Information on EC 2.4.1.34 - 1,3-beta-glucan synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.34
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
1,3-beta-glucan synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-glucose + [(1->3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n = UDP + [(1->3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
UDP-glucose + [(1->3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n = UDP + [(1->3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
model of donor-binding region
-
UDP-glucose + [(1->3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n = UDP + [(1->3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
model of donor-binding region
Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
hexosyl group transfer
-
cell wall biosynthetic enzyme
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
callose biosynthesis
-
Starch and sucrose metabolism
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-glucose:(1->3)-beta-D-glucan 3-beta-D-glucosyltransferase
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
(1,3)-beta-D-glucan (curdlan) synthase
-
-
(1,3)-beta-D-glucan synthase
C6GFB2, C6GFB3, C6GFB4, C6GFB5, C6GFB6, C6GFB7
-
(1,3)-beta-glucan (callose) synthase
-
-
-
-
(1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan 3-beta-D-glucosyltransferase
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase
-
-
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthetase
-
-
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan-UDP glucosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase
-
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase
-
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase (GS)
-
-
1,3-beta-glucan-uridine diphosphoglucosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
Arabidopsis beta-1,3-glucan synthase
-
-
beta(1,3)-D-glucan synthase
Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani f.sp.pisi
-
-
beta(1,3)glucan synthase
-
-
beta(1,3)glucan synthase
-
complex composed of at least two proteins, Rho1p and Fks1p
beta(1,3)glucan synthase
-
-
beta-1,3-glucan synthase
-
-
-
-
beta-1,3-glucan synthase
-
-
beta-1,3-glucan synthase
-
-
beta-1,3-glucan synthase
-
-
beta-1,3-glucan synthase
-
-
beta-1,3-glucan synthase
-
-
beta-1,3-glucan synthase
-
-
beta-1,3-glucan synthetase
-
-
-
-
callose synthase
-
-
-
-
callose synthase
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
-
-
callose synthase
-
-
callose synthase
-
-
callose synthase
-
-
callose synthase
-
-
callose synthase; uridine-diphosphate glucose:1,3-beta-D-glucosyltransferase
-
-
callose synthetase
-
-
-
-
CrdS
Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749
-
-
-
curdlan synthase
-
-
curdlan synthase
Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749
-
-
-
glucan synthase (GS)
-
-
glucan synthase-like
-
-
glucan synthase-like 1
-
-
GS-II
-
-
-
-
GSL
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
-
-
paramylon synthetase
-
-
-
-
UDP-glucose-1,3-beta-glucan glucosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-glucose-beta-glucan glucosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-glucose:(1,3)beta-glucan synthase
-
-
-
-
UDPglucose-1,3-beta-D-glucan glucosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
uridine diphosphoglucose-1,3-beta-glucan glucosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
additional information
C6GFB2, C6GFB3, C6GFB4, C6GFB5, C6GFB6, C6GFB7
the enzyme belongs to the (1,3)-beta-D-glucan synthase gene family of Hordeum vulgare
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the PpCalS callose synthase gene family
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9037-30-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain ATCC31749, expression in Agrobacterium or Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749
strain ATCC31749, expression in Agrobacterium or Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme isoforms GSL5, GSL6, GSL11
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
multiple CalS genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
natural mutant pmr4, resistant to powdery mildew, Erysiphe cichoracearum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
Col-0
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sugar beet
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cauliflower
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fifteen clinical strains, e.g. wild-type strains 90030, 218, and 3168
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Christm. Swing., mexican lime
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Fusarium solani f.sp.pisi
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Clipper, eight different putative callose synthase genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glucan synthase-like 2 fragment; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glucan synthase-like 3 fragment; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glucan synthase-like 4 fragment; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glucan synthase-like 5 fragment; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glucan synthase-like 6 fragment; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
glucan synthase-like 7 fragment; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subunit Fks1p
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Hayayuki
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
french bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. patens, 12 putative callose synthase genes, PpCalS1-PpCalS10
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene fks1 encoding the catalytic subunit of the enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
catalytic subunit Bgs4p
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
four essential putative (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase catalytic subunits, Bgs1p to Bgs4p
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
gsl8 mutants disrupt cellular and tissue-level patterning, with presence of clusters of stomata in direct contact and by islands of excessive cell proliferation in the developing epidermis
malfunction
-
FKS-RNAi transformants are more sensitive to agents that disturb the cell wall or cell membrane and to hyperosmotic stress than the wild type. In comparison with the wild type, aerial hyphae and conidial yield are obviously reduced in FKS-RNAi transformants on potato dextrose agar plates with Congo red, calcofluor white, sodium dodecyl sulfate, KCl, sorbitol or mannitol. The beta-1,3-glucan content significantly decreases in FKS-RNAi transformants
physiological function
-
the active enzyme in the plasma membrane is reponsible for callose synthesis
