Information on EC 6.3.2.23 - homoglutathione synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Papilionoideae

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
6.3.2.23
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
homoglutathione synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine = ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
peptide synthase reaction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
homoglutathione biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine:beta-alanine ligase (ADP-forming)
Not identical with EC 6.3.2.3 glutathione synthase.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
beta-alanine specific hGSH synthetase
-
-
-
-
hGSH synthetase
-
-
hGSHS
-
-
homoglutathione synthetase
-
-
-
-
homoglutathione synthetase
-
-
homoglutathione synthetase
-
-
homoglutathione synthetase
C9VXR2
-
synthetase, homoglutathione
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
113875-72-2
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
expressed in transgenic tobacco plants
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ecotype Jemalong
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Lupinus luteus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Vicia faba
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Vigna radiata
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + gamma-glutamylcysteine + gamma-aminobutyrate
ADP + phosphate + gamma-glutamylcysteinyl-4-aminobutyrate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-glutamylcysteine + glycine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-glutamylcysteine + glycine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-glutamylcysteine + glycine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9XEB8
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-glutamylcysteine + glycine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. glutathione
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9XEB8
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
Q9FV27
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
Q9FV26
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. homoglutathione
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
deficiency on GSH and hGSH synthesis inhibits the formation of the root nodule
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
transgenic tobacco plants expressing homoglutathione synthase in the cytosol exhibit tolerance to acifluorfen but not to fomesafen, those expressing the enzyme in chloroplasts exhibit no enhanced tolerance to acifluorfen or fomesafen
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 7.5, 25°C
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + glycine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
assay at pH 7.5, 25°C
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
exposition of plants to drought results in down-regulation of homoglutathione synthetase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation of ascorbate and homoglutathione biosynthesis in common bean nodules under stress conditions and during aging, the homoglutathione synthetase expression and activity is not affected by stress. During senescence in the first stage ascorbate decreases by 60%, while homoglutathione and antioxidant activities remain fairly constant,whereas in the second stage ascorbate and homoglutathione, their redox states, and their associated enzyme activities significantly decrease, overview
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. homoglutathione
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
deficiency on GSH and hGSH synthesis inhibits the formation of the root nodule
-
-
?
ATP + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine + beta-alanine
ADP + phosphate + gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-beta-alanine
show the reaction diagram
-
transgenic tobacco plants expressing homoglutathione synthase in the cytosol exhibit tolerance to acifluorfen but not to fomesafen, those expressing the enzyme in chloroplasts exhibit no enhanced tolerance to acifluorfen or fomesafen
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
exposition of plants to drought results in down-regulation of homoglutathione synthetase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
regulation of ascorbate and homoglutathione biosynthesis in common bean nodules under stress conditions and during aging, the homoglutathione synthetase expression and activity is not affected by stress. During senescence in the first stage ascorbate decreases by 60%, while homoglutathione and antioxidant activities remain fairly constant,whereas in the second stage ascorbate and homoglutathione, their redox states, and their associated enzyme activities significantly decrease, overview
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
K+
-
stimulation
Mg2+
-
2-3 mM optimal; requirement
Mg2+
-
requirement
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate
-
5 mM: 10-30% inhibition
ADP
-
5 mM: 70% inhibition
AMP
-
5 mM: 10-30% inhibition
cysteine
-
5 mM: 15% inhibition
glutathione
-
5 mM: 15% inhibition
additional information
-
methionine, homocysteine, S-adenosyl-methionine, serine, all 5 mM, are no inhibitors
-
additional information
-
the enzyme is not affected by jasmonate, Cd2+ and H2O2, overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.023
-
ATP
-
-
0.33
-
beta-Alanine
-
-
1.34
-
beta-Alanine
-
-
1.9
-
beta-Alanine
-
-
3.39
-
beta-Alanine
-
wild-type enzyme
3.8
-
beta-Alanine
-
mutant L487A
8
-
beta-Alanine
-
mutant P488A
24.8
-
beta-Alanine
-
mutant L487A/P488A
8.3
-
gamma-aminobutyrate
-
-
0.073
-
gamma-glutamylcysteine
-
-
0.75
-
gamma-glutamylcysteine
-
-
0.044
-
gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
-
-
2.2
-
glycine
-
mutant L487A/P488A
5.1
-
glycine
-
mutant P488A
6.5
-
glycine
-
mutant L487A
104
-
glycine
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
glycine, value above 100 mM, wild-type enzyme
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
73.91
-
ATP
-
-
22040
0.077
-
beta-Alanine
-
mutant L487A/P488A
7831
0.211
-
beta-Alanine
-
mutant L487A
7831
0.313
-
beta-Alanine
-
mutant P488A
7831
0.708
-
beta-Alanine
-
wild-type enzyme
7831
56.82
-
gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteine
-
-
10777
0.001
-
glycine
-
wild-type enzyme
11097
0.046
-
glycine
-
mutant L487A
11097
0.274
-
glycine
-
mutant P488A
11097
0.95
-
glycine
-
mutant L487A/P488A
11097
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.042
-
-
gamma-glutamylcysteine + beta-alanine
3.4
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7
10
-
50% of maximal activity at pH 7 and pH 10
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
predominantly in the cortex; root nodules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FV26
root nodules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q9FV27
root nodules
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
hgshs expression is not upregulated after after treatment with the NO-donors sodium nitroprusside and nitrosoglutathione
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
no activity in leaf
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
17% of enzyme activity in the leaf cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of transgenic robacco
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
50000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
85000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
monomer
-
-
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
vapor diffusion method
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
40
-
-
20 h, 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.5: 15% remaining activity. 20 h, buffer plus 10% (v/v) glycerol: 30% remaining activity. 20 h, buffer with glycerol plus 1 mM dithiothreitol: 50% remaining activity. 20 h, buffer with glycerol and dithiothreitol plus 10 mg/ml bovine serum albumin: 85% remaining activity
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20°C, more than 1 mg enzyme/ml in potassium phosphate buffer, 30-50% glycerol, 1 mM dithiothreitol, stable for at least 4 months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
mixed benzamidine-sepharose/Ni2+-NTA column, Superdex-200 FPLC column
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli BL21
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli
C9VXR2, -
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
increased expression in response to progressive drought stress
C9VXR2, -
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
L487A
-
improved catalytic efficiency using glcyine
L487A/P488A
-
conversion of substrate preference from beta-alanine to glycine
P488A
-
improved catalytic efficiency using glcyine
L534A
-
increased production of glutathione and reduced formation of homglutathione
L534A/P535A
-
as compared with L534A mutant, even further increased production of glutathione and further reduced formation of homglutathione