Information on EC 1.14.11.13 - gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Magnoliophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.14.11.13
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
also acts on a number of gibberellins
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
oxidation
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Diterpenoid biosynthesis
-
gibberellin inactivation I (2beta-hydroxylation)
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(gibberellin-1),2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (2beta-hydroxylating)
Also acts on a number of other gibberellins.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase of gibberellin biosynthesis
Q9XHM5
-
AtGA2ox2
Q9XFR9
-
AtGA2ox8
O49561
gene name
C19-GA 2-oxidase
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
-
C20 GA2ox
-
-
C20-gibberellin deactivation enzyme
-
-
GA 2-ox
-
-
GA 2-oxidase
-
-
GA 2-oxidase
O49561
-
GA 2-oxidase
-
-
GA 2-oxidase
-
-
GA 2-oxidase
Q9XHM5
-
GA 2-oxidase
-
-
GA 2-oxidase 7
-
-
GA 2-oxidase A1
-
-
GA 2-oxidase1
-
-
GA 2-oxidase3
-
-
GA 2beta,3beta-hydroxylase
-
-
GA 2ODD
Q9XHM5
-
GA2ox
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
-
GA2ox1
Q8LEA2
class I, acts as C19-GA 2-oxidase
GA2ox2
Q9XFR9
class I, acts as C19-GA 2-oxidase, most highly expressed throughout development
GA2ox3
O64692
class I, acts as C19-GA 2-oxidase
GA2ox4
Q9C7Z1
class II, acts exclusively as C19-GA 2-oxidase
GA2ox5
-
-
GA2ox6
Q9FZ21
class II, acts as C19-GA 2-oxidase, most highly expressed throughout development, is reported to have activity against GA4 and GA1, in this study no C20-GA 2-oxidase activity against GA12 and GA53 in an in vitro assay with lysates of Escherichia coli expressing GA2ox6 and 14C-labeled gibberellin substrates
GA2ox6
-
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
-
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
O49561
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
-
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
-
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
-
4 partially characterized gibberellin 2-oxidases (GA2ox) (GA2ox1 to GA2ox4), 2 uncharacterized GA2oxs (GA2ox5 and GA2ox6), 4 other (GA2oxs GA2ox7 to GA2ox9, GA2ox10 is probably a pseudogene)
gibberellin 2-oxidase
-
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
Q9SQ80
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
Q9XHM5
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
-
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase
-
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase 1
Q9SQ80
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase 6
-
-
gibberellin 2beta-hydroxylase
-
-
-
-
giberellin 2-oxidase 2
Q9XHM5
-
MdGA2ox1
-
class one using C19-gibberellins as substrates
PsGA2ox1
Q9SQ80
-
PsGA2ox2
Q9XHM5
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
85713-20-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
GA2ox1; wild-type Col-0, Ws-0, Ws-4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GA2ox2; wild-type Col-0, Ws-0, Ws-4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GA2ox3; wild-type Col-0, Ws-0, Ws-4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GA2ox4; wild-type Col-0, Ws-0, Ws-4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GA2ox6; wild-type Col-0, Ws-0, Ws-4
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene AtGA2ox8
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform AtGA2ox2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two genes coding for the enzyme identified
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild-type Columbia (Col), DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) overexpressing mutant, loss-of-funtion mutants ddf1-LF1 and ga20x7-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
developing pumpkin embryos
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Fuji on rootstock Malus prunifolia
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gibberellin catabolism gene GA2ox1, subject to positive feedback regulation and sensitive to high gibberellin concentrations
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gibberellin catabolism gene GA2ox3, subject to positive feedback regulation and sensitive to low gibberellin concentration
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene OsGA2ox6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
rice cultivar Tainung 67
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tall rice, L. cv. Nipponbare
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PcGA2ox1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform PcGA2ox1
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
runner bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Canadian Wonder
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cross between the WT cv. Torsdag (SLN) ans sln line NGB6074
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
garden pea, cv. progress No. 9
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gibberellin 2-oxidase 1; wild-type Alaska, slender pea mutant (sln) deficient in PsGA2ox1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
giberellin 2-oxidase 2; wild-type Alaska
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two differnt enzymes identified, PsGAox1 and PsGAox2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
dwarf transgenic hybrid poplar, Populus tremula x Populus alba
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform SlGA2ox2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform StGA2ox1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Dainagon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
metabolism
-
the enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of gibberellin in higher plants, overview
physiological function
-
hydroxylation of gibberellin at the 2-position causes the inactivation of plant hormones gibberellins
physiological function
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase plays a key role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2beta-hydroxylation, activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 decreases active gibberellin levels and creates a dominant semi-dwarf phenotype in rice, overview. GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, positively regulates the OsGA2ox6 gene. The H032 mutant retains normal flowering and seed production, H032 mutant phenotype, overview
metabolism
-
gibberellin 2-oxidase plays a key role in the GA catabolic pathway through 2beta-hydroxylation
additional information
O49561
reduced biomass accumulation and lignification occurs in the AtGA2ox8 overexpressing Brassica napus transgenic plants, which might be due to altered lignin biosynthetic gene expression
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
16,17-dihydro gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
16,17-dihydro gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
16,17-dihydrogibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
16,17-dihydrogibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADGAHGVYCFADDGYAIFCGAAGAE + ?
