BRENDA - Enzyme Database

Enzymic confirmation of reactions involved in routes to astaxanthin formation, elucidated using a direct substrate in vitro assay

Fraser, P.D.; Shimada, H.; Misawa, N.; Eur. J. Biochem. 252, 229-236 (1998)

Data extracted from this reference:

Activating Compound
EC Number
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1.14.15.24
CHAPS
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
deoxycholate
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
NP-40
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
sodium cholate
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
Triton X-100
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
Tween 60
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
Cloned(Commentary)
EC Number
Commentary
Organism
1.14.11.B16
expressed in Escherichia coli
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
expressed in Escherichia coli
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
Inhibitors
EC Number
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1.14.15.24
CHAPS
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
deoxycholate
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
NP-40
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
SDS
SDS inhibits activity completely at 0.01% (v/v)
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
sodium cholate
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
Triton X-100
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
Tween 60
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
KM Value [mM]
EC Number
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1.14.11.B16
0.0013
-
beta-carotene
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.11.B16
0.002
-
echinenone
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.11.B16
0.0083
-
4-oxozeaxanthin
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.11.B16
0.01
-
zeaxanthin
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.11.B16
0.0143
-
3-hydroxyechinenone
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.00056
-
echinenone
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.001
-
phoenicoxanthin
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.00182
-
3-hydroxyechinenone
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.0025
-
beta-carotene
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.004
-
3'-hydroxyechinenone
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
Organism
EC Number
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
1.14.11.B16
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
P54972
-
-
1.14.11.B16
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
P54972
-
-
1.14.15.24
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
-
-
-
Purification (Commentary)
EC Number
Commentary
Organism
1.14.15.24
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
EC Number
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
1.14.11.B16
3-hydroxyechinenone + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
phoenicoxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
3-hydroxyechinenone + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
phoenicoxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
4-oxozeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
astaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
4-oxozeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
astaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
beta-carotene + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
beta-carotene + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
echinenone + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
echinenone + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
zeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
adonixanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
zeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
adonixanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
3'-hydroxyechinenone + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
4-ketozeaxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
4-ketozeaxanthin is adonixanthin
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
3-hydroxyechinenone + NADH + H+ + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
4-ketozeaxanthin + NAD+ + H2O
4-ketozeaxanthin is adonixanthin
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
beta-carotene + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
zeaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
echinenone + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2
conversion occurs via 3- and 3'-hydroxyechinenone
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
4-ketozeaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
phoenicoxanthin + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2
phoenicoxanthin is adonirubin
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
astaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
-
-
?
Activating Compound (protein specific)
EC Number
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1.14.15.24
CHAPS
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
deoxycholate
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
NP-40
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
sodium cholate
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
Triton X-100
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
Tween 60
0.01% (v/v) promotes small enhancement in activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
EC Number
Commentary
Organism
1.14.11.B16
expressed in Escherichia coli
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
expressed in Escherichia coli
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
Inhibitors (protein specific)
EC Number
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1.14.15.24
CHAPS
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
deoxycholate
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
NP-40
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
SDS
SDS inhibits activity completely at 0.01% (v/v)
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
sodium cholate
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
Triton X-100
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
Tween 60
1% (v/v) promotes inhibition of activity
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
EC Number
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
1.14.11.B16
0.0013
-
beta-carotene
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.11.B16
0.002
-
echinenone
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.11.B16
0.0083
-
4-oxozeaxanthin
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.11.B16
0.01
-
zeaxanthin
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.11.B16
0.0143
-
3-hydroxyechinenone
30°C, 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5 mM FeSO4, 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM 2-oxoglutarate, 0.1% (mass/vol) deoxycholate
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.00056
-
echinenone
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.001
-
phoenicoxanthin
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.00182
-
3-hydroxyechinenone
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.0025
-
beta-carotene
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
1.14.15.24
0.004
-
3'-hydroxyechinenone
in 0.4 M Tris/HCl, pH 8.0, at 30°C
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
EC Number
Commentary
Organism
1.14.15.24
-
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
EC Number
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
1.14.11.B16
3-hydroxyechinenone + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
phoenicoxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
3-hydroxyechinenone + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
phoenicoxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
4-oxozeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
astaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
4-oxozeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
astaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
beta-carotene + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
beta-carotene + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
echinenone + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
echinenone + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
canthaxanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
zeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
adonixanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.11.B16
zeaxanthin + acceptor + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum N81106
adonixanthin + reduced acceptor
-
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
3'-hydroxyechinenone + reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
4-ketozeaxanthin + oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
4-ketozeaxanthin is adonixanthin
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
3-hydroxyechinenone + NADH + H+ + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
4-ketozeaxanthin + NAD+ + H2O
4-ketozeaxanthin is adonixanthin
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
beta-carotene + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
zeaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2
-
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
echinenone + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2
conversion occurs via 3- and 3'-hydroxyechinenone
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
4-ketozeaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
-
-
?
1.14.15.24
phoenicoxanthin + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2
phoenicoxanthin is adonirubin
714887
Agrobacterium aurantiacum
astaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O
-
-
-
?