BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 4.1.3.16

The metabolism of gamma-hydroxyglutamate in rat liver. 1. Enzymic synthesis of gamma-hydroxy-alpha-ketoglutarate from pyruvate and glyoxylate

Kuratomi, K.; Fukunaga, K.; Biochim. Biophys. Acta 78, 617-628 (1963)

Data extracted from this reference:

Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
arsenite
-
Rattus norvegicus
Cu2+
93% inhibition at 2 mM
Rattus norvegicus
cysteine
65% inhibition at 10 mM
Rattus norvegicus
Hg2+
complete inhibition at 2 mM
Rattus norvegicus
iodoacetate
10% inhibition at 10 mM
Rattus norvegicus
N-ethylmaleimide
64% inhibition at 10 mM
Rattus norvegicus
p-chloromercuribenzoate
complete inhibition at 10 mM
Rattus norvegicus
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.43
-
glyoxylate
-
Rattus norvegicus
1.33
-
4-hydroxy-alpha-ketoglutarate
-
Rattus norvegicus
10
-
pyruvate
-
Rattus norvegicus
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
mitochondrion
-
Rattus norvegicus
5739
-
Metals/Ions
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
no requirement
Rattus norvegicus
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Rattus norvegicus
-
rat
-
Purification (Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
-
Rattus norvegicus
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
brain
poor activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
kidney
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
liver
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
5.3
-
-
Rattus norvegicus
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate
-
5237
Rattus norvegicus
Pyruvate + glyoxylate
-
5237
Rattus norvegicus
-
Glyoxylate + pyruvate
specific, codensation favoured, Keq: 0.73 mM
5237
Rattus norvegicus
4-Hydroxy-2-ketoglutarate
-
5237
Rattus norvegicus
-
additional information
specific for glyoxylate and pyruvate
5237
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
equilibrium favours condensation, Keq: 0.73 1/mM
5237
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
37
-
enzyme assay at
Rattus norvegicus
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.5
8
condensation, elimination
Rattus norvegicus
pH Range
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
5
9
-
Rattus norvegicus
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
arsenite
-
Rattus norvegicus
Cu2+
93% inhibition at 2 mM
Rattus norvegicus
cysteine
65% inhibition at 10 mM
Rattus norvegicus
Hg2+
complete inhibition at 2 mM
Rattus norvegicus
iodoacetate
10% inhibition at 10 mM
Rattus norvegicus
N-ethylmaleimide
64% inhibition at 10 mM
Rattus norvegicus
p-chloromercuribenzoate
complete inhibition at 10 mM
Rattus norvegicus
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.43
-
glyoxylate
-
Rattus norvegicus
1.33
-
4-hydroxy-alpha-ketoglutarate
-
Rattus norvegicus
10
-
pyruvate
-
Rattus norvegicus
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
mitochondrion
-
Rattus norvegicus
5739
-
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
no requirement
Rattus norvegicus
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
-
Rattus norvegicus
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
brain
poor activity
Rattus norvegicus
-
kidney
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
liver
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
5.3
-
-
Rattus norvegicus
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate
-
5237
Rattus norvegicus
Pyruvate + glyoxylate
-
5237
Rattus norvegicus
-
Glyoxylate + pyruvate
specific, codensation favoured, Keq: 0.73 mM
5237
Rattus norvegicus
4-Hydroxy-2-ketoglutarate
-
5237
Rattus norvegicus
-
additional information
specific for glyoxylate and pyruvate
5237
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
equilibrium favours condensation, Keq: 0.73 1/mM
5237
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
37
-
enzyme assay at
Rattus norvegicus
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
7.5
8
condensation, elimination
Rattus norvegicus
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Minimum
pH Maximum
Commentary
Organism
5
9
-
Rattus norvegicus
Other publictions for EC 4.1.3.16
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
746867
Schapfl
Extended substrate range of t ...
Escherichia coli
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
102
8359-8372
2018
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
748294
Mdimegh
HOGA1 gene mutations of prima ...
Homo sapiens
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
31
e22053
2017
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
747772
MacDonald
Cellular degradation of 4-hyd ...
Homo sapiens
FEBS Lett.
590
1467-1476
2016
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
746641
Huang
Use of a novel microtitration ...
Bos taurus
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F
70
1546-1549
2014
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
721727
Riedel
4-Hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldol ...
Homo sapiens
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1822
1544-1552
2012
-
1
1
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
728378
Williams
The enzyme 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglut ...
Homo sapiens
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
27
3191-3195
2012
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
723542
Riedel
Structural and biochemical stu ...
Homo sapiens
PLoS ONE
6
e26021
2011
-
-
1
1
11
-
-
10
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
11
-
-
-
-
10
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
10
713711
Belostotsky
Mutations in DHDPSL are respon ...
Homo sapiens
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
87
392-399
2010
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
5255
Dekker
2-keto-4-Hydroxyglutarate aldo ...
Bos taurus
J. Biol. Chem.
267
10507-10514
1992
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
2
-
1
6
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
5
1
3
5
1
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
2
-
1
6
-
-
-
-
1
-
5
1
3
5
1
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5253
Anderson
Rat liver 4-hydroxy-2-ketoglut ...
Rattus norvegicus
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
236
82-97
1985
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
1
2
1
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
3
1
2
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5252
Scholtz
-
Substrates of hydroxyketogluta ...
Rattus norvegicus
Bioorg. Chem.
12
229-234
1984
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5250
Grady
Steady-state kinetics and inhi ...
Bos taurus
Biochemistry
20
2497-2502
1981
2
-
-
-
-
-
13
1
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5247
Lane
Sulfhydryl groups in relation ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
481
212-221
1977
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5246
Hansen
Inactivation of bovine liver 2 ...
Bos taurus
Biochemistry
15
2912-2917
1976
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5243
Dekker
2-keto-4-Hydroxyglutarate aldo ...
Bos taurus
Methods Enzymol.
42C
280-285
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
3
-
1
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2159
Adams
-
Enzymes and intermediates of h ...
Rattus norvegicus
Methods Enzymol.
17B
266-306
1971
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
4
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
4
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5238
Lane
2-keto-4-Hydroxybutyrate aldol ...
Bos taurus, Mammalia
Biochemistry
10
1353-1364
1971
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
2
-
2
-
2
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
1
2
-
6
-
1
-
1
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
2
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
1
2
-
6
-
1
-
1
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5241
Kobes
Variant properties of bovine l ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
251
238-250
1971
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5237
Kuratomi
The metabolism of gamma-hydrox ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
78
617-628
1963
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
3
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
4
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
3
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
1
-
4
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-