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
-
-
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
catabolization of biologically active gibberellin
-
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
catabolization of biologically active gibberellin
-
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
gibberellin 12 and 53
gibberellin 110, the product of gibberellin 12
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ?
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
-
inactivation of the plant hormone gibberellin by oxidation
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, P93771
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
marked preference for 3-hydroxylated gibberellins as substrate
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivates hormonal function of giberellins
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
major gibberellin catabolic enzyme
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9XG83
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
-
biologically inactive product
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9SQ80
multifunctional enzyme catalyzing 2beta hydroxylation and 2-ketone formation of the C19-gibberellin substrates giberellin 9, gibberellin 20 gibberellin 1 and gibberellin 4
-
-
-
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of bioactive gibberellins, PsGAox1 and PsGAox2
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
GA2ox6 in vitro activity
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2 + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 5 mM ascorbate, 0.5 mM FeSO4, overnight incubation with 2H2-labeled substrates at 30C
-
-
?
gibberellin 12 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 110 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
gibberellin 12 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 110 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-, involved in gibberellin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes 2beta hydroxylation of C20- but not C19-gibberellins
-
-
?
gibberellin 12 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 110 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
GA2ox5 and GA2ox6
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, P93771
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9XHM5
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
-
inactivated product
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
PsGAox1but not PsGAox2
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
GA2ox6 in vitro activity
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 20 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 5 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 3 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
measurement of gibberellin responsiveness of GA2ox genes in the developmental series of wild-type plants, spraying of the plants with 100 microM substrate
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, P93771
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9XG83
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9XFR9
the efficiency of deactivation of exogenous gibberellin 4 by the enzyme is dependent on light conditions
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
GA2ox6 in vitro activity and other gibberellin 2-oxidase activities with 14C-labeled substrate (in 10% methanol) applied to the shoot apex of plants
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 4 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2 + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 5 mM ascorbate, 0.5 mM FeSO4, overnight incubation with 2H2-labeled substrates at 30C
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 methyl-ester + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 methyl-ester + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 44 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 98 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, P93771
-
-
?
gibberellin 53 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 97 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
ir
gibberellin 53 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 97 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 53 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 97 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
GA2ox5 and GA2ox6
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 51 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 51 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 51 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 51 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 51 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 51 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, P93771
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 51 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
GA2ox6 in vitro activity and other gibberellin 2-oxidase activities with 14C-labeled substrate (in 10% methanol) applied to the shoot apex of plants
-
-
?
[1,2,3-3H3]gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme I
-
-
?