physiological function
-
the enzyme is important in the biosynthesis of the cell wall component callose, i.e. 1,3-beta-D-glucan
physiological function
-
the plasma membrane-localized 1,3-beta-glucan synthase synthesize the main filamentous structural component of the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1,3-beta-glucan
physiological function
C6GFB2, C6GFB3, C6GFB4, C6GFB5, C6GFB6, C6GFB7, -
the enzyme is responsible for callose synthesis, that consists mostly of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and is synthesized in many tissues during growth and development, playing a fundamental role in cell plate formation during cell division; the enzyme is responsible for callose synthesis, that consists mostly of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and is synthesized in many tissues during growth and development, playing a fundamental role in cell plate formation during cell division; the enzyme is responsible for callose synthesis, that consists mostly of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and is synthesized in many tissues during growth and development, playing a fundamental role in cell plate formation during cell division; the enzyme is responsible for callose synthesis, that consists mostly of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and is synthesized in many tissues during growth and development, playing a fundamental role in cell plate formation during cell division; the enzyme is responsible for callose synthesis, that consists mostly of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and is synthesized in many tissues during growth and development, playing a fundamental role in cell plate formation during cell division; the enzyme is responsible for callose synthesis, that consists mostly of (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and is synthesized in many tissues during growth and development, playing a fundamental role in cell plate formation during cell division
physiological function
-
the GSL8 gene encodes a putative callose synthase required for cytokinesis and seedling maturation. GSL8 is required for patterning as well as cytokinesis during Arabidopsis thaliana development
physiological function
-
the enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of callose, that occurs at specific stages of plant cell wall development in all cell types, and in response to pathogen attack, wounding and physiological stresses, multiple roles of callose in plant development and in response to pathogen attack, overview
physiological function
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
the enzyme is important in the biosynthesis of the cell wall component callose, i.e. 1,3-beta-D-glucan
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-glucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
UDP + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
UDP + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
UDP + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
UDP + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
chain length 60-80
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for UDPglucose as glucosyl donor
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
production of cell wall polysaccharide found in yeast cells
chain length 60-80
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
synthesis of callose in higher plants, enzyme is latent in intact and undamaged cells, it is activated only under perturbed conditions, possible involvement in wound-healing process and in defense against pathogens, enzyme seems to play a vital role in a number of specialized developmental processes in plants, namely pollen maturation and sieve pore formation and gravitropism
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
Gossypium hirsutum TM-1
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
O74475
involved in a late process of secondary or general septum synthesis, necessary to preserve cell integrity when cell wall synthesis or repair is needed
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
main biosynthetic enzyme responsible for the callose response to biotic, abiotic, and chemical stresses, but not for callose deposition that is part of normal cell development. Enzyme negatively regulates salicylic acid defense signaling pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
simple and sensitive method for characterization of enzyme products by analysis of newly synthesized polysaccharides by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani f.sp.pisi
-
cell wall biosynthetic enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase catalyses the synthesis of 1,3-beta-D-glucan, the most abundant component of the fungal cell wall.
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
bgs2p synthesizes linear beta-1,3-glucans, which remain unorganized and alkali-soluble untilcovalent linkages are set up between beta-1,3-glucans and other cell wall components involving beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase activity, overview, bgs2p localizes to the spore periphery and is essential for maturation of the ascospore wall
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
linear (1,3)beta-D-glucan is the polysaccharide that specifically interacts with the fluorochrome Calcofluor white in fission yeast, the (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase subunit Bgs1p is responsible for the fission yeast primary septum formation, Bgs1p is essential for vegetative cells and needed for correct septation and cell separation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the recombinant cytoplasmic domain binds specifically to UDP-agarose and lichenan (beta-glucan), but not to ADP-agarose, GDP-agarose, or other carbohydrates
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-glucose + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
UDP + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
UDP + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
UDP + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
UDP + [(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n+1
show the reaction diagram
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
production of cell wall polysaccharide found in yeast cells
chain length 60-80
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
-
synthesis of callose in higher plants, enzyme is latent in intact and undamaged cells, it is activated only under perturbed conditions, possible involvement in wound-healing process and in defense against pathogens, enzyme seems to play a vital role in a number of specialized developmental processes in plants, namely pollen maturation and sieve pore formation and gravitropism
-
?
UDPglucose + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n
UDP + (1,3-beta-D-glucosyl)n+1
show the reaction diagram
Gossypium hirsutum TM-1
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
O74475
involved in a late process of secondary or general septum synthesis, necessary to preserve cell integrity when cell wall synthesis or repair is needed
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
main biosynthetic enzyme responsible for the callose response to biotic, abiotic, and chemical stresses, but not for callose deposition that is part of normal cell development. Enzyme negatively regulates salicylic acid defense signaling pathway
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani f.sp.pisi
-
cell wall biosynthetic enzyme
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
bgs2p synthesizes linear beta-1,3-glucans, which remain unorganized and alkali-soluble untilcovalent linkages are set up between beta-1,3-glucans and other cell wall components involving beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase activity, overview, bgs2p localizes to the spore periphery and is essential for maturation of the ascospore wall
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
linear (1,3)beta-D-glucan is the polysaccharide that specifically interacts with the fluorochrome Calcofluor white in fission yeast, the (1,3)beta-D-glucan synthase subunit Bgs1p is responsible for the fission yeast primary septum formation, Bgs1p is essential for vegetative cells and needed for correct septation and cell separation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the recombinant cytoplasmic domain binds specifically to UDP-agarose and lichenan (beta-glucan), but not to ADP-agarose, GDP-agarose, or other carbohydrates
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
enhances activity
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
activates
Ca2+
-
activation is half-maximal at about 0.05 mM
Ca2+
-
optimum concentration 2-5 mM; required
Ca2+
-
required
Ca2+
-
-
Ca2+
-
stimulates at low concentration, inhibits at high concentrations
Ca2+
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 2
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
activates by increasing their affinity to Ca2+
Mg2+
-
15 mM MgCl2 stimulates at 0.01 mM UDPglucose, decreases at 1 mM UDPglucose
Mg2+
-
stimulates
Mg2+
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 2
Mn2+
-
less effective than Ca2+
Mn2+
-
less effective than Mg2+; stimulates at low concentrations, inhibits at high concentrations
Sr2+
-
stimulates, less effective than Ca2+
Mn2+
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 2
additional information
-
no requirement for metal cations
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(1R,3R,6aS,7R,8R,10bR,12aR)-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-8-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-2-[[(2R)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methoxy]-3-[5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-1,3,4,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-tetradecahydro-2H-1,4a-(methanooxymethano)chrysene-7-carboxylic acid
-
IC50: 19 ng/ml, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
(1R,3R,6aS,7R,8R,10bR,12aR)-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-8-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-2-[[(2R)-2-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methoxy]-3-[5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-1,3,4,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-tetradecahydro-2H-1,4a-(methanooxymethano)chrysene-7-carboxylic acid
-
IC50: 4 ng/ml, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
(1R,3R,6aS,7R,8R,10bR,12aR)-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-8-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-2-[[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methoxy]-3-[5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-1,3,4,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-tetradecahydro-2H-1,4a-(methanooxymethano)chrysene-7-carboxylic acid
-
IC50: 61 ng/ml, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
(1R,3R,6aS,7R,8R,10bR,12aR)-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-8-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-3-[5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-2-[(2R)-pyrrolidin-2-ylmethoxy]-1,3,4,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-tetradecahydro-2H-1,4a-(methanooxymethano)chrysene-7-carboxylic acid
-
IC50: 22 ng/ml, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
(1R,3R,6aS,7R,8R,10bR,12aR)-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-8-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-3-[5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-2-[(2S)-pyrrolidin-2-ylmethoxy]-1,3,4,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-tetradecahydro-2H-1,4a-(methanooxymethano)chrysene-7-carboxylic acid
-
IC50: 18 ng/ml, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
(1R,3R,6aS,7R,8R,10bR,12aR)-2-[[(2R)-1,2-dimethylpyrrolidin-2-yl]methoxy]-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-8-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-3-[5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-1,3,4,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-tetradecahydro-2H-1,4a-(methanooxymethano)chrysene-7-carboxylic acid
-
IC50: 6.4 ng/ml, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
(1R,6aS,7R,8R,10bR,12aR)-1,6a,8,10a-tetramethyl-8-[(2R)-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-3-[5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl]-2-[[(2R)-2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(methylamino)butyl]oxy]-1,3,4,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a,10b,11,12,12a-tetradecahydro-2H-1,4a-(methanooxymethano)chrysene-7-carboxylic acid
-
IC50: 2 ng/ml, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
(2,6-difluoro-phenyl)-carbamic acid 3-(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-piperazine-1-yl)-propyl ester
-
The piperazine propanol derivative GS1578 was identified as a potent inhibitor against 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase, IC50: 0.16 microM.
