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Information on EC 2.4.1.46 - monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase and Organism(s) Spinacia oleracea and UniProt Accession Q9SM44

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     2 Transferases
         2.4 Glycosyltransferases
             2.4.1 Hexosyltransferases
                2.4.1.46 monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
IUBMB Comments
This enzyme adds only one galactosyl group to the diacylglycerol; EC 2.4.1.241, digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase, adds a galactosyl group to the product of the above reaction. There are three isoforms in Arabidopsis that can be divided into two types, A-type (MGD1) and B-type (MGD2 and MGD3). MGD1 is the isoform responsible for the bulk of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) synthesis in Arabidopsis .
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Select one or more organisms in this record:
This record set is specific for:
Spinacia oleracea
UNIPROT: Q9SM44
Word Map
The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria
The taxonomic range for the selected organisms is: Spinacia oleracea
Synonyms
1,2-diacylglycerol 3-beta-galactosyltransferase, atMGD1, atMGD2, atMGD3, galactosyltransferase, uridine diphosphogalactose-1,2-diacylglycerol, MGD, MGD1, MGD2, MGD3, MgdA, more
SYNONYM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
1,2-diacylglycerol 3-beta-galactosyltransferase
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-
-
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galactosyltransferase, uridine diphosphogalactose-1,2-diacylglycerol
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MGDG synthase
UDP galactose-1,2-diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase
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-
-
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UDP-galactose-diacylglyceride galactosyltransferase
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-
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UDP-galactose:1,2-diacylglycerol 3-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
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UDP-galactose:diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase
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-
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uridine diphosphogalactose-1,2-diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase
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REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
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-
-
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PATHWAY SOURCE
PATHWAYS
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-galactose:1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-beta-D-galactosyltransferase
This enzyme adds only one galactosyl group to the diacylglycerol; EC 2.4.1.241, digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase, adds a galactosyl group to the product of the above reaction. There are three isoforms in Arabidopsis that can be divided into two types, A-type (MGD1) and B-type (MGD2 and MGD3). MGD1 is the isoform responsible for the bulk of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) synthesis in Arabidopsis [4].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37277-55-7
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SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dilinoleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + 1,2-dioleoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-dioleoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + 1,2-distearoylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-distearoylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
NATURAL SUBSTRATE
NATURAL PRODUCT
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDPgalactose + 1,2-diacylglycerol
UDP + 3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,2-diacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Mg2+
-
cation not required; stimulates
Mn2+
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stimulates, cation not required
Zn2+
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1 mM, stimulation, inhibition at 10 mM
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
N-ethylmaleimide
0.15 mM, 65% inactivation after 10 min, recombinant isoenzyme MGD A, preincubation with diacylglycerol and/or phosphatidylglycerol protects
4-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid
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0.01 mM, 65% inhibition
citraconic anhydride
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0.01 and 0.05 mM, 47% and 97% inactivation after 30 min, respectively
N-ethylmaleimide
o-phenanthroline
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0.1 mM, 55% inhibition, 1,2-dioleoylglycerol protects and activates enzyme
oleic acid
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0.3 mM, 58% inhibition
tert-butyoxycarbonyl-L-methionine hydrosuccinimidyl ester
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0.2 mM, almost complete inactivation after 30 min
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Lipid
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addition of lipids extracted from chloroplast membranes is necessary to reveal activity of highly delipidated enzyme fraction
phosphatidylglycerol
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best activator of partially purified, delipidated enzyme
phosphatidylinositol
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activation of partially purified, delipidated enzyme
sulfolipid
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activation of partially purified, delipidated enzyme
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additional information
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purified enzyme is not activated by lipids
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KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1
diacylglycerol
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0.0022
dilinoleoylglycerol
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in envelope membrane vesicles
0.02 - 0.18
dioleoylglycerol
0.04 - 0.1
UDPgalactose
additional information
additional information
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Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.008 - 0.052
UDP
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
2.2 - 3.2
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pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.5 - 8.5
recombinant isoenzyme MGD A
7
-
approx. value
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 9
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55% of maximal activity at pH 5.5, 85% of maximal activity at pH 9.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
-
assay at, activity maximum in long-term incubation
50
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activity maximum in short-term incubation
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
inner membrane; monotopic membrane enzyme imbedded within 1 of the 2 leaflets
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
UNIPROT
ENTRY NAME
ORGANISM
NO. OF AA
NO. OF TRANSM. HELICES
MOLECULAR WEIGHT[Da]
SOURCE
Sequence
MGDG_SPIOL
522
0
57511
Swiss-Prot
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
45000
x * 45000, most likely a dimer, processed mature enzyme, immunoblot
58000
x * 58000, precursor, deduced from nucleotide sequence
97000
inactivation after gamma-ray irradiation
22000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNIT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
x * 45000, most likely a dimer, processed mature enzyme, immunoblot; x * 58000, precursor, deduced from nucleotide sequence
monomer
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1 * 22000, SDS-PAGE
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
dithiothreitol is essential to prevent loss of activity during purification
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PURIFICATION/commentary
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cholate-solubilization, gel filtration, Zn2+-Sepharose affinity chromatography
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hydroxyapatite, partial purification
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CLONED/commentary
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression of isoenzyme MGD A in Escherichia coli
REF.