[2,3-3H2]gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme II
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 9 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
gibberellin 20 do not serve as substrates for the enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no conversion of gibberellin 1 to gibberellin 8
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q75V70
enzyme seems to play a predominant role in gibberellin homeostasis under mild gibberellin variations, but not under large gibberellin changes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q75V70
GA2ox3 seems to play a predominant role in gibberellin homeostasis under mild gibberellin variations, but not under large gibberellin changes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A7LCJ5
role of isoform GA2ox1 in early tuber initiation by modifying gibberelic acid levels in the subapical stolon region
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q9XFR9
no substrate: 2,2-dimethylgibberllin4. 2,2-dimethylgibberllin4 is significantly more effective in inducing ga1-3 germination than gibberllin4 when the seeds are imbibed in the dark after an far red light pulse. The two chemicals are nearly equally effective in inducing ga1-3 germination after an red light pulse, which activates phytochrome B in this condition and down-regulates AtGA2ox2 expression
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
5 different gibberellin 2-oxidases regulate plant development at various stages by prevention of seed germination in the absence of light and cold stimuli, delay of vegetative and floral phase transition, limitation of the number of flowers produced per inflorescence, suppression of elongation of the pistil prior to fertilization, limitation of main stem and side shoot elongation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
no products detectable of GA2ox6 (in vitro activity) with C20-gibberellin substrates gibberellin 12 and 53 and with C19-gibberellin substrate 7
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
-
-
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
catabolization of biologically active gibberellin
-
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
catabolization of biologically active gibberellin
-
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
gibberellin 12 and 53
gibberellin 110, the product of gibberellin 12
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ?
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
-
inactivation of the plant hormone gibberellin by oxidation
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivates hormonal function of giberellins
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
major gibberellin catabolic enzyme
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9SQ80
multifunctional enzyme catalyzing 2beta hydroxylation and 2-ketone formation of the C19-gibberellin substrates giberellin 9, gibberellin 20 gibberellin 1 and gibberellin 4
-
-
-
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of bioactive gibberellins
-
-
?
gibberellin 12 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 110 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in gibberellin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes 2beta hydroxylation of C20- but not C19-gibberellins
-
-
?
gibberellin 53 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 97 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-, Q75V70
enzyme seems to play a predominant role in gibberellin homeostasis under mild gibberellin variations, but not under large gibberellin changes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q75V70
GA2ox3 seems to play a predominant role in gibberellin homeostasis under mild gibberellin variations, but not under large gibberellin changes
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A7LCJ5
role of isoform GA2ox1 in early tuber initiation by modifying gibberelic acid levels in the subapical stolon region
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
5 different gibberellin 2-oxidases regulate plant development at various stages by prevention of seed germination in the absence of light and cold stimuli, delay of vegetative and floral phase transition, limitation of the number of flowers produced per inflorescence, suppression of elongation of the pistil prior to fertilization, limitation of main stem and side shoot elongation
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-oxoglutarate
-
activity dependent upon
2-oxoglutarate
-
-
ascorbate
-
activity dependend upon
ascorbate
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Co2+
-
1 mM, activating effect in combination with 2-oxoglutarate
Fe2+
-
; required as cofactor, stimulated by addition of exogenous Fe2+
Fe2+
-
activity dependent upon
Fe2+
-
necessary for enzyme activity
Fe2+
-
1 mM, increases activity, in combination with 2-oxoglutarate
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
auxin hormone from seeds decreases PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels 2 h after application to deseeded pericarps and remains low throughout the treatment period
gibberellin 1
-
efficient inhibitor of gibberellin 20 2beta-hydroxylation
gibberellin 1
-
strong inhibition of the conversion of gibberellin 20
gibberellin 1
-
50% inhibition at 2-10 nmol
gibberellin 3
-
strong inhibition of the conversion of gibberellin 20
gibberellin 3
-
inhibits oxidation of 16,17-dihydro gibberellin 4
gibberellin 3
-
50% inhibition at 2-10 nmol
gibberellin 3
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
application to deseeded pericarps decreases PsGA2ox1 transcript abundance within 2 h but less significant as 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid or the presence of seeds