1,2-Bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate
-
-
5-azido-UDP-glucose
-
-
8-hydroxyquinoline
-
-
Acylcarnitine
-
inhibition in presence of digitonin, stimulation in absence of digitonin within a certain concentration range
anidulafungin
-
an antifungal echinocandin drug, inhibition profile of wild-type and mutant enzymes
-
ATP
-
enhances activity
ATP
-
both 1,3-beta-glucan synthases
Ca2+
-
at high concentration, stimulation at low concentration
Ca2+
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 1
caspofungin
-
50% inhibiton at 0.00013 mg/ml
caspofungin
-
50% inhibiton at 0.016 mg/ml
caspofungin
-
50% inhibiton at 0.004 mg/ml
caspofungin
-
50% inhibiton at 0.00013 mg/ml
caspofungin
-
an antifungal echinocandin drug, inhibition profile of wild-type and mutant enzymes
caspofungin
-
IC50: 0.3 microgram/ml, pH 7.5, temperature not specified
caspofungin
-
-
Caspofungin acetate
-
IC50: 30nM
Caspofungin acetate
-
-
cilofungin
-
maximal inhibition at 1.25 mM is 80%; non-competitive inhibition
cilofungin
-
non-competitive inhibition
cilofungin
-
50% inhibiton at 0.064 mg/ml
Congo red
-
non competitive
D-glucono-1,5-lactone
-
-
dihydrosphingosine
-
non-competitive inhibition
Echinocandin B
-
inhibition in presence of digitonin, stimulation in absence of digitonin within a certain concentration range
Echinocandin B
-
-
EDTA
-
fully reversible by addition of Ca2+
EGTA
-
fully reversible by addition of Ca2+
enfumafungin
-
IC50: 40 microgram/ml, pH 7.5, temperature not specified
-
Glycylglycine buffer
-
0.75 M
GTP
-
enhances activity
GTP
-
both 1,3-beta-glucan synthases
HM-1
-
HM-1 inhibits the growth of yeast cells by forming a pore at the growing tip of the daughter cell, resulting in the formation of a protruding structure and eventual cell death.
-
lysophosphatidylcholine
-
inhibition in presence of digitonin, stimulation in absence of digitonin within a certain concentration range
Mg2+
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 1
micafungin
-
an antifungal echinocandin drug, inhibition profile of wild-type and mutant enzymes
-
Mn2+
-
at high concentration, stimulation at low concentration
Mn2+
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 1
N-ethylmaleimide
-
weak
Natural inhibitor in green Euglena cells
-
-
-
Nonidet P-40
-
-
octylglucoside
-
-
orizabin IX
-
IC50: 0.181 mg/ml
orizabin V
-
IC50: 0.155 mg/ml
orizabin X
-
IC50: 0.070 mg/ml
orizabin XI
-
IC50: 0.072 mg/ml
orizabin XIV
-
IC50: 0.074 mg/ml
-
orizabin XIX
-
IC50: 0.062 mg/ml
orizabin XV
-
IC50: 0.149 mg/ml
orizabin XVII
-
IC50: 0.078 mg/ml
orizabin XX
-
IC50: 0.065 mg/ml
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
papulacandin
-
IC50: 0.02 microgram/ml, pH 7.5, temperature not specified
-
papulacandin B
-
IC50: 0.1 mg/ml
phosphoenolpyruvate
-
-
Phospholipase A2
-
fatty acids and lysophospholipids are the inhibitory moieties
-
Phospholipase C
-
fatty acids and lysophospholipids are the inhibitory moieties
-
phytosphingosine
-
non-competitive inhibition
Platelet-activating factor
-
inhibition in presence of digitonin, stimulation in absence of digitonin within a certain concentration range
pneumocandin
-
IC50: 120 microgram/ml, pH 7.5, temperature not specified
-
Sirofluor
-
fluorochrome from aniline blue
-
tricolorin A
-
IC50: 0.085 mg/ml
tricolorin B
-
IC50: 0.132 mg/ml
tricolorin C
-
IC50: 0.135 mg/ml
tricolorin D
-
IC50: 0.087 mg/ml
tricolorin E
-
IC50: 0.099 mg/ml
tricolorin F
-
IC50: more than 0.250 mg/ml
tricolorin I
-
IC50: 0.106 mg/ml
Triton X-100
-
-
unsaturated fatty acids
-
trienoic acids most effective
-
monomeric single-chain variable fragment (scFv)
-
All four scFvs (scFv-A1, scFv-A2, scFv-A3, scFv-A4) inhibit beta-1,3-glucan-synthase. Most cultured cells treated with scFvs (3h) have a pearlike structure with protruding materials, characteristic of pore formation and similar to the morphology change after treatment with HM-1. These clearly indicate that the scFvs appear to have the same effect as HM-1 on sensitive yeast cells.
-
additional information
-
Preincubation with nMAb-KT eliminate the inhibition of Candida growth by scFv antibodies, suggestig that the observed cytocidal effect of scFv antibodies is due to their structural resemblance to HM-1.
