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bivalves have evolved diverse and highly specialised strategies for surviving in hypoxic episodes including pathways that are efficient both in terms of ATP production, and in minimising H+ and toxic end product accumulation. Under these circumstances, glycogen is metabolized to pyruvate and the cytosolic NADH/NAD+ redox ratio is balanced by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate. Alternatively, NAD+ can be recycled more efficiently by coupling an amino acid to pyruvate, with formation of opines such as alanopine, tauropine, octopine, and strombine. Specimens utilizing the octopine rather than the alanopine pathway will increase energy flow rapidly, developing a major ability to counteract environmental variations. The high ratio between malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase is due to the ability of Pinna nobilis to turn on anaerobic metabolism as a consequence of environmental or anthropogenic stresses. Anaerobic pathways are not all equivalent in terms of energy production based upon maximum rates for ATP output (lactate > octopine > alanopine = strombine)
comparisons of opine dehydrogenases activities (octopine dehydrogenase, alanopine dehydrogenase, strombine dehydrogenase, and tauropine dehydrogenase) in the adductor muscle, overview. The ODH activity in adductor muscle increases following the marine-brackish gradient, while the one of ADH, SDH and TDH decreases following the same gradient
enzyme SDH activity varies significantly with respect to hypoxia treatment type, treatment duration, and interaction between treatment duration and type. Importantly, control and tank samples display no significant differences over 3 h, 6 h, 1 day, and 3 day times sets, indicating that bubbling within small chambers has no effect on target enzyme activity
physiological function
enzyme SDH acts as one of the primary and anaerobic metabolic responses pathways during hypoxia. Montipora capitata increasingly relies upon alanopine dehydrogenase, ADH, and strombine dehydrogenase, SDH, for anaerobic catabolism under low-oxygen conditions
the enzyme activities of opine dehydrogenases, including strombine dehydrogenase, are increased during anaerobic metabolism in corals under prolonged oxygen deprivation, due to invasive algal overgrowth and oxygen deprivation of wide-spread distributed Montipora capitata in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii
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