gibberellin 4
-
50% inhibition at 0.2-0.3 nmol
gibberellin 4 methyl ester
-
inhibits oxidation of 16,17-dihydro gibberellin 4
Gibberellin 5
-
strong inhibition of the conversion of gibberellin 20
gibberellin 9
-
50% inhibition at 11 nmol
Gibberellin methyl ester
-
-
indole-3-acetic acid
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
auxin hormone from seeds decreases PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels 2 h after application to deseeded pericarps, sharply increases after 4 h and stays elevated
N,N-dimethyl succinic acid hydrazide
-
-
prohexadione
-
inhibits gibberellin 2-oxidase, but is not effective in promoting germination and elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings
-
succinic acid
-
-
methyl 6-chloro-3H-1,2,3-benzodithiazole-4-carboxylate 2-oxide
-
highly specific inhibitor of gibberellin 2-oxidase, evaluation as inhibitor of gibberellin catabolism in planta. The compound promotes both the germination and elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings
-
additional information
-
inhibitor development block GA catabolism in plants, in vitro random screening, overview. No or poor inhibition by 2-acetamido-5-chlorobenzoic acid methylester, 5-chlorooxindole, 6-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole, 7-chloro-2H-1,4-benzothiazin-3(4H)-one, methyl 5-chloroanthranilate, methyl 5-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate, methyl 3-chlorobenzoate
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
17-beta-estradiol
-
0.04 mM
2-oxoglutarate
-
-
4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
auxin hormone increases PsGA2ox2 mRNA levels up to 4 h after application, 8 h after application levels are down to deseeded pericarp levels, seed-presence induces increase in PsGA2ox2 transcripts that is reduced by day 5 after anthesis
ascorbic acid
-
-
catalase
-
activity is stimulated by
-
gibberellin 3
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
application to deseeded pericarps increases PsGA2ox2 levels 8 h after application
additional information
-
the combination of 1 mM 2-oxoglutarate and 4 mM ascorbate increases activity
-
additional information
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
no effect of the auxin hormone indole-3-acetic acid during the 12 h treatment period
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.021
-
alpha-ketoglutarate
-
-
0.000069
-
gibberellin 1
-
-
0.000024
-
gibberellin 20
Q9XHM5
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.9 containing 4 mM ascorbate, 4 mM DTT, 4 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 2 mg/ml bovine serum albumin and 1 mg/ml catalase
0.00155
-
gibberellin 20
-
-
0.000299
-
gibberellin 9
-
-
0.000302
-
[1,2,3-3H3]gibberellin 20
-
isoenzyme I
0.01244
-
[1,2,3-3H3]gibberellin 20
-
isoenzyme II
0.000052
-
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 1
-
isoenzyme II
0.000085
-
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 1
-
-
0.000103
-
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 1
-
isoenzyme I
0.0118
-
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 1
-
isoenzyme I
0.00006
-
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 4
-
isoenzyme I
0.000135
-
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 4
-
isoenzyme II
0.000027
-
[2,3-3H2]gibberellin 9
-
isoenzyme II
0.000538
-
[2,3-3H2]gibberellin 9
-
isoenzyme I
0.0045
-
[2,3-3H2]gibberellin 9
-
isoenzyme II
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
-
0.000000000191mol per h
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
7
-
similar optimum for both isoenzymes
7.4
7.8
-
-
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.1
7.8
-
-
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.8
-
A0FK57, -
calculated
7.5
9
-
isoelectrofocusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
embryonic axes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0FK57, -
main expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
24 d inflorescence: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 24 d inflorescence: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 24 d inflorescence: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 24 d inflorescence: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 24 d inflorescence: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0FK57, -
immature fruit, minor expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0FK57, -
minor expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
24 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant, no GA2ox4 expression; 24 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant, no GA2ox4 expression; 24 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant, no GA2ox4 expression; 24 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant, no GA2ox4 expression; 24 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant, no GA2ox4 expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
elevated PsGA2ox2 transcript levels 2 days prior to anthesis, directly after pollination decrease, removal of seeds 2-3 days after anthesis leads to inhibition of transitory increase of PsGA2ox2 observed in seed-containing pericarps, reduction of PsGA2ox2 by day 5 after anthesis, seed presence represses the expression of PsGA2ox2 during days 5-12 after anthesis; high levels of PsGA2ox1 prior to anthesis, reduced increase (15fold) of PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels directly after pollination compared to unpollinated pericarp (50-fold increase), decrease of pollinated and unpollinated levels one day after anthesis and further, concomitant with high pericarp growth rates, removal of seeds 2-3 days after anthesis increases PsGA2ox1 transcript levels compared to seed-containing pericarp, seed presence represses the expression of PsGA2ox1 during days 5-12 after anthesis, unpollinated ovaries degenerate after 4 d; major nutrient sink in the developing pea fruit until 8-12 days after pollination
