Information on EC 1.14.11.13 - gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase

New: Word Map on EC 1.14.11.13
Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Search Reference ID:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Magnoliophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.14.11.13
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
gibberellin 2beta-dioxygenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 = 2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
also acts on a number of gibberellins
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Diterpenoid biosynthesis
-
-
gibberellin inactivation I (2beta-hydroxylation)
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(gibberellin-1),2-oxoglutarate:oxygen oxidoreductase (2beta-hydroxylating)
Also acts on a number of other gibberellins.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
85713-20-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Fuji on rootstock Malus prunifolia
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Canadian Wonder
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
dwarf transgenic hybrid poplar, Populus tremula x Populus alba
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform SlGA2ox2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform StGA2ox1
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
reduced biomass accumulation and lignification occurs in the AtGA2ox8 overexpressing Brassica napus transgenic plants, which might be due to altered lignin biosynthetic gene expression
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
16,17-dihydro gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
16,17-dihydro gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
16,17-dihydrogibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
16,17-dihydrogibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADGAHGVYCFADDGYAIFCGAAGAE + ?
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ?
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of the plant hormone gibberellin by oxidation
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2 + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 5 mM ascorbate, 0.5 mM FeSO4, overnight incubation with 2H2-labeled substrates at 30C
-
-
?
gibberellin 12 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 110 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 20 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 29 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 5 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 3 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
measurement of gibberellin responsiveness of GA2ox genes in the developmental series of wild-type plants, spraying of the plants with 100 microM substrate
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 4 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin 4 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 + succinate + CO2 + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 5 mM ascorbate, 0.5 mM FeSO4, overnight incubation with 2H2-labeled substrates at 30C
-
-
?
gibberellin 4 methyl-ester + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 34 methyl-ester + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 44 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 98 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
gibberellin 53 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 97 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 9 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 51 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
[1,2,3-3H3]gibberellin 20 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
[2,3-3H2]gibberellin 9 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoenzyme II
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin + 2-oxoglutarate + O2 + ?
2beta-hydroxygibberellin + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
O64692, Q8LEA2, Q9C7Z1, Q9FZ21, Q9XFR9
-
inactivation of the plant hormone gibberellin by oxidation
-
?
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
2beta-hydroxygibberellin 1 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin 1 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 8 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
gibberellin 12 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 110 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in gibberellin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes 2beta hydroxylation of C20- but not C19-gibberellins
-
-
?
gibberellin 53 + 2-oxoglutarate + O2
gibberellin 97 + succinate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-oxoglutarate
ascorbate
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid
auxin hormone from seeds decreases PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels 2 h after application to deseeded pericarps and remains low throughout the treatment period
gibberellin 1
gibberellin 3
gibberellin 4
-
50% inhibition at 0.2-0.3 nmol
gibberellin 4 methyl ester
-
inhibits oxidation of 16,17-dihydro gibberellin 4
Gibberellin 5
-
strong inhibition of the conversion of gibberellin 20
gibberellin 9
-
50% inhibition at 11 nmol
Gibberellin methyl ester
-
-
indole-3-acetic acid
auxin hormone from seeds decreases PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels 2 h after application to deseeded pericarps, sharply increases after 4 h and stays elevated
methyl 6-chloro-3H-1,2,3-benzodithiazole-4-carboxylate 2-oxide
-
highly specific inhibitor of gibberellin 2-oxidase, evaluation as inhibitor of gibberellin catabolism in planta. The compound promotes both the germination and elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings
N,N-dimethyl succinic acid hydrazide
-
-
prohexadione
-
inhibits gibberellin 2-oxidase, but is not effective in promoting germination and elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings
succinic acid
-
-
additional information
-
inhibitor development block GA catabolism in plants, in vitro random screening, overview. No or poor inhibition by 2-acetamido-5-chlorobenzoic acid methylester, 5-chlorooxindole, 6-chloro-2-mercaptobenzothiazole, 7-chloro-2H-1,4-benzothiazin-3(4H)-one, methyl 5-chloroanthranilate, methyl 5-chloro-2-nitrobenzoate, methyl 3-chlorobenzoate
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
17-beta-estradiol
-
0.04 mM
2-oxoglutarate
-
-
4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid
auxin hormone increases PsGA2ox2 mRNA levels up to 4 h after application, 8 h after application levels are down to deseeded pericarp levels, seed-presence induces increase in PsGA2ox2 transcripts that is reduced by day 5 after anthesis
ascorbic acid
-
-
catalase
-
activity is stimulated by
-
gibberellin 3
application to deseeded pericarps increases PsGA2ox2 levels 8 h after application
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.021
alpha-ketoglutarate
-
-
0.000069
gibberellin 1
-
-
0.000024 - 0.00155
gibberellin 20
0.000299
gibberellin 9
-
-
0.000302 - 0.01244
[1,2,3-3H3]gibberellin 20
0.000052 - 0.0118
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 1
0.00006 - 0.000135
[1,2-3H2]gibberellin 4
0.000027 - 0.0045
[2,3-3H2]gibberellin 9
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
-
0.000000000191mol per h
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6 - 7
-
similar optimum for both isoenzymes
7.4 - 7.8
-
-
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.1 - 7.8
-
-
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.5 - 9
-
isoelectrofocusing
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
embryonic axes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
immature fruit, minor expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
