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EC Number
General Information
Commentary
Reference
evolution
genotyping of different strains from M and G populations, overview. The only mutated gene shared between the strains from populations M and G is bll4572, this gene is mutated in all six strains
evolution
periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) from Escherichia coli K-12, both belonging to the DMSO reductase family, subfamily I, have a very similar structure, but very different activities. The show key differences that tune them for completely different functions in living cells. Both enzymes share almost identical three-dimensional protein foldings and active sites, in terms of coordination number, geometry and nature of the ligands. The substrates of both enzymes (nitrate and formate) are polyatomic anions that also share similar charge and stereochemistry. In terms of the catalytic mechanism, both enzymes have a common activation mechanism (the sulfur-shift mechanism) that ensures a constant coordination number around the metal ion during the catalytic cycle. In spite of these similarities, they catalyze very different reactions: Nap abstracts an oxygen atom from nitrate releasing nitrite, whereas FdH catalyzes a hydrogen atom transfer from formate and releases carbon dioxide. Detailed comparison, overview. A key difference between the catalytic mechanisms of Nap and FdH is the fact that only Mo is used to reduce nitrate but in Fdhs both Mo and W are catalytically competent to oxidize formate to carbon dioxide
evolution
the enzyme belongs to the DMSO reductase family
evolution
the periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans belongs to the DMSO reductase family, subfamily I. Classification of Mo-pyranopterin dependent enzymes from the DMSO reductase family, e.g. periplasmic nitrate reductase and formate dehydrogenase, overview. Comparison of the sulfur-shift mechanism in nitrate reductase (Nap) and in formate dehydrogenase (Fdh), detailed overview
evolution
the prokaryotic nitrate reductases can be subgrouped as respiratory nitrate reductases (Nar), assimilatory nitrate reductases (Nas), and periplasmic nitrate reductases (Nap). Periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh), both belonging to the DMSO reductase family, subfamily I, have a very similar structure, but very different activities. The show key differences that tune them for completely different functions in living cells. Both enzymes share almost identical three-dimensional protein foldings and active sites, in terms of coordination number, geometry and nature of the ligands. The substrates of both enzymes (nitrate and formate) are polyatomic anions that also share similar charge and stereochemistry. In terms of the catalytic mechanism, both enzymes have a common activation mechanism (the sulfur-shift mechanism) that ensures a constant coordination number around the metal ion during the catalytic cycle. In spite of these similarities, they catalyze very different reactions: Nap abstracts an oxygen atom from nitrate releasing nitrite, whereas FdH catalyzes a hydrogen atom transfer from formate and releases carbon dioxide. Detailed comparison, overview. A key difference between the catalytic mechanisms of Nap and FdH is the fact that only Mo is used to reduce nitrate but in Fdhs both Mo and W are catalytically competent to oxidize formate to carbon dioxide
evolution
the prokaryotic nitrate reductases can be subgrouped as respiratory nitrate reductases (Nar), assimilatory nitrate reductases (Nas), and periplasmic nitrate reductases (Nap). Periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) belongs to the DMSO reductase family, subfamily I
evolution
the prokaryotic nitrate reductases can be subgrouped as respiratory nitrate reductases (Nar), assimilatory nitrate reductases (Nas), and periplasmic nitrate reductases (Nap). Periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) from Escherichia coli K-12, both belonging to the DMSO reductase family, subfamily I, have a very similar structure, but very different activities. The show key differences that tune them for completely different functions in living cells. Both enzymes share almost identical three-dimensional protein foldings and active sites, in terms of coordination number, geometry and nature of the ligands. The substrates of both enzymes (nitrate and formate) are polyatomic anions that also share similar charge and stereochemistry. In terms of the catalytic mechanism, both enzymes have a common activation mechanism (the sulfur-shift mechanism) that ensures a constant coordination number around the metal ion during the catalytic cycle. In spite of these similarities, they catalyze very different reactions: Nap abstracts an oxygen atom from nitrate releasing nitrite, whereas FdH catalyzes a hydrogen atom transfer from formate and releases carbon dioxide. Detailed comparison, overview. A key difference between the catalytic mechanisms of Nap and FdH is the fact that only Mo is used to reduce nitrate but in Fdhs both Mo and W are catalytically competent to oxidize formate to carbon dioxide
malfunction
a gene nap deletion mutant can no longer grow on methanol in contrast to the wild-type and shows almost abolished N2O production from nitrate
malfunction
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains with defects in either nitrate reductase A (narG mutant) or the regulator inducing its transcription in the presence of high concentrations of nitrate (narL mutant) exhibit growth comparable to that of wild-type Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In contrast, a strain lacking a functional periplasmic nitrate reductase (napA mutant) exhibits a marked growth defect in the lumen of the colon. Inactivation of narP, encoding a response regulator that activates napABC transcription in response to low nitrate concentrations, significantly reduces the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the murine host gut lumen
metabolism
cytochromes c encoded by genes in close proximity to the genes for XoxF proteins and methylamine dehydrogenase functions are likely involved in the metabolism with Nap, pathway overview
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