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0FK57, -
minor expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2, GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 dominant; 7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2, GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 dominant; 7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2, GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 dominant; 7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2, GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 dominant; 7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2, GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 dominant
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mature and immature seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mature seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mature seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, P93771
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in the suspensor neck region from the late globular stage up to the heart stage
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
dry seed: GA2ox1 and GA2ox4 not expressed, high levels of GA2ox2 and GA2ox3, GA2ox6 dominant, 24 h inhibited seed: low expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox4, highest expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox6, expression of GA2ox3; dry seed: GA2ox1 and GA2ox4 not expressed, high levels of GA2ox2 and GA2ox3, GA2ox6 dominant, 24 h inhibited seed: low expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox4, highest expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox6, expression of GA2ox3; dry seed: GA2ox1 and GA2ox4 not expressed, high levels of GA2ox2 and GA2ox3, GA2ox6 dominant, 24 h inhibited seed: low expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox4, highest expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox6, expression of GA2ox3; dry seed: GA2ox1 and GA2ox4 not expressed, high levels of GA2ox2 and GA2ox3, GA2ox6 dominant, 24 h inhibited seed: low expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox4, highest expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox6, expression of GA2ox3; dry seed: GA2ox1 and GA2ox4 not expressed, high levels of GA2ox2 and GA2ox3, GA2ox6 dominant, 24 h inhibited seed: low expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox4, highest expression of GA2ox2 and GA2ox6, expression of GA2ox3
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
relatively strong expression in immature and low expression in mature seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9SQ80, Q9XHM5
from day 10-12 PsGA2ox1 levels increase dramatically and remain elevated through day 20 after anthesis, high levels of PsGA2ox1 mRNA are found in testa compared with the cotyledons at day 26 after anthesis; presence of seeds is required for normal development of fruit from pericarp, removal of seeds leads to slowing of pericarp growth and subsequent abscission, the seed is the terminal nutrient sink when the development of the pea embryo begins; presence of seeds is required for normal development of fruit from pericarp, removal of seeds leads to slowing of pericarp growth and subsequent abscission, the seed is the terminal nutrient sink when the development of the pea embryo begins
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
3 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (second highest level), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, and GA2ox6 (dominant); 3 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (second highest level), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, and GA2ox6 (dominant); 3 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (second highest level), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, and GA2ox6 (dominant); 3 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (second highest level), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, and GA2ox6 (dominant); 3 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (second highest level), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, and GA2ox6 (dominant)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3 (very low expression), GA2ox4, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant; 7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3 (very low expression), GA2ox4, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant; 7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3 (very low expression), GA2ox4, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant; 7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3 (very low expression), GA2ox4, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant; 7 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox3 (very low expression), GA2ox4, GA2ox2 and GA2ox6 dominant
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
very low expression in apical shoot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A0FK57, -
minor expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