-
additional information
Fusarium solani f.sp.pisi
-
not inhibited by caspofungin acetate (CFA)
-
additional information
-
the somatic isozyme is inactivated by trypsin, in contrast to the pollen isozyme
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3-[(Cholamidopropyl)dimethyl(ammonio)]propanesulfonate
-
stimulate
Acylcarnitine
-
inhibition in presence of digitonin, stimulation in absence of digitonin within a certain concentration range
alamethicin
-
channel-forming peptide, required for in vitro enzyme measurements
beta-furfuryl-beta-D-glucoside
-
stimulation
beta-linked Glucosides
-
stimulate
beta-methyl-D-glucoside
-
stimulate
CaCl2
-
7 mM, 2fold increase in activity
cellobiose
-
stimulate
cellobiose
-
stimulate
cellobiose
-
stimulate
cellobiose
-
stimulate
cellobiose
-
no effect
cellobiose
-
stimulate
cellobiose
-
stimulate
cellobiose
-
no effect
cellobiose
-
weakly stimulation at 20 mM but in presence of Ca2+ maximal stimulation
cellobiosylglucose
-
stimulate
CHAPS
-
pollen CalS isozyme is activated in vitro by the detergent CHAPS, but activation is not associated with a detectable change in the molecular mass of the NaGSL1 polypeptide
cytochalasin
-
slightly activating
-
D-glucose
-
stimulate
D-glucose
-
stimulate
D-Glucosides
-
stimulate
D-Glucosides
-
stimulate; up to 12fold activation
Digitonin
-
stimulate
Echinocandin B
-
inhibition in presence of digitonin, stimulation in absence of digitonin within a certain concentration range
EDTA
-
maximal activity at 50 mM
Gentiobiose
-
stimulate
Gentiobiose
-
stimulate
GTP
-
and its analogs stimulate, GTPgammaS is the most potent stimulator
hydroquinone-beta-D-glucoside
-
stimulate
laminaribiose
-
stimulate
laminaribiose
-
stimulate
laminaribiose
-
no reaction as primer; stimulate
lysophosphatidylcholine
-
inhibition in presence of digitonin, stimulation in absence of digitonin within a certain concentration range
maltose
-
stimulate
maltose
-
stimulate
Platelet-activating factor
-
inhibition in presence of digitonin, stimulation in absence of digitonin within a certain concentration range
Polyamines
-
stimulate
-
Polyols
-
stimulate
-
Polyols
-
stimulate
-
Salicin
-
stimulate
spermine
-
stimulate
spermine
-
stimulate
Sucrose
-
stimulate
Trypsin
-
pollen CalS isozyme, in contrast to the somatic isozyme, is activated in vitro by the proteolytic enzyme trypsin, but activation is not associated with a detectable change in the molecular mass of the NaGSL1 polypeptide. Some CalS activity is lost with longer incubations with trypsin
-
MgCl2
-
5 mM, 3fold increase in activity
additional information
-
enzyme shows activity without addition of a primer
-
additional information
-
activation by substrate
-
additional information
-
maximal activity in presence of 0.75 mM Ca2+, 0.5 mM EGTA and 5 mM cellobiose at pH 7.5 and 30C
-
additional information
-
reaction requires addition of glycerol, bovine serum albumin and ATP or GTP for maximal activity
-
additional information
-
membrane-bound stimulator, probably a glycoprotein may represent a natural effector which modulates enzyme activity during membrane flow leading to the delivery of active enzymes at the cell surface
-
additional information
-
Callose synthase activity is assosiated with ca. 200-kDa polypeptide.
-
additional information
-
the somatic isozyme is activated by wounding
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.21
-
UDP-glucose
-
pH 7.75
0.36
-
UDPglucose
-
-
0.43
-
UDPglucose
-
-
0.45
-
UDPglucose
-
H125A
0.6
-
UDPglucose
-
-
0.63
-
UDPglucose
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 2
0.67
-
UDPglucose
-
-
0.67
-
UDPglucose
-
-
0.8
-
UDPglucose
-
-
0.86
-
UDPglucose
-
-
1.1
-
UDPglucose
-
-
1.1
-
UDPglucose
-
-
1.1
-
UDPglucose
-
mutant D13A
1.25
-
UDPglucose
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 1
1.3
-
UDPglucose
-
wild-type
1.8
-
UDPglucose
-
-
1.92
-
UDPglucose
-
-
2.9
-
UDPglucose
-
-
3.3
-
UDPglucose
-
mutant D332A
7.1
-
UDPglucose
-
-
0.1
-
[(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
-
enzyme from wild-type strain 3168
0.12
-
[(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
-
enzyme from wild-type strain 218
0.13
-
[(1,3)-beta-D-glucosyl]n
-
enzyme from wild-type strain 90030
additional information
-
additional information
-
optimization of in vitro assay conditions
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00217
-
UDPglucose
-
D332A
0.0433
-
UDPglucose
-
D13A
0.55
-
UDPglucose
-
wild-type
0.717
-
UDPglucose
-
H125A
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00017
-
caspofungin
-
pH 7.75, 25C
0.00067
-
caspofungin
-
pH 7.75, 25C
0.0022
-
caspofungin
-
pH 7.75, 25C
0.0041
-
caspofungin
-
pH 7.75, 25C
0.022
-
cilofungin
-
pH 7.75, 25C
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00016
-
(2,6-difluoro-phenyl)-carbamic acid 3-(4-benzothiazol-2-yl-piperazine-1-yl)-propyl ester
-
The piperazine propanol derivative GS1578 was identified as a potent inhibitor against 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase, IC50: 0.16 microM.