AUTHORS
TITLE
JOURNAL
VOL.
PAGES
YEAR
ORGANISM (UNIPROT)
PUBMED ID
SOURCE
Heemskerk, J.W.M.; Jacobs, F.H.H.; Scheijen, M.A.M.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Wintermans, J.F.G.M.
Characterization of galactosyltransferases in spinach chloroplast envelopes
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
918
189-203
1987
Spinacia oleracea
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Teucher, T.; Heinz, E.
Purification of UDP-galactose: diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase from chloroplast envelopes of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)
Planta
184
319-326
1991
Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coves, J.; Block, M.A.; Joyard, J.; Douce, R.
Solubilization and partial purification of UDP-galactose:diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase activity from spinach chloroplast envelope
FEBS Lett.
208
401-406
1986
Spinacia oleracea
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coves, J.; Joyard, J.; Douce, R.
Lipid requirement and kinetic studies of solubilized UDP-galactose:diacylglycerol galactosyltransferase activity from spinach chloroplast envelope membranes
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
85
4966-4970
1988
Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Marechal, E.; Block, M.A.; Joyard, J.; Douce, R.
Comparison of the kinetic properties of MGDG synthase in mixed micelles and in envelope membranes from spinach chloroplast
FEBS Lett.
352
307-310
1994
Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Marechal, E.; Block, M.A.; Joyard, J.; Douce, R.
Kinetic properties of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase from spinach chloroplast envelope membranes
J. Biol. Chem.
269
5788-5798
1994
Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Marechal, E.; Miege, C.; Block, M.A.; Douce, R.; Joyard, J.
The catalytic site of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase from spinach chloroplast envelope membranes. Biochemical analysis of the structure and of the metal content
J. Biol. Chem.
270
5714-5722
1995
Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Tietje, C.; Heinz, E.
Uridine-diphospho-sulfoquinovose:diacylglycerol sulfoquinovosyltransferase activity is concentrated in the inner membrane of chloroplast envelopes
Planta
206
72-78
1998
Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Miege, C.; Marechal, E.; Shimojima, M.; Awai, K.; Block, M.A.; Ohta, H.; Takamiya, K.I.; Douce, R.; Joyard, J.
Biochemical and topological properties of type A MGDG synthase, a spinach chloroplast envelope enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic MGDG
Eur. J. Biochem.
265
990-1001
1999
Spinacia oleracea (Q9SM44), Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Marechal, E.; Awai, K.; Block, M.A.; Brun, D.; Masuda, T.; Shimada, H.; Takamiya, K.I.; Ohta, H.; Joyard, J.
The multigenic family of monogalactosyl diacylglycerol synthases
Biochem. Soc. Trans.
28
732-738
2000
Arabidopsis thaliana (O81770), Arabidopsis thaliana (O82730), Arabidopsis thaliana (Q9SI93), Cucumis sativus, Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Botte, C.; Jeanneau, C.; Snajdrova, L.; Bastien, O.; Imberty, A.; Breton, C.; Marechal, E.
Molecular modelling and site directed mutagenesis of plant chloroplast MGDG synthase reveal critical residues for activity
J. Biol. Chem.
280
34691-34701
2005
Spinacia oleracea (Q9SM44), Spinacia oleracea
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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