppressed by blue light of 450 nm wavelength, no effects of red light at 650 nm.UV radiation has intensity-dependent dual effects on the NAT activity and melatonin content: it is supressing at low intensity and activating at high intensity irradiation, overview
-
Zn2+
-
at low concentration
methyl 3-[2-[(bromoacetyl)amino]ethyl]-1-benzothiophene-5-carboxylate
-
IC50: 0.00225 mM
additional information
-
inhibition values of peptide inhibitors
-
additional information
Q68SL6, -
no inhibition by serotonin or tryptamin above 1 mM. No inhibition by melatonin
-
additional information
G5EDH7
both white and blue light pulses significantly inhibit AA-NAT activity at zeitgeber time ZT18, detailed overview
-
additional information
-
strong substrate inhibition at 45C
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
14-3-3 protein
-
14-3-3zeta, interaction with the phosphorylated enzyme activates activity, binding analysis, overview
-
4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
-
stimulates activity on a posttranscriptional level in a cAMP-independent manner
5-hydroxytryptophan
-
activates, best at 0.1 mM
forskolin
-
decreases KM-value for tryptamine by 32%
leptin
-
increases enzyme activity only in fed fish not in fasted fish, independently of the seasons
-
N-acetylserotonin
-
activates, best at 0.1 mM
phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate
-
stimulates activity on a posttranscriptional level
phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
-
decreases KM-value for tryptamine by 44%
phosphate
Q68SL6, -
optimal activity at 0.1 M; optimal activity at 0.3 M
serotonin
-
activates, best at 0.1 mM
UV light
-
NAT activity and melatonin content are suppressed by blue light of 450 nm wavelength, no effects of red light at 650 nm.UV radiation has intensity-dependent dual effects on the NAT activity and melatonin content: it is supressing at low intensity and activating at high intensity irradiation, overview
-
Melatonin
-
activates, best at 0.1 mM
additional information
-
the enzyme is activated by Ser and Thr phosphorylations, e.g. AANAT Thr31 phosphorylation on its own can enhance catalytic efficiency up to 7fold
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.47
-
2,5-dimethoxyphenylethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.34
-
2-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-ethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
3.46
-
2-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.9
-
2-(2-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
2.74
-
2-(2-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.76
-
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.62
-
2-(3-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.31
-
2-(3-chlorophenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.1
-
2-(3-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.65
-
2-(3-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.75
-
2-(4-bromophenyl)-ethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.55
-
2-(4-bromophenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
2.33
-
2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.28
-
2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
2.2
-
2-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
0.98
-
2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.91
-
2-(p-fluorophenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.405
-
2-(p-nitrophenyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.17
-
2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.58
-
2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.37
-
2-fluorophenylethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.37
-
2-fluorophenylethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.49
-
2-methoxyphenylethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.3
-
2-methoxyphenylethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
0.17
-
2-Phenylethylamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.8
-
2-Phenylethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
9.5
-
2-Phenylethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
2.07
-
3-methoxy-2-phenylethylamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.815
-
3-methoxytyramine
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.024
-
5-hydroxytryptamine
-
-
0.2
-
5-methoxytryptamine
-
-
1.9
-
6-Hydroxydopamine
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
0.00031
-
acetyl-CoA
A0EM56
-
0.00031
-
acetyl-CoA
-
-
0.003
-
acetyl-CoA
-
-
0.0287
-
acetyl-CoA
-
cosubstrate tryptamine
0.05
-
acetyl-CoA
-
cosubstrate tryptamine, pineal gland
0.125
-
acetyl-CoA
-
cosubstrate tryptamine, liver
0.18
-
acetyl-CoA
-
-
0.265
-
acetyl-CoA
-
pH 6.8, 37C
0.53
-
acetyl-CoA
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
0.55
-
acetyl-CoA
-
-
0.62
-
acetyl-CoA
Q68SL6, -
-
0.65
-
acetyl-CoA
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.11
-
acetyl-CoA
Q68SL6, -
pH 6.8, 27C
0.009
-
beta-phenylethylamine
-
-
0.173
-
beta-phenylethylamine
-
-
0.19
-
dopamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
0.27
-
dopamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
0.33
-
dopamine
-
-
0.48
-
dopamine
Q6V7J8
-
0.18
-
methoxytryptamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
0.16
-
norepinephrine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
0.17
-
norepinephrine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
0.002
-
Octopamine
-
-
0.13
-
Octopamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
0.14
-
Octopamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
0.011
-
p-phenetidine
-
-
0.34
-
Phenylethylamine
Q68SL6, -
-
0.05
-
serotonin
Q68SL6, -
-
0.06
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme
0.096
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme with 14-3-3 protein
0.106
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme with protein kinase A
0.125
-
serotonin
-
-
0.23
-
serotonin
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
0.42
-
serotonin
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
0.64
-
serotonin
-
pH 6.8, 37C
1.23
-
serotonin
-
-
1.35
-
serotonin
Q16613
pH 6.8, 37C
1.7
-
serotonin
-
pH 6.8, 37C
2
-
serotonin
-
-
2.05
-
serotonin
Q68SL6, -
pH 6.8, 27C
0.0017
-
tryptamine
A0EM56
-
0.002
-
tryptamine
-
-
0.0315
-
tryptamine
-
-
0.1
-
tryptamine
Q68SL6, -
-
0.11
-
tryptamine
-
-
0.12
-
tryptamine
Q6V7J8
-
0.14
-
tryptamine
-
-
0.16
-
tryptamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
0.17
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 30C, phosphorylated T31, unphosphorylated S205
0.17
-
tryptamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
0.18
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 30C, unphosphorylated enzyme
0.24
-
tryptamine
-
liver
0.25
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 30C, mutant enzyme S205A, phosphorylated T31
0.28
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 30C, mutant enzyme S205A, unphosphorylated
0.291
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C, mutant enzyme S192V
0.3
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 30C, mutant enzyme T31A, phosphorylated S205
0.31
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 30C, mutant enzyme T31A, unphosphorylated
0.317
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C, mutant enzyme T29V/S203G
0.33
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.344
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C, mutant enzyme T127V
0.361
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C, wild-type enzyme
0.413
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C, mutant enzyme T29V
0.417
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C, mutant enzyme S203G
0.53
-
tryptamine
-
pineal gland
0.6
-
tryptamine
-
-
0.91
-
tryptamine
-
-
1.4
-
tryptamine
Q68SL6, -
pH 6.8, 27C
2.3
-
tryptamine
-
pH 6.8, 37C, recombinant mutant I57A/V59A
4
-
tryptamine
-
above, pH 6.8, 37C, recombinant mutants P64A, P64G, P64W, and recombinant truncation mutants
0.0015
-
tyramine
-
-
0.17
-
tyramine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
0.23
-
tyramine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
1.25
-
tyramine
Q68SL6, -
-
0.23
-
methoxytryptamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
additional information
-
additional information
-
apparent Km-values
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
formation and cleavage of a disulfide bond produce active/inactive states of enzyme
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of recombinant partially phosphorylated wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of recombinant wild-type and mutant enzymes, substrate tryptamine, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
AANAT2 kinetic constants as a function of temperature, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
AANAT2 kinetics in relation to temperature, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
AANAT2 kinetic constants as a function of temperature, overview
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3.65
-
dopamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
7.3
-
dopamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
3.74
-
methoxytryptamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
7.69
-
methoxytryptamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
3.17
-
norepinephrine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
7.76
-
norepinephrine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
2.56
-
Octopamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
7.26
-
Octopamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
3.47
-
serotonin
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
7.545
-
serotonin
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
17.3
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme
20.3
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme with 14-3-3 protein
25.9
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme with protein kinase A
3.05
-
tryptamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
7.345
-
tryptamine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
3.16
-
tyramine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT2
6.775
-
tyramine
-
pH 7.3, 22C, recombinant aaNAT1
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
210
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme with 14-3-3 protein
16548
240
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme with protein kinase A
16548
290
-
serotonin
-
wild-type enzyme
16548
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0003
-
CoA-S-N-acetyl-7-hydroxynaphthylethylamine
-
-
0.00015
-
tryptamine-CoA
-
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00039
-
2-bromo-N-[2-(5-fluoro-1-benzothien-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide
-
IC50: 0.00039 mM
0.00041
-
acetyl-CoA-tryptamine
Q16613
IC50: 0.00041 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.00062
-
acetyl-CoA-tryptamine
-
IC50: 0.00062 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.0008
-
acetyl-CoA-tryptamine
-
IC50: 0.0008 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.00128
-
bromoacetyltryptamine
-
IC50: 0.00128 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.0014
-
bromoacetyltryptamine
-
IC50: 0.0014 mM
0.00143
-
bromoacetyltryptamine
Q16613
IC50: 0.00143 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.0051
-
bromoacetyltryptamine
-
IC50: 0.0051 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.16
-
Melatonin
-
IC50 0.16 mM
0.26
-
Melatonin
Q68SL6, -
IC50: 0.26 mM
0.00225
-
methyl 3-[2-[(bromoacetyl)amino]ethyl]-1-benzothiophene-5-carboxylate
-
IC50: 0.00225 mM
0.68
-
N-acetylserotonin
Q68SL6, -
IC50: 0.68 mM
0.0087
-
N-[2-(2-benzyl-5-methoxy-benzofuran-3-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.0087 mM
0.001
-
N-[2-(2-phenyl-benzo [b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.001 mM
0.0006
-
N-[2-(3-ethyl-7-methoxy-napht-1-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.0006 mM
0.00378
-
N-[2-(5-bromo-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00378 mM
0.00018
-
N-[2-(5-chloro-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00018 mM
0.002
-
N-[2-(5-ethyl-1-benzothien-3-yl)ethyl]-2-iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
0.00071
-
N-[2-(5-ethyl-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00071 mM
0.0056
-
N-[2-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.0056 mM
0.00018
-
N-[2-(5-hydroxy-benzo[b]thiophen-3-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00018 mM
0.1
-
N-[2-(7-ethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapht-1-yl)ethyl]iodooacetamide
-
IC50: above 0.1 mM
0.00177
-
N-[2-(7-ethyl-napht-1-yl)ethyl]-bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00177 mM
0.00072
-
N-[2-(7-hydroxy-naphth-1-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.00072 mM
0.045
-
N-[2-(7-methoxy-3-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)-napht-1-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.045 mM
0.1
-
N-[2-(7-methoxy-8-propenyl-napht-1-yl)ethyl]-iodoacetamide
-
IC50: above 0.1 mM
0.002
-
N-[2-(7-methoxy-napht-1-yl)ethyl]bromoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
0.0042
-
N-[2-(7-propoxy-napht-1-yl)ethyl]iodoacetamide
-
IC50: 0.0042 mM
0.0013
-
S 20251
-
IC50: 0.0013 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.002
-
S 20251
Q16613
IC50: 0.002 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.0024
-
S 20251
-
IC50: 0.0024 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.005
-
S 23823
Q16613
IC50: 0.005 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
-
0.031
-
S 23823
-
IC50: 0.031 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
-
0.00026
-
S 27244
-
IC50: 0.00026 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.00036
-
S 27244
-
IC50: 0.00036 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.00072
-
S 27244
Q16613
IC50: 0.00072 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.00018
-
S 27481
Q16613
IC50: 0.00018 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.0004
-
S 27481
-
IC50: 0.0004 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.00073
-
S 28036
-
IC50: 0.00073 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.0017
-
S 28036
-
IC50: 0.0017 mM, GST-AANAT fusion protein
0.0056
-
S 28036
Q16613
IC50: 0.0056 mM,GST-AANAT fusion protein
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.000027
-
-
enzyme activity on pineal in pineal gland from quiescent phase, pH 6.5, 25C
0.000036
-
-
enzyme activity on pineal in pineal gland from progressive phase, pH 6.5, 25C
0.000039
-
-
enzyme activity on pineal in pineal gland from breeding phase, pH 6.5, 25C
0.000043
-
-
enzyme activity on pineal in pineal gland from regressive phase, pH 6.5, 25C
0.000195
-
-
-
7.17
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
enzyme activities of recombinant wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
-
-
two pH optima, pH 6.0 and pH 9.5, which change during oocyte maturation
6.5
-
Q68SL6, -
;
6.5
-
-
assay at
6.8
-
-
assay at
6.8
-
-
assay at
6.8
-
G5EDH7
assay at
7.3