0.00003
-
Caspofungin acetate
-
IC50: 30nM
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibitory potency of antifungal echinocandin drugs on different wild-type and on mutant strains, overview
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.00054
-
-
isoenzyme DELTAgns1
0.00126
-
-
-
0.00292
-
-
wild-type
0.0041
-
-
with polyoxyethylene ether in the assay but not during cell breakage
0.0048
-
-
membrane
0.0096
-
-
membrane plus W-1
0.0109
-
-
solubilized
0.0125
-
-
with polyoxyethylene ether in the assay and during cell breakage
0.0584
-
-
wild-type without GTP
0.0776
-
-
MAN-04 mutant without GTP
0.0924
-
-
wild-type with GTPgammaS
0.105
-
-
MAN-04 with GTPgammaS
0.11
-
-
RCP-3 mutant without GTP
0.33
-
-
RCP-3 mutant with GTPgammaS
27.9
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
45 nmol/min/g FW
additional information
-
-
10 nmol/min/g FW
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.8
-
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 1
7.5
-
-
glycylglycine buffer
7.5
-
-
assay at
8.8
-
-
1,3-beta-glucan synthase 2
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
9
-
6.5 and 9: about 30% of activity maximum
6.8
8.8
-
6.8 and 8.8: about 50% of activity maximum
6.8
-
-
optimal conditions for callose synthese in vitro
7
7.8
-
7: about 60% of activity maximum, 7.8: about 70% of activity maximum
7.5
8.5
-
pH 7.5: activity maximum, pH 8.5: about 50% of activity maximum
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
37
-
assay at, wild-type and temperature-sensitive mutants
25
-
-
assay at
25
-
-
assay at
30
-
-
assay at
30
-
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0
45
-
0C: 16% of activity maximum, 37C: 44% of activity maximum, 45C: 6% of activity maximum
17
37
-
17C: 80% of activity maximum, 30C: 90% of activity maximum, 37C: 80% of activity maximum
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
budding and filamentous
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Gossypium hirsutum TM-1
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mainly in the apical part
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of seven different callose synthase genes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C6GFB2, C6GFB3, C6GFB4, C6GFB5, C6GFB6, C6GFB7, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pollen isozyme: predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes in younger pollen tubes mostly in an inactive, latent enzyme form, the latent and active enzyme forms together In later stages of pollen-tube growth to a greater proportion located in intracellular vesicles and the plasma membrane. No activity in mature pollen
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C6GFB2, C6GFB3, C6GFB4, C6GFB5, C6GFB6, C6GFB7, -
young; young; young; young; young; young
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
somatic isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
bgs2p localizes to the spore periphery and is essential for maturation of the ascospore wall
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
Nicotiana alata contains two CalS isozymes, one is the Ca2+-independent, trypsin activable pollen-tube CalS, the other is the wound-activated somatic cell CalS, which is Ca2+-dependent and generally inactivated by trypsin
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
C6GFB2, C6GFB3, C6GFB4, C6GFB5, C6GFB6, C6GFB7, -
transcription patterns of members of the callose synthase gene family in tissues and organs, overview; transcription patterns of members of the callose synthase gene family in tissues and organs, overview; transcription patterns of members of the callose synthase gene family in tissues and organs, overview; transcription patterns of members of the callose synthase gene family in tissues and organs, overview; transcription patterns of members of the callose synthase gene family in tissues and organs, overview; transcription patterns of members of the callose synthase gene family in tissues and organs, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
expression of different CalS genes is regulated in a tissue-specific manner
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
PbFks1p is present in the membrane-enriched fraction of mycelium and yeast cells and in the cell wall-enriched fractions of yeast cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
integral transmembrane protein
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
inactive, latent enzyme form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
inactive, latent enzyme form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
inner membrane of both Escherichia coli or Agrobacterium sp., integral membrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
transmembrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749
-
inner membrane of both Escherichia coli or Agrobacterium sp., integral membrane protein
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
inactive, latent enzyme form and highly active enzyme form, Ca2+-independent developmentally regulated CalS
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the binding site for UDP-glucose for callose synthase is on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
the binding site for UDP-glucose for callose synthase is on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes in younger pollen tubes mostly in an inactive, latent enzyme form, the latent and active enzyme forms together In later stages of pollen-tube growth to a greater proportion located in intracellular vesicles and the plasma membrane
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
50000
-
-
PAGE
57000
-
-
recombinant protein
58940
-
-
calculated from nucleotide sequence
220000
-
-
pollen isozyme
221700
-
-
calculated from cDNA
229000
-
-
calculated from nucleotide sequence
420000
-
-
PAGE
additional information
-
-
in BY-2 cells, callose synthase appears in two different protein complexes with masses of approximately 1500 kDa and at 800 kDa, each co-migrating with tubulin
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 48000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 200000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 165000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
55000 + 65000, gel filtration
?
-
x * 108000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
between six and nine different subunits
?
-
x * 193000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 60000, SDS-PAGE, x * 73121, calculated
?
O74475
x * 225000, calculated
?
