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show all sequences of 5.1.1.4

Phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences

Caballero, Z.C.; Costa-Martins, A.G.; Ferreira, R.C.; P Alves, J.M.; Serrano, M.G.; Camargo, E.P.; Buck, G.A.; Minoprio, P.; G Teixeira, M.M.; Parasit. Vectors 8, 222 (2015)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma conorhini
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma dionisii
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma erneyi
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma grayi
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma lewisi
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma serpentis
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma sp.
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma sp. TCC339
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma sp. TCC878
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma vivax
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview; DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma cruzi
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma rangeli
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
no activity in Trypanosoma brucei
-
-
-
no activity in Trypanosoma congolense
-
-
-
Trypanosoma conorhini
A0A0F6YF18
-
-
Trypanosoma conorhini TCC025
A0A0F6YF18
-
-
Trypanosoma cruzi
Q4DA80
proline racemase A
-
Trypanosoma cruzi
Q868H8
proline racemase B
-
Trypanosoma cruzi CL Brener
Q4DA80
proline racemase A
-
Trypanosoma cruzi CL Brener
Q868H8
proline racemase B
-
Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei
A0A0F6VXD6
-
-
Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei TCC344
A0A0F6VXD6
-
-
Trypanosoma dionisii
-
-
-
Trypanosoma dionisii TCC211
-
-
-
Trypanosoma erneyi
A0A0F6VXE2
-
-
Trypanosoma erneyi TCC1946
A0A0F6VXE2
-
-
Trypanosoma grayi
-
-
-
Trypanosoma grayi ANR4
-
-
-
Trypanosoma lewisi
A0A0F6VXM2
-
-
Trypanosoma lewisi TCC034
A0A0F6VXM2
-
-
Trypanosoma rangeli
-
-
-
Trypanosoma serpentis
A0A0F6SCP6
-
-
Trypanosoma serpentis TCC1052
A0A0F6SCP6
-
-
Trypanosoma sp.
A0A0F6VXD9
-
-
Trypanosoma sp. TCC1825 / RCF-2014
A0A0F6VXD9
-
-
Trypanosoma sp. TCC339
A0A0F6YER1
-
-
Trypanosoma sp. TCC878
A0A0F6VXE6
-
-
Trypanosoma sp. TCC878 RCF-2014
A0A0F6VXE6
-
-
Trypanosoma vivax
B8LFE4
-
-
Trypanosoma vivax Y486
B8LFE4
-
-
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma conorhini
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma cruzi
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma dionisii
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma erneyi
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma grayi
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma lewisi
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma serpentis
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma sp.
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma sp. TCC339
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma sp. TCC878
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma vivax
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, genotyping and genetic organization, detailed overview
Trypanosoma rangeli
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma conorhini
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny; phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma cruzi
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma dionisii
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma erneyi
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma grayi
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma lewisi
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma rangeli
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma serpentis
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma sp.
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma sp. TCC339
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma sp. TCC878
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transfer to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma vivax
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma conorhini
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma cruzi
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma dionisii
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma erneyi
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma grayi
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma lewisi
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma rangeli
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma serpentis
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma sp.
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma sp. TCC339
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transference to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma sp. TCC878
evolution
phylogenetic and syntenic data support a single horizontal transfer to a Trypanosoma ancestor of a prokaryotic proline racemase implicated in parasite evasion from host defences. TryPRAC homologues as single copy genes per haploid genome in 12 of 15 Trypanosoma species, including Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma conorhini and Trypanosoma lewisi, all parasites of mammals. Polymorphisms in TcPRAC genes match Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes: TcI-TcIV and Tcbat have unique genes, while the hybrids TcV and TcVI contain TcPRACA and TcPRACB from parental TcII and TcIII, respectively. PRAC homologues are identified in trypanosomes from anurans, snakes, crocodiles, lizards, and birds. Most trypanosomes have intact PRAC genes. Trypanosoma rangeli possesses only pseudogenes, maybe in the process of being lost. Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma congolense and their allied species, except the more distantly related Trypanosoma vivax, have completely lost PRAC genes. The genealogy of TryPRAC homologs supports an evolutionary history congruent with the Trypanosoma phylogeny
Trypanosoma vivax
Other publictions for EC 5.1.1.4
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
730678
Watanabe
Identification and characteriz ...
Clostridioides difficile, Ferroplasma acidarmanus, Haloarcula japonica, Haloarcula japonica DSM 6131, Thermococcus litoralis, Thermococcus litoralis DSM 5473
PLoS One
10
e0120349
2015
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748829
Caballero
Phylogenetic and syntenic dat ...
no activity in Trypanosoma brucei, no activity in Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma conorhini, Trypanosoma conorhini TCC025, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma cruzi CL Brener, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei TCC344, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma dionisii TCC211, Trypanosoma erneyi, Trypanosoma erneyi TCC1946, Trypanosoma grayi, Trypanosoma grayi ANR4, Trypanosoma lewisi, Trypanosoma lewisi TCC034, Trypanosoma rangeli, Trypanosoma serpentis, Trypanosoma serpentis TCC1052, Trypanosoma sp., Trypanosoma sp. TCC1825 / RCF-2014, Trypanosoma sp. TCC339, Trypanosoma sp. TCC878, Trypanosoma sp. TCC878 RCF-2014, Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma vivax Y486
Parasit. Vectors
8
222
2015
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727156
Harty
Inhibition of serine and proli ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
24
390-393
2014
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727265
Wu
The Clostridium difficile prol ...
Clostridioides difficile
Can. J. Microbiol.
60
251-254
2014
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749144
Fikru
A proline racemase based PCR ...
Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma vivax ILRAD 1392
PLoS ONE
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e84819
2014
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728600
Berneman
Combined approaches for drug d ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
PLoS ONE
8
e60955
2013
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715163
Bryan
Genetic immunization converts ...
Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma cruzi Y
Infect. Immun.
78
810-822
2010
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704196
Rubinstein
Catalyzing racemizations in th ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
131
8513-8521
2009
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704292
Fonknechten
A conserved gene cluster rules ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
J. Bacteriol.
191
3162-3167
2009
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705499
Coutinho
Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruz ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
104
1055-1062
2009
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705500
Coatnoan
Proline racemases: Insights in ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
104
295-300
2009
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705596
Chamond
Proline racemases are conserve ...
Trypanosoma vivax
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
165
170-179
2009
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675621
Stenta
The Catalytic Activity of Prol ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
J. Phys. Chem. B
112
1057-1059
2008
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676749
Goytia
Molecular and structural discr ...
Clostridioides difficile, Clostridioides difficile VPI10463
PLoS ONE
2
e885
2007
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676832
Buschiazzo
Crystal structure, catalytic m ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
103
1705-1710
2006
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662908
Chamond
Trypanosoma cruzi proline race ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
Mol. Microbiol.
58
46-60
2005
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652377
Chamond
Biochemical characterization o ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
J. Biol. Chem.
278
15484-15494
2003
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2
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653295
Reina-San-Martin
A B-cell mitogen from a pathog ...
Trypanosoma cruzi
Nat. Med.
6
890-897
2000
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1
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4
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3
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4
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2125
Fisher
Energetics of proline racemase ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
25
2529-2537
1986
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2126
Fisher
Energetics of proline racemase ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
25
2543-2551
1986
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1
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1
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2127
Belasco
Energetics of proline racemase ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
25
2564-2571
1986
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1
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1
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1
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2128
Fisher
Energetics of proline racemase ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
25
2538-2542
1986
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1
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1
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1
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1
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2129
Belasco
Energetics of proline racemase ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
25
2558-2564
1986
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1
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1
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1
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2130
Albery
Energetics and mechanism of pr ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
25
2572-2577
1986
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1
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1
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1
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2131
Belasco
Energetics of proline racemase ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
25
2552-2558
1986
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1
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1
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1
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2124
Rudnick
Reaction mechanism and structu ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
14
4515-4522
1975
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3
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1
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2
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1
1
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1
1
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3
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1
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2123
Keenan
The inhibition of proline race ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
57
500-504
1974
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1
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2122
Cardinale
Purification and mechanism of ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
Biochemistry
7
3970-3978
1968
3
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18
2
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1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
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3
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18
-
2
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1
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1
1
1
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1
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2121
Stadtman
Studies on the enzymic reducti ...
Acetoanaerobium sticklandii
J. Biol. Chem.
228
983-997
1957
3
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3
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3
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1
1
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3
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