elevated PsGA2ox2 transcript levels 2 days prior to anthesis, directly after pollination decrease, removal of seeds 2-3 days after anthesis leads to inhibition of transitory increase of PsGA2ox2 observed in seed-containing pericarps, reduction of PsGA2ox2 by day 5 after anthesis, seed presence represses the expression of PsGA2ox2 during days 5-12 after anthesis; high levels of PsGA2ox1 prior to anthesis, reduced increase (15fold) of PsGA2ox1 mRNA levels directly after pollination compared to unpollinated pericarp (50-fold increase), decrease of pollinated and unpollinated levels one day after anthesis and further, concomitant with high pericarp growth rates, removal of seeds 2-3 days after anthesis increases PsGA2ox1 transcript levels compared to seed-containing pericarp, seed presence represses the expression of PsGA2ox1 during days 5-12 after anthesis, unpollinated ovaries degenerate after 4 d; major nutrient sink in the developing pea fruit until 8-12 days after pollination
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 11 d, expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level); 31 d: expression of GA2ox1, GA2ox2 (dominant), GA2ox3, GA2ox4, GA2ox6 (second highest level)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GA2ox1 is predominantly expressed in the subapical region of the stolon and growing tuber
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform GA2ox1 is upregulated during the early stages of tuber development prior to visible swelling. It is predominantly expressed in the subapical region of the stolon and growing tuber
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
26000
-
isoenzyme I, size exclusion column, SDS-PAGE
35000
-
SDS-PAGE
36800
SDS-PAGE
42000
-
isoenzyme II, gel filtration, SDS-PAGE
43000
-
major protein, SDS-PAGE
44000
-
gel filtration
45000
-
minor protein, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
1339 bp, 1014 open reading frame encodes a putative protein of 334 amino acids
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
x * 36040, calculated
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.8 - 7.8
-
activity is highest at pH 7.0-8.0 and decreases rapidly below pH 7.0, enzyme is unstable when stored below pH 7 or in absence of a thiol reagent
439270
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
dialysis of the extracted soluble protein results in complete loss of activity
-
enzyme is very acid-labile. EDTA has beneficial effect on enzyme stability if Mg2+ is present in storage buffer
-
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ethanol
-
no significant inhibition up to a concentration of 2%
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, enzyme activity lost upon storage, regained by addition of catalase to the reaction mixture
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS; 24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS; 24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS; 24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS; 24 h after application of 14C-labelled substrate to the shoot apex, whole shoots are harvested, rinsed with water, same genotype shoots combined and homogenized in 80% methanol water, stirring overnight at 4C, filtration, residue re-extracted in methanol for 1 h, filtered, combined filtrates vacuum dried, weak acid fraction prepared by solvent partitioning, anion exchange, and C18 SPE (no solvent partitioning for substrate gibberellin 9), purified samples are analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with online radiomonitoring, identification of radiolabeled products by GC-MS
Escherichia coli cells with recombinant enzyme grown at 37C, harvested and suspended in lysis buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5), sonication in ice water, centrifuged, supernatant collected and stored at -80C for enzyme activity assays
-
Escherichia coli with recombinant enzyme are centrifuged, resuspended in a BugBuster Protein Extraction Reagent, centrifuged, supernatants eluted through a GST-Bind resin with 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 8.0, containing 10 mM reduced glutathione, storage at -80C
-
glutathione agarose bead affinity chromatography and gel filtration
glutathione Sepharose 4B column chromatography
-
recombinant enzyme
Sephadex G-25 column chromatography and Superdex G-25 column chromatography, Mini S column chromatography and gel filtration chromatography
-
two gibberellin 2beta-hydroxylases partially purified
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
3 GA 2-oxidase cDNAs cloned by database screening
-
cDNA isolation of OsGA2ox1, heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, ectopic expression in transgenic rice
cDNA library, SLENDER gene encodes gibberellin 2-oxidase
ectopic expression in Triticum aestivum
-
expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
expressed in Nicotiana sylvestris
-
expressed in tobacco plants, expression of enzyme causes dwarf growth, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21pLysS
-
expression in Solanum melanocerasum and Solanum nigrum
full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements; full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements; full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements; full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements; full-length coding sequence of GA2ox6 amplified by PCR, cloned into pET32a to be expressed as fusion with thioredoxin in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) for in vitro enzyme activity measurements
functional overexpression in Brassica napus cv. N529 using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 for transfection, the recombinant expression leads to decreased biomass accumulation and lignification, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis. The transgenic plants show growth retardation, flowering delay, and dwarf stature, phenotype, overview
GA 2-oxidase cDNA cloned by functional screening
-
gene OsGA2ox6, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison, semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis
-
overexpression in Solanum tuberosum
PCR-amplifiction of cDNA, inserted via pGEM-T Easy cloning vector and pAHC18 into pCAMBIA1301 and transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens (strain EHA105) and used to transform rice and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), or for activity assays subcloned into pGEX-5X expression vector to transform Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
-
rapid amplification of cDNA ends, expression vector produced by PCR, inserted into PMD 18 T-Simple Vector, inserted into pMAL-c2x vector, transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli Tb1
-
reporter plasmid: promoter region of GA2ox7 amplified from genomic DNA by PCR, fused to luciferase gene in pUC19, effector plasmid: replacing GUS gene of pBI221 with DDF1 coding region, reference plasmid with Renilla luciferase gene, introduction of the plasmids to leaves via particle bombardment, leaves incubated on 0.8% agar plates at 22C for 24 h. transgenic plants: PCR-amplificatoin of DDF1 coding region, cloned into pENTER-TOPO, inserted into vector pGWB8, Agrobacterium (strain EHA105)-mediated transformation of wild-type and GA2ox7-2 plants
-
SLN gene, 2 cDNAs encoding gibberellin 2-oxidases, PsGA2ox1 isolated by screening of a Lambda-ZAP cDNA library, excised into phagemid form and expressed in Escherichia coli, PsGA2ox2 obtained as PCR product and expressed in Escherichia coli
-
two cDNAs for GA 2-oxidase isolated by functional screening and reverse transcription
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
GA biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, positively regulates the OsGA2ox6 gene
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture