Information on EC 4.1.1.70 - glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
4.1.1.70
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
4-carboxybut-2-enoyl-CoA = but-2-enoyl-CoA + CO2
show the reaction diagram
the enzyme from Acidaminococcus fermentans is a biotinyl-protein, requires Na+, and acts as a sodium pump. Prior to the Na+-dependent decarboxylation, the carboxlate is transferred to biotin in a Na+-independent manner. The conserved lysine, to which biotin forms an amine bond, is located 34 amino acids before the C-terminus, flanked on both sides by two methionine residues, which are conserved in every biotin-dependent enzyme
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4-carboxybut-2-enoyl-CoA = but-2-enoyl-CoA + CO2
show the reaction diagram
stereochemistry
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4-carboxybut-2-enoyl-CoA = but-2-enoyl-CoA + CO2
show the reaction diagram
mechanism, interaction of subunits
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4-carboxybut-2-enoyl-CoA = but-2-enoyl-CoA + CO2
show the reaction diagram
energetics
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4-carboxybut-2-enoyl-CoA = but-2-enoyl-CoA + CO2
show the reaction diagram
mechanism of carboxy-transfer
Q06700
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
decarboxylation
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PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Benzoate degradation
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Butanoate metabolism
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crotonate fermentation (to acetate and cyclohexane carboxylate)
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glutamate degradation V (via hydroxyglutarate)
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glutaryl-CoA degradation
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Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
4-carboxybut-2-enoyl-CoA carboxy-lyase (but-2-enoyl-CoA-forming)
The enzyme from Acidaminococcus fermentans is a biotinyl-protein, requires Na+, and acts as a sodium pump. Prior to the Na+-dependent decarboxylation, the carboxylate is transferred to biotin in a Na+-independent manner. The conserved lysine, to which biotin forms an amide bond, is located 34 amino acids before the C-terminus, flanked on both sides by two methionine residues, which are conserved in every biotin-dependent enzyme.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
carboxyltransferase
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-
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decarboxylase, glutaconyl coenzyme A
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GCD
Clostridium symbiosum HB25
B7TVP1
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pent-2-enoyl-CoA carboxy-lyase
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-
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CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
84399-93-9
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
subunit A; strain HB25
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium symbiosum HB25
subunit A; strain HB25
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. nucleatum
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme also decarboxylates glutaryl-CoA
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
B7TVP1
Gcd couples the biotin-dependent decarboxylation of glutaconyl-CoA with the generation of an electrochemical Na+ gradient
physiological function
Clostridium symbiosum HB25
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Gcd couples the biotin-dependent decarboxylation of glutaconyl-CoA with the generation of an electrochemical Na+ gradient
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Na+
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Km: 1 mM; required
Na+
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required
Na+
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Km: 3 mM; required
Na+
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activation by Na+ is inhibited by Li+; Km: 1 mM; stimulates
Na+
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activation by Na+ is inhibited by Li+; stimulates
Na+
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Km: 2.5 mM; required
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
biotin
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biotinyl enzyme
biotin
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biotinyl enzyme; Km: 40 mM
biotin
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biotinyl enzyme
Brij 35
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only Triton X-100 and Brij 35 are able to keep the enzyme in an active state at 20-30C
Phospholipid
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stimulates enzyme
Triton X-100
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only Triton X-100 and Brij 35 are able to keep the enzyme in an active state at 20-30C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
48
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cell free extract, pH 7.2, 22C
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
subunit alpha, decarboxylase, in complex with glutaconyl-CoA, dimer
Q06700
co-crystallization of the decarboxylase subunit GcdA with the substrate glutaconyl-CoA, the product crotonyl-CoA, and the substrate analogue glutaryl-CoA, sitting drop vapor diffusion method, using in 0.1 M sodium citrate, pH 5.6-6.5, 1 M ammonium phosphate, 27.5% (v/v) glycerol
B7TVP1
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
37
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200 mM KCl: 50% loss of activity after 4 min, 200 mM NaCl: 10% loss of activity after 15 min
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
sodium ions specifically protect the gamma chain from tryptic digestion
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requires Na+ for stability
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unstable in the presence of buffers containing potassium
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sodium ions specifically protect the gamma chain from tryptic digestion
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ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
1-butanol
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concentration 2%, 50% loss of activity after 2 min
1-butanol
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concentration 1%, 50% loss of activity after 1 min in presence of 200 mM KCl, 50% loss of activity after 3 min in presence of 200 mM NaCl
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, little loss of activity after 1 year
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-80C, 24 h, 100 mM Na+, stable
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4C, 24 h, 100 mM Na+, 50% loss of activity
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Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
four different subunits
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expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) cells
B7TVP1