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
A0EM56
-
7.5
-
-
-
7.6
-
-
assay at
9.5
-
-
two pH optima, pH 6.0 and pH 9.5, which change during oocyte maturation
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
8
-
pH 6.5: about 30% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: about 50% of maximal activity
7
8
A0EM56
pH 7.0: abut 40% of maximal activity, pH 8.0: about 50% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
22
-
-
assay at room temperature
25
-
-
assay at
27
-
Q68SL6, -
-
30
-
-
assay at
36
-
Q68SL6, -
-
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
G5EDH7
assay at
additional information
-
-
pineal AANAT responds to temperature in a species-specific manner
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0
40
Q68SL6, -
0C: about 55% of maximal activity, 47C: about 50% of maximal activity
20
47
Q68SL6, -
20C: about 40% of maximal activity, 47C: about 35% of maximal activity
additional information
-
-
AANAT2 primary to tertiary structures and kinetics in relation to temperature, overview
additional information
-
-
AANAT2 primary to tertiary structures and kinetic constants as a function of temperature, overview
additional information
-
-
AANAT2 primary to tertiary structures and kinetics in relation to temperature, overview
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
suprachiasmatic nucleus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest level of activity at night
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
female. The left gland contains higher activity than the right gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
non-diapause eggs and diapause eggs
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9PT39
AANAT2 is expressed only in the muscular layer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9PT39
AANAT2 is expressed only in the muscular layer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9PT39
esophagus, stomach, pyloric ceca, foregut, midgut, hindgut. AANAT2 is expressed only in the muscular layer of all segments. No significant differences are obtained among the different segments evaluated
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of 3rd instar larvae, adult heads
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9PT39
AANAT2 is expressed only in the muscular layer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozyme AANAT2 developmental expression pattern, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
non-inducible
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
non-inducible
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cultured photoreceptor cells of embryonic retina
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Esox sp.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
4fold increase at night
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
rhythmic expression of adenylyl cyclase VI contributes to the differential regulation of serotonin N-acetyltransferase by bradykinin in rat pineal glands
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
exposure of dark-adapted animals to near ultraviolet light significantly decreases melatonin content and the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
photoreceptor cells, enzyme activity is regulated by circadian system, the photoperiodic control is direct in fish and frogs and indirect in mammals. Structural and functional evolution of the melatonin-producing units in vertebrates, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme catalyzes the first step in melatonin biosynthesis, melatonin biosynthesis follows a day and night rhythm, which is different in fasted, fed, and refed fish, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pineal gland-specific isozyme AANAT2 is specifically expressed in pineal opsin-immunoreactive photoreceptor cells, developmental expression pattern, s significant 60fold reduction in Aanat2 expression occurs just before metamorphosis, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
from fish in different phases of the annual breeding cycle, and pineal organ culture
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
inducible
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
photoreceptor cells, ependymal cells of the 3rd ventricle and discrete cells of the suprachiasmatic area. Expression of AANAT2 and absence of AANAT2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
treatment of pinealocytes with norepinephrine causes an increase in the mRNA and protein levels of MKP-1 and AA-NAT, as well as in the AA-NAT activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mainly pars tuberalis, much less than in pineal gland, probably different regulation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9PT39
AANAT2 is expressed only in the muscular layer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
4fold increase at night
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cultured photoreceptor cells; cultured photoreceptor cells of embryonic retina
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
photoreceptor layer, inner nuclear layer. Low activity during the night and high activity during the day. Activity starts to increase during the second part of the night and reaches its maximal levels at dawn
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
photic regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase binding to 14-3-3 proteins in retinal photoreceptor cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
photoreceptor cells, ependymal cells of the 3rd ventricle and discrete cells of the suprachiasmatic area. Expression of AANAT2 and absence of AANAT2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
AANAT activity is low during the daytime, increases rapidly early in the night and beginsto decline in anticipation of dawn
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity is elevated at night and rapidly inhibited by light
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
retina-specific isozyme AANAT1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Fischer
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9PT39
AANAT2 is expressed only in the muscular layer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
testicular acessory gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9PT39
AANAT2 is expressed only in the muscular layer
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
offspring populations are maintained on Phaseolus vulgaris leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
tissue expression pattern of wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview. No expression in ovary, testis, midgut, fatbody, hemozyte, trachea, and Malpighian gland; tissue expression pattern of wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview. No expression in ovary, testis, midgut, fatbody, hemozyte, trachea, and Malpighian gland; tissue expression pattern of wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview. No expression in ovary, testis, midgut, fatbody, hemozyte, trachea, and Malpighian gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
26000
-
-
liver, gel filtration
30000
-
-
gel filtration with sodium citrate
30000
-
-
gel filtration
37000
-
-
gel filtration
39000
-
-
pineal gland, gel filtration
80000
100000
-
gel filtration
additional information
-
-
multiple forms, from 10000 Da via 39000 Da to 100000 Da
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
two molecular forms: 10000 Da and 95000 Da, HPLC size exclusion chromatography with ammonium acetate
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 11000, SDS-PAGE
?
Esox sp.
-
x * 26000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 29200, SDS-PAGE
?
-, Q76EI8
x * 28500, calculated from sequence
?
-
x * 37000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 20000-35000, aaNAT1-4, aaNAT5b, aaNAT7, aaNAT9, and aaNAT11, SDS-PAGE
?
Drosophila melanogaster AANAT2
-
x * 29200, SDS-PAGE
-
dimer
-
2 * 12000, liver, gel filtration in the presence of cysteamine
dimer
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
2 * 12000, liver, gel filtration in the presence of cysteamine
-
tetramer
-
4 * 10000, pineal gland, gel filtration in the presence of cysteamine
tetramer
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
4 * 10000, pineal gland, gel filtration in the presence of cysteamine
-
monomer
-
1 * 28000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
AANAT2 primary to tertiary structures in relation to temperature, three-dimensional modeling, overview
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phosphoprotein
-
AANAT in dark-adapted retina is bound to 14-3-3 protein. This interaction is regulated by light and phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of AANAT in darkness promotes the association with 14-3-3, which decreases the Km of the enzyme for substrate and protects the enzyme from dephosphorylation and degradation. Light exposure results in dephosphorylation of AANAT and dissociation from the complex with 14-3-3 proteins, thereby increasing the Km of the enzyme. Dissociation of the complex leads to subsequent proteasomal proteolysis of AANAT
phosphoprotein
-
phosphorylation on key AANAT Ser and Thr residues by protein kinase A results in 14-3-3 protein recruitment and changes in catalytic activity and protein stability. AANAT Thr31 phosphorylation on its own can enhance catalytic efficiency up to 7fold, but the catalytic profile is largely abolished by double phosphorylation at Thr31 and Ser205. Influence of phosphorylations on enzyme activity, overview
phosphoprotein
-
cAMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of AANAT T31. Phosphorylation of T31 promotes binding of AANA to the dimeric 14-3-3 protein, which activates AANAT by increasing arylalkylamine affinity. A second AANAT cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, S205, is found to be 55% phosphorylated at night, when T31 is about 40% phosphorylated. AANAT is dual-phosphorylated. Light-exposure at night decreases T31 and S205 phosphorylation
phosphoprotein