-
x * 220000, calculated
polymer
-
x * 28000, pollen isozyme, SDS-PAGE
?
Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749
-
x * 60000, SDS-PAGE, x * 73121, calculated
-
additional information
-
one or both of the 150000 and 57000 MW polypeptide represent the UDPglucose binding subunit of glucan synthase
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
subunit Fks is the substrate-binding subunit
additional information
-
contains seven transmembrane helices, large hydrophobic region is intracellular
additional information
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase is composed of a putative catalytic subunit with sixteen putative transmembrane domains and a regulatory subunit encoded by CaFKS1/GSC1and CaRHO1 respectively.
additional information
-
1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase is composed of a putative catalytic subunit with sixteen putative transmembrane domains encoded by a pair of closely related genes, FKS1/GSC1/CWH53/ETG1/CND1/PBR1/YLR342W and FKS2/GSC2/G4074/YGRO32W and a regulatory subunit encoded by RHO1.
additional information
-
Rho1, a small GTP binding protein, is a subunit of the beta-1,3-glucan synthase complex.
additional information
-
Gsc1p is a 1,3-beta-glucan synthase subunit involved in synthesising an inner spore wall layer. It is required for proper sporulation. Gsc1p is a protein that physically associates with Smk1p.
additional information
Agrobacterium sp. ATCC31749
-
contains seven transmembrane helices, large hydrophobic region is intracellular
-
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
two distinct N- and C-terminal halves, similar in size and topology and separated by a deep cleft, both domains contain a similar core structure of parallel beta sheets connected by alpha helices, the C-terminal structure contains a glycine fingerprint sequence
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
-
half life: 5 d
4
-
-
half life: 2.8 h
4
-
-
half life without polyoxyethylene ether in the assay but during cell breakage: 5.5 d; half life without polyoxyethylene ether in the assay but not during cell breakage: 0.92 d; half life with polyoxyethylene ether in the assay and during cell breakage: 12.1 d; half life with stabilizing polyoxyethylene ether in the assay but not during cell breakage: 5.6 d
28
-
-
2 h, 90% loss of activity
30
-
-
half life without polyoxyethylene ether in the assay but during cell breakage: 11.8 h; half life without polyoxyethylene ether in the assay but not during cell breakage: 0.5 h; half life with stabilizing polyoxyethylene ether in the assay and during cell breakage: 18.4 h; half life with stabilizing polyoxyethylene ether in the assay but not during cell breakage: 15.9 h
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
polyoxyethylene ether stabilizes the enzyme
-
guanosine nucleotides prevent inactivation at 30C
-
inactivation at 30C is greatly accelerated by the presence of 1-2 mM EDTA
-
bovine serum albumin protects against inactivation by phospholipase A2, C and papulacandin B
-
EDTA protects against inactivation by phospholipase A2 and C
-
guanosine nucleotides prevent inactivation at 30C
-
human serum albumin protects against inactivation by phospholipase A2, C and papulacandin B
-
inactivation at 30C is greatly accelerated by the presence of 1-2 mM EDTA
-
guanosine nucleotides prevent inactivation at 30C
-
inactivation at 30C is greatly accelerated by the presence of 1-2 mM EDTA
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-80C, several months
-
-20C, 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, 1% digitonin, 0.01% 2-mercaptoethanol, 20% sucrose or glycerol, stable for at least 1 week, losing less than 10% of initial activity
-
-70C, more than 26 weeks 100% activity
-
-70C, more than 25 weeks 100% activity
-
-80C, several months
-
-80C, solubilized enzyme stable for 8 h
-
4C, solubilized enzyme stable for 4 h
-
-14C, 2 weeks, 20% loss of activity
-
frozen, 60% loss of activity after 3 days
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
the catalytic module of CrdS (cm-CrdS) is expressed in good yield from a cDNA encoding cm-CrdS cloned into a vector, containing a coding region for thioredoxin, and from the Champion pET SUMO system that possesses a coding region of a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) partner protein. The two DNA fusions are expressed as chimeric proteins. High yields of inclusion bodies are produced in Escherichia coli and these could be refolded to form soluble proteins, using a range of buffers and non-detergent sulfobetaines
-
determination of expression pattern of upstream regulatory sequence of the 12 callose synthase genes, CalS112
-
expression in tobacco BY2 cells
-
genotyping
-
mushroom Cordyceps militaris beta-1,3-glucan synthase catalytic subunit Fks1 is expressed as a fusion protein with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag and glutathione S-transferase in an Escherichia coli cell-free translation system
-
eight different putative callose synthase genes, expression analysis
-
genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7, mapped to individual loci that are distributed across the barley genome on chromosomes 3H, 4H, 6H and 7H, transcription patterns by quantitative real-time PCR, overview; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7, mapped to individual loci that are distributed across the barley genome on chromosomes 3H, 4H, 6H and 7H, transcription patterns by quantitative real-time PCR, overview; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7, mapped to individual loci that are distributed across the barley genome on chromosomes 3H, 4H, 6H and 7H, transcription patterns by quantitative real-time PCR, overview; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7, mapped to individual loci that are distributed across the barley genome on chromosomes 3H, 4H, 6H and 7H, transcription patterns by quantitative real-time PCR, overview; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7, mapped to individual loci that are distributed across the barley genome on chromosomes 3H, 4H, 6H and 7H, transcription patterns by quantitative real-time PCR, overview; genes HvGSL2-HvGSL7, mapped to individual loci that are distributed across the barley genome on chromosomes 3H, 4H, 6H and 7H, transcription patterns by quantitative real-time PCR, overview
C6GFB2, C6GFB3, C6GFB4, C6GFB5, C6GFB6, C6GFB7, -
expression in Neurospora crassa cell-wall-less mutant TM1
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
gene PpCalS, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
five CalS genes are differentially induced bysalicylic acid or by infection with the pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsis, i.e. Peronospora parasitica, overview
-
the bird cherry-oat aphid, BCA, Rhopalosiphum padi gives no visible symptom and induces very limited callose deposition, even after 14 days of infestation. In contrast, the Russian wheat aphid, RWA, Diuraphis noxia, which causes chlorosis,white and yellowstreaking and leaf rolling, induces callose accumulation already after 24 h in longitudinal leaf veins
-
dissociation is detected between the expression of the PbFKS1 transcript and the level of the corresponding protein PbFks1p, which is higher in the yeast phase, versus the amount of 1,3-beta-D-glucan polymer, which is higher in the mycelium phase
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
A1895G
-
mutation of Fks1p
D632E
-
mutation of Fks1p
D632G
-
mutation of Fks1p
D632Y/R1377STOP
-
mutation of Fks2p and Fks1p
D666E
-
mutation of Fks2p
D666G
-
mutation of Fks2p
F625S
-
mutation of Fks1p
F659del
-
mutation of Fks2p
F659S
-
mutation of Fks2p
F659V
-
mutation of Fks2p
P667T
-
mutation of Fks2p
S629P
-
mutation of Fks1p
S663P
-
mutation of Fks2p
T1874C
-
mutation of Fks1p
T1885C
-
mutation of Fks1p
T1896G
-
mutation of Fks1p
W1375L
-
mutation of Fks2p
D13A
-
lower turnover and lower Km than wild-type
D332A
-
lower turnover and higher Km than wild-type
H125A
-
higher turnover and lower Km than wild-type
additional information
-
silencing of enzyme genes GSL5, GSL6, GSL11 with RNAi: both wound callose and papillary callose are absent in lines transformed with GSL5 dsRNAi, but unaffected in GSL6 and GSL11 RNAi lines. Absence of callose in palpillae or haustorial complexes correlates with effective growth cessation of several normally virulent powdery mildew species and of Peronospora parasitica
additional information
-
knockout mutants of CalS5 gene result in severe reduction in fertility by degeneration of microspores. Callose deposition in mutants is nearly completely lacking and pollen exine wall is not formed properly
additional information
-
mutations in GSL8 produce seedlings with pleiotropic defects during embryogenesis and early vegetative growth, with cell wall stubs, two nuclei in one cell, and other defects in cell division in homozygous gsl8 insertional alleles. In addition, gsl8 mutants and inducible RNA interference lines of GSL8 show reduced callose deposition at cell plates and/or new cell walls, phenotypes, overview
G1894T
-
mutation of Fks1p
additional information
-
inhibition profile of wild-type and mutant enzymes with antifungal drugs, overview
DELTAgns1
-
one-fifth of the specific activity of the wild type
additional information
-
isolation of ten different temperature-sensitive fks1 mutants after random mutagenesis, quantitative cell morphology and biochemical properties of fks1 mutants, the putative catalytic subunit of the enzyme, the mutants show altered cell wall components and defects in endocytosis, pleiotropic phenotypes, overview. Some fks-1 mutants show intragenic complementation between fks1 mutations, while others do not
additional information
O74475
gene deletion strain, no viable spores, bgs4+ shut-off produces cell lysis at growing poles and mainly at the septum prior to cytokinesis
additional information
-
in the absence of Bgs1p abnormal septa are formed, but the cells cannot separate and eventually die, mutant phenotype, overview
additional information
-
null bgs2 diploid mutants form four spore-like compartments inside each ascus, in which the electron-lucent layer is thinner and darker than in the wild-type, and the spores are unviable
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
agriculture
-
silencing of enzyme genes GSL5, GSL6, GSL11 with RNAi: both wound callose and papillary callose are absent in lines transformed with GSL5 dsRNAi, but unaffected in GSL6 and GSL11 RNAi lines. Absence of callose in palpillae or haustorial complexes correlates with effective growth cessation of several normally virulent powdery mildew species and of Peronospora parasitica
analysis
-
simple and sensitive method for characterization of enzyme products by analysis of newly synthesized polysaccharides by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance