iron binding site plays a major role in tuning the reduction potenzial of iron to provide a large driving force for the reaction, E185 residue provides the dominant electron transfer pathway to the T1 Cu site
residues D283, E185, D409 provide a Fe(II) binding site that favors ferric ion thus reducing the reduction potential of the bound Fe(II). Residues E185 and D409 form part of the electron-transfer pathway from the bound Fe(II) to the proteins type I Cu(II)
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The enzyme in blood plasma (ceruloplasmin) belongs to the family of multicopper oxidases. In humans it accounts for 95% of plasma copper. It oxidizes Fe(II) to Fe(III), which allows the subsequent incorporation of the latter into proteins such as apotransferrin and lactoferrin. An enzyme from iron oxidizing bacterium strain TI-1 contains heme a.