-
phosphorylated at Thr29 by protein kinase C activation through the alpha1-adrenergic receptor in rat pineal glands. Phosphorylation may contribute to the stability and activity of the enzyme
phosphoprotein
A0EM56
-
additional information
-
lacks cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation sites in the N- and C-terminal regions
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
hanging-drop vapor diffusion method, mixing of 0.001 ml of both protein and reservoir solution, equilibration against 0.15 ml of reservoir solution containing 0.17 M ammonium acetate, 25.5% PEG 4000, and 17% glycerol, and 0.1 M sodium citrate, pH 5.6, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis, molecular replacement, modeling
-, Q16KL9
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
-
stable for 3 h
45
65
-
5 min, complete inactivation
45
-
-
5 min, loss of 60% activity
45
-
-
10 min, loss of 25% activity, 50% after 40 min
45
-
-
10 min, loss of 60% activity
65
-
-
5 min, complete loss of activity
65
-
-
10 min, loss of 65% activity, 60% after 40 min
65
-
-
5 min, complete loss of activity
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
acetyl-CoA stabilizes
-
ATP stabilizes
-
freezing markedly decreases activity
-
polyanions stabilize
-
acetyl-CoA stabilizes
-
ATP stabilizes
-
cysteamine stabilizes
-
freezing markedly decreases activity
-
polyanions stabilize
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
0-2C, up to 72 h
-
4C, 25% loss of activity within 48 h
-
0-2C, up to 72 h
-
4C, t1/2: 24 h
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
recombinant aaNAT1-4, aaNAT5b, aaNAT7, aaNAT9, and aaNAT11 by chinin affinity and ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration
-
recombinant N-terminally GST-tagged AANAT from Escherichia coli strain BL21 by glutathione affinity chromatography
-
denaturation/renaturation process in which the enzyme is immobilized on an affinity chromatography column
Q16613
affinity chromatography on Sepharose CoA
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
aaNAT1-4, aaNAT5b, aaNAT7, aaNAT9, and aaNAT11, homology sequence analysis, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, expression profiling of aaNAT1 aaNAT2 based on real time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, individual recombinant expression
-
phylogenetic tree and analysis
-, Q16KL9
AANAT2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant expression of the GST-tagged enzyme from pGEX4T1 expression vector
-
-
A0EM56
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, quantitative expression analysis; DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, quantitative expression analysis; DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, quantitative expression analysis
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
recombinant Bm-iAANAT protein is expressed in Sf9 cells by a baculovirus expression system
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic tree
G5EDH7
AANAT, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison and phylogenetic tree, expression in Micro-Tom, a model cultivar of Solanum lycopersicum, transgenic Micro-Tom exhibits higher melatonin content compared with wild type. Expression of N-terminally GST-tagged AANAT in Escherichia coli strain BL21
-
AANAT2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant expression of the GST-tagged enzyme from pGEX4T1 expression vector
-
expression in Escherichia coli
Q6V7J8
AANAT2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant expression of the GST-tagged enzyme from pGEX4T1 expression vector
-
baculovirus infection of Tn5 insect cells
Q16613
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression of truncation mutants in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
functional ectopic overexpression of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase under the constitutive ubiquitin promoter in transgenic Oryza sativa cv. Dongjin seedlings using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation leading to elevated synthesis of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin in the transgenic rice plants, phenotype, overview
-
genotyping in Caucasian population, screening for AANAT mutations
-
AANAT2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant expression of the GST-tagged enzyme from pGEX4T1 expression vector
-
expression of AANAT-(2207) and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
AANAT2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant expression of the GST-tagged enzyme from pGEX4T1 expression vector
-
expression in HEK293 cells and in Escherichia coli
Q64666
AANAT2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant expression of the GST-tagged enzyme from pGEX4T1 expression vector
-
gene AANAT2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, developmental expression analysis by quantitative real time PCR analysis, phylogenetic analysis, overview
-
;
Q68SL6, -
expression in Escherichia coli
-