24 d: expression of GA20x1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox6 (second highest level), no GA2ox4 expression; 24 d: expression of GA20x1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox6 (second highest level), no GA2ox4 expression; 24 d: expression of GA20x1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox6 (second highest level), no GA2ox4 expression; 24 d: expression of GA20x1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox6 (second highest level), no GA2ox4 expression; 24 d: expression of GA20x1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox6 (second highest level), no GA2ox4 expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A7LCJ5
GA2ox1 is predominantly expressed in the subapical region of the stolon and growing tuber
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A7LCJ5
isoform GA2ox1 is upregulated during the early stages of tuber development prior to visible swelling. It is predominantly expressed in the subapical region of the stolon and growing tuber
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
26000
-
-
isoenzyme I, size exclusion column, SDS-PAGE
35000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
36000
-
-
gel filtration
36800
-
Q9XHM5
SDS-PAGE
42000
-
-
isoenzyme II, gel filtration, SDS-PAGE
43000
-
-
major protein, SDS-PAGE
44000
-
-
gel filtration
45000
-
-
minor protein, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
-
1339 bp, 1014 open reading frame encodes a putative protein of 334 amino acids
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
A0FK57, -
x * 36040, calculated
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.8
7.8
-
activity is highest at pH 7.0-8.0 and decreases rapidly below pH 7.0, enzyme is unstable when stored below pH 7 or in absence of a thiol reagent
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
dialysis of the extracted soluble protein results in complete loss of activity
-
enzyme is very acid-labile. EDTA has beneficial effect on enzyme stability if Mg2+ is present in storage buffer
-
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ethanol
-
no significant inhibition up to a concentration of 2%
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, enzyme activity lost upon storage, regained by addition of catalase to the reaction mixture
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS; 24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS; 24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS; 24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS; 24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
Escherichia coli cells with recombinant enzyme grown at 37C, harvested and suspended in lysis buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5), sonication in ice water, centrifuged, supernatant collected and stored at -80C for enzyme activity assays
-
Escherichia coli with recombinant enzyme are centrifuged, resuspended in a BugBuster Protein Extraction Reagent, centrifuged, supernatants eluted through a GST-Bind resin with 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.0, containing 10 mM reduced glutathione, storage at -80C
-
two gibberellin 2beta-hydroxylases partially purified
-
glutathione agarose bead affinity chromatography and gel filtration
Q9XHM5
recombinant enzyme
-, Q9SQ80
glutathione Sepharose 4B column chromatography
-
Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and Superdex G-25 column chromatography, Mini S column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
3 GA 2-oxidase cDNAs cloned by database screening
-
expressed in tobacco plants, expression of enzyme causes dwarf growth, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21pLysS
-
full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements; full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements; full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements; full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements; full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
functional overexpression in Brassica napus cv. N529 using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 for transfection, the recombinant expression leads to decreased biomass accumulation and lignification, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis. The transgenic plants show growth retardation, flowering delay, and dwarf stature, phenotype, overview
O49561
reporter plasmid: promoter region of GA2ox7 amplified from genomic DNA by PCR, fused to luciferase gene in pUC19, effector plasmid: replacing GUS gene of pBI221 with DDF1 coding region, reference plasmid with Renilla luciferase gene, introduction of the plasmids to leaves via particle bombardment, leaves incubated on 0.8% agar plates at 22C for 24 h. transgenic plants: PCR-amplificatoin of DDF1 coding region, cloned into pENTER-TOPO, inserted into vector pGWB8, Agrobacterium (strain EHA105)-mediated transformation of wild-type and GA2ox7-2 plants
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expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana
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rapid amplification of cDNA ends, expression vector produced by PCR, inserted into PMD 18 T-Simple Vector, inserted into pMAL-c2x vector, transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli Tb1
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cDNA isolation of OsGA2ox1, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, ectopic expression in transgenic rice
-, P93771
gene OsGA2ox6, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison, semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis
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PCR-amplifiction of cDNA, inserted via pGEM-T Easy cloning vector and pAHC18 into pCAMBIA1301 and transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens (strain EHA105) and used to transform rice and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), or for activity assays subcloned into pGEX-5X expression vector to transform Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
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ectopic expression in Triticum aestivum
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expressed in Escherichia coli
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expression in Solanum melanocerasum and Solanum nigrum
-, Q9XG83
GA 2-oxidase cDNA cloned by functional screening
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cDNA library, SLENDER gene encodes gibberellin 2-oxidase
-, Q9SQ80
expressed in Escherichia coli
Q9XHM5
SLN gene, 2 cDNAs encoding gibberellin 2-oxidases, PsGA2ox1 isolated by screening of a Lambda-ZAP cDNA library, excised into phagemid form and expressed in Escherichia coli, PsGA2ox2 obtained as PCR product and expressed in Escherichia coli
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two cDNAs for GA 2-oxidase isolated by functional screening and reverse transcription
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overexpression in Solanum tuberosum
A7LCJ5
expressed in Nicotiana sylvestris
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expressed in Escherichia coli
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EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, positively regulates the OsGA2ox6 gene
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-, Q9XFR9
a loss-of-function mutation of isoform ga2ox2 causes an increase in gibberellin 4 levels and partly suppresses the germination inability during dark imbibition after inactivation of phytochrome. The efficiency of deactivation of exogenous gibberellin 4 by the enzyme is dependent on light conditions
additional information
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scc7-D is an allele of isoform GA2ox8 and a genetic suppressor of the long-hypocotyl phenotype of the cryptochrome1/cryptochrome2 mutation in a light-dependent manner. Cryptochromes are required for the blue light regulation of GA2ox1, GA20ox1, and GA3ox1 expression in transient induction, continuous illumination, and photoperiodic conditions
additional information
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
single loss-of-function mutants do not exhibit any obvious phenotype, quintuple mutant (loss of function alleles of all five C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase genes) leads to a complete loss of C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase (C19-GA2ox) activity, with effects on other gibberellin regulated genes (reduced expression of gibberellin biosynthetic genes) and positive regulation of the C20-GA2ox gene GA20x8, like the positive regulation of 4 of the 5 C19-GA2ox genes with the exception of GA2ox3, thus, partial compensation for the activity loss of C19-GA2ox is reached by a combination of feedback and feed-forward regulation of various steps in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway; single loss-of-function mutants do not exhibit any obvious phenotype, quintuple mutant (loss of function alleles of all five C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase genes) leads to a complete loss of C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase (C19-GA2ox) activity, with effects on other gibberellin regulated genes (reduced expression of gibberellin biosynthetic genes) and positive regulation of the C20-GA2ox gene GA20x8, like the positive regulation of 4 of the 5 C19-GA2ox genes with the exception of GA2ox3, thus, partial compensation for the activity loss of C19-GA2ox is reached by a combination of feedback and feed-forward regulation of various steps in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway; single loss-of-function mutants do not exhibit any obvious phenotype, quintuple mutant (loss of function alleles of all five C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase genes) leads to a complete loss of C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase (C19-GA2ox) activity, with effects on other gibberellin regulated genes (reduced expression of gibberellin biosynthetic genes) and positive regulation of the C20-GA2ox gene GA20x8, like the positive regulation of 4 of the 5 C19-GA2ox genes with the exception of GA2ox3, thus, partial compensation for the activity loss of C19-GA2ox is reached by a combination of feedback and feed-forward regulation of various steps in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway; single loss-of-function mutants do not exhibit any obvious phenotype, quintuple mutant (loss of function alleles of all five C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase genes) leads to a complete loss of C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase (C19-GA2ox) activity, with effects on other gibberellin regulated genes (reduced expression of gibberellin biosynthetic genes) and positive regulation of the C20-GA2ox gene GA20x8, like the positive regulation of 4 of the 5 C19-GA2ox genes with the exception of GA2ox3, thus, partial compensation for the activity loss of C19-GA2ox is reached by a combination of feedback and feed-forward regulation of various steps in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway; single loss-of-function mutants do not exhibit any obvious phenotype, quintuple mutant (loss of function alleles of all five C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase genes) leads to a complete loss of C19-gibberellin 2-oxidase (C19-GA2ox) activity, with effects on other gibberellin regulated genes (reduced expression of gibberellin biosynthetic genes) and positive regulation of the C20-GA2ox gene GA20x8, like the positive regulation of 4 of the 5 C19-GA2ox genes with the exception of GA2ox3, thus, partial compensation for the activity loss of C19-GA2ox is reached by a combination of feedback and feed-forward regulation of various steps in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway
additional information
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loss-of-funtion mutation of GA2ox7 suppresses the dwarf phenotype of DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) mutants, indicating that their gibberellin deficiency is due to overexpression of GA2ox7, DDF1 activates the promoter of GA2ox7 in leaves. Under high-salinity stress (250 mM), osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol) GA2ox7 is unregulated and slightly unregulated under the stress hormone abscisic acid (100 microM), the GA2ox7 loss-of-function mutant is less growth retarded than the wild-type under high-salinity stress
additional information
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fusion enzyme MdGA2ox1-MBP
additional information
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mutants overexpressing GA2ox9ACT, GA2ox5delta335-341ACT, and GA2ox6, motif III of the conserved motifs characteristic for C20 GA2oxs is necessary for C20 GA2ox activity, motif III is present in rice GA2ox5, GA2ox6, and GAsox9
additional information
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isolation of a CaMV 35S-enhancer activation tagged mutant, H032, showing an increased level of OsGA2ox6 mRNA compared to the wild-type plants. RNAi and ectopic expression analysis of OsGA2ox6 show that the dwarf trait and the decreased levels of bioactive GAs in the H032 mutant are a result of the upregulation of the OsGA2ox6 gene. The H032 mutant retains normal flowering and seed production
additional information
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ectopic expression of gibberllin 2-oxidase in wheat decreases the content of bioactive gibberellins and produces a range of dwarf plants with different degrees of severity. The dwarf phenotype is stably inherited over at least four generations and includes dark-green leaves, increasing tillering and, in severe cases, a prostrate growth habit. Expression of gibberlic acid biosynthesis genens TaGA20ox1 and TaGA3ox2 is up-regulated ant that of two alpha-amylase genes down-regulated in scutella of semi-dwarf lines. The phenotypes are restored to normal by application of gibberellin 3
additional information
-, Q9XG83
expression of isoform PcGA2ox1 in Solanum melanocerasum and Solanum nigrum results in transgenic plants with a range of dwarf phenotypes associated with a severe reduction in the concentrations of biologically active gibberellins 1 and 4. Flowering and fruit development are unaffected. Transgenic plants contain greater concentrations of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, although chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents are reduced
additional information
A7LCJ5
isoform GA2ox1 overexpressing transformants exhibit a dwarf phenotype, reduced stolon growth and earlier in vitro tuberization. Transgenic plants with reduced expression of GA2ox1 show normal growth, an altered stolon swelling phenotype, and delayind in vitro tuberization. tubers of Ga2ox1 suppression clones contain increased levels of gibberllin 20
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
agriculture
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cryptochromes are required for the transient induction of GA2ox1 expression in etiolated seedlings exposed to blue light, for the sustained elevation of GA2ox1 expression in seedlings grown in continuous blue light, and for maintaining a high amplitude of the circadian rhythm of GA2ox1 expression in seedlings grown in long-day photoperiods
agriculture
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breeding plants with reduced height, increased root biomass, normal flowering and seed production by overexpression of C20 gibberellin 2-oxidases: first overexpression of GA2ox9ACT mutant generates semidwarf rice with only slightly reduced grain weight and fertility, increased tiller number (by 22%) compared to wild-type, second overexpression of C20 GA2oxs with defective motif III, such as GA2ox5delta335-341ACT mutant, generates a semidwarf rice variety with reduced grain weight (by 16%) and fertility (by 12%) and twofold increased tiller number, third overexpression of a selected C20 GA2ox gene, such as GA2ox6 with less effect on plant growth under the control of a weak promoter could be beneficial without sacrificing seed production
agriculture
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ectopic expression of gibberllin 2-oxidase in wheat decreases the content of bioactive gibberellins and produces a range of dwarf plants with different degrees of severity. The dwarf phenotype is stably inherited over at least four generations and includes dark-green leaves, increasing tillering and, in severe cases, a prostrate growth habit. Expression of gibberlic acid biosynthesis genens TaGA20ox1 and TaGA3ox2 is up-regulated ant that of two alpha-amylase genes down-regulated in scutella of semi-dwarf lines. The phenotypes are restored to normal by application of gibberellin 3
agriculture
-, Q9XG83
expression of isoform PcGA2ox1 in Solanum melanocerasum and Solanum nigrum results in transgenic plants with a range of dwarf phenotypes associated with a severe reduction in the concentrations of biologically active gibberellins 1 and 4. Flowering and fruit development are unaffected. Transgenic plants contain greater concentrations of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll, although chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents are reduced
agriculture
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creation of dwarf plants