Information on EC 6.3.2.23 - homoglutathione synthase

New: Word Map on EC 6.3.2.23
Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Search Reference ID:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Papilionoideae

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
6.3.2.23
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
homoglutathione synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
peptide synthase reaction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
homoglutathione biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine:beta-alanine ligase (ADP-forming)
Not identical with EC 6.3.2.3 glutathione synthase.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
113875-72-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
ecotype MG-20, in nodulated plants x Mesorhizobium loti R7A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Lupinus luteus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Vicia faba
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Vigna radiata
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
-
homoglutathione synthetase has evolved from glutathione synthetase, EC 6.3.2.3, by a single gene duplication event
metabolism
-
the response profile of GSH and hGSH in nonnodulated and nodulated plants to treatment with various hormones indicate that thiol homeostasis is independent of the nitrogen source of the plants
physiological function
-
differential regulation of mRNA levels, enzyme activity, and thiol contents by hormones, overview. Glutathione and homoglutathione play distinct roles in plant development and stress response
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + gamma-glutamylcysteine + gamma-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-glutamylcysteinyl-4-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-glutamylcysteine + glycine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 7.5, 25°C
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + glycine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 7.5, 25°C
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + L-serine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-L-serine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. hydroxymethyl-glutathione
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + L-serine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-L-serine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
K+
-
stimulation
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate
-
5 mM: 10-30% inhibition
ADP
-
5 mM: 70% inhibition
AMP
-
5 mM: 10-30% inhibition
cysteine
-
5 mM: 15% inhibition
glutathione
-
5 mM: 15% inhibition
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.023 - 0.45
ATP
0.33 - 24.8
beta-Alanine
8.3
gamma-aminobutyrate
-
-
0.073 - 0.75
gamma-glutamylcysteine
0.044
gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
-
-
2.2 - 104
glycine
additional information
additional information
-
glycine, value above 100 mM, wild-type enzyme
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
73.91
ATP
Glycine max
-
-
4
0.077 - 0.708
beta-Alanine
56.82
gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
Glycine max
-
-
4246
0.001 - 0.95
glycine
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.042
-
gamma-glutamylcysteine + beta-alanine
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8 - 9
-
broad
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7 - 10
-
50% of maximal activity at pH 7 and pH 10
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
of leaf chloroplasts and root plastids
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
50000
-
SDS-PAGE
85000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
monomer
-
-
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
vapor diffusion method
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
40
-
20 h, 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.5: 15% remaining activity. 20 h, buffer plus 10% (v/v) glycerol: 30% remaining activity. 20 h, buffer with glycerol plus 1 mM dithiothreitol: 50% remaining activity. 20 h, buffer with glycerol and dithiothreitol plus 10 mg/ml bovine serum albumin: 85% remaining activity
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20°C, more than 1 mg enzyme/ml in potassium phosphate buffer, 30-50% glycerol, 1 mM dithiothreitol, stable for at least 4 months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
mixed benzamidine-sepharose/Ni2+-NTA column, Superdex-200 FPLC column
-
partial
recombinant N-terminally maltose binding protein- and His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity and immuno affinity chromatography
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Escherichia coli BL21
-
recombinant expression of N-terminally maltose binding protein- and His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), subcloning in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
abscisic acid downregulates the enzyme in nonnodulated plants, salicylic acid downregulates the enzyme slightly in nodulated plants, jasmonic acid, and auxin downregulate the enzyme in roots, cytokinins and polyamines reduce the enzyme slightly in nodulated plants
-
abscisic acid upregulates the enzyme slightly in nodulated plants, salicylic acid upregulates the enzyme slightly in nonnodulated plants, indole-3-acetic acid induces the enzyme slightly in nodulated plants
-
increased expression in response to progressive drought stress
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
L487A
-
improved catalytic efficiency using glcyine
L487A/P488A
-
conversion of substrate preference from beta-alanine to glycine
P488A
-
improved catalytic efficiency using glcyine
L534A
-
increased production of glutathione and reduced formation of homglutathione
L534A/P535A