AANAT2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant expression of the GST-tagged enzyme from pGEX4T1 expression vector
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
H120Q
-
crystallographic studies, role in enzymic reaction
H122Q
-
crystallographic studies, role in enzymic reaction
H122Q/H120Q
-
crystallographic studies, role in enzymic reaction
P64A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced enzyme activity and altered inhibitor binding compared to the wild-type enzyme
P64G
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced enzyme activity and altered inhibitor binding compared to the wild-type enzyme
P64W
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced enzyme activity and altered inhibitor binding compared to the wild-type enzyme
S205A
-
1.6fold increase in Km-value for tryptamine compared to wild-type enzyme
T31A
-
1.7fold increase in KM-value for tryptamine compared to wild-type enzyme
C177A
-
fully active, not sensitive to oxidation or N-ethylmaleimide
C61A
-
fully active, not sensitive to oxidation or N-ethylmaleimide
H28Y
Q64666
H28Y mutation in NAT is the cause of reduced NAT levels in vivo
S192V
-
decrease in Km-value obtained by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or forskolin is similar to the decrease observed in wild-type cells
T127V
-
decrease in Km-value obtained by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or forskolin is similar to the decrease observed in wild-type cells
T29V
-
mutant enzyme shows an increase in Km-value obtained by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or forskolin, decrease in Km-value is observed in wild-type cells
additional information
-
AANAT2 diversification is limited by stabilizing selection conferring to the enzyme well conserved secondary and tertiary structures. Only a few changes in amino acids appeared sufficient to induce different enzyme activity patterns
additional information
A0EM56, -, D6MKR1, D6MKR2
construction of the mutant strain and natural polymorphism, overview. The mutant Bm-iAANAT is expressed at higher levels in sclerified tissues, such as head, thoracic legs, and anal plate, than in less sclerified tissue, i.e. epidermis; construction of the mutant strain and natural polymorphism, overview. The mutant Bm-iAANAT is expressed at higher levels in sclerified tissues, such as head, thoracic legs, and anal plate, than in less sclerified tissue, i.e. epidermis
additional information
-
AANAT2 diversification is limited by stabilizing selection conferring to the enzyme well conserved secondary and tertiary structures. Only a few changes in amino acids appeared sufficient to induce different enzyme activity patterns
additional information
-
construction of truncation mutants AANAT 1-197(DELTAC8) and GST-AANAT 34-197 (DELTAN33, DELTAC8). Production of partially and differentially phosphorylated enzymes by semiprotein synthesis, overview
additional information
-
single-nucleotide polymorphisms in AANAT found in Japanese population cannot be found in Caucasian population, genotyping, overview
additional information
-
enhanced production of melatonin by ectopic overexpression of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase plays a role in cold resistance in transgenic rice seedlings. Leaves of transgenic lines S9 and S10 contain approximately 2.5fold and 1.9fold more chlorophyll, respectively, than those of the wild type
additional information
-
AANAT2 diversification is limited by stabilizing selection conferring to the enzyme well conserved secondary and tertiary structures. Only a few changes in amino acids appeared sufficient to induce different enzyme activity patterns
I57A/V59A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant shows reduced enzyme activity and altered inhibitor binding compared to the wild-type enzyme
additional information
-
phosphonodifluoromethylene alanine at Ser-205 is synthesized and fused to bacterially expressed AANAT30199 using expressed protein ligation. The resulting semisynthetic protein has enhanced affinity for the expressed 14-3-3 protein and exhibits greater cellular stability in microinjection experiments, as compared with the unmodified AANAT
additional information
-
construction of truncation mutants with reduced enzyme activity
Y168F
-
crystallographic studies, role in enzymic reaction
additional information
-
AANAT2 diversification is limited by stabilizing selection conferring to the enzyme well conserved secondary and tertiary structures. Only a few changes in amino acids appeared sufficient to induce different enzyme activity patterns
T29V/S203G
-
mutant enzyme shows an increase in Km-value obtained by treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or forskolin, decrease in Km-value is observed in wild-type cells
additional information
-
AANAT2 diversification is limited by stabilizing selection conferring to the enzyme well conserved secondary and tertiary structures. Only a few changes in amino acids appeared sufficient to induce different enzyme activity patterns