BRENDA - Enzyme Database
show all sequences of 4.1.1.11

An archaeal glutamate decarboxylase homolog functions as an aspartate decarboxylase and is involved in beta-alanine and coenzyme A biosynthesis

Tomita, H.; Yokooji, Y.; Ishibashi, T.; Imanaka, T.; Atomi, H.; J. Bacteriol. 196, 1222-1230 (2014)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Cloned (Commentary)
Organism
gene TK1814, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant overexpression in Escherichia coli strain BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RIL
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Engineering
Protein Variants
Commentary
Organism
additional information
construction of a TK1814 gene disruption strain, phenotype, overview. The TK1814 strain does not show growth for 24 h, suggesting that the ADC and/or GAD activities of TK1814 are essential for growth in this medium. When exogenous beta-alanine, the product of ADC activity, is added to the medium, the growth defects are almost fully recovered. In contrast, the addition of GABA, the product of GAD activity, does not complement TK1814 disruption at all
Thermococcus kodakarensis
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
Michaelis-Menten kinetics
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ID
L-aspartate
Thermococcus kodakarensis
-
beta-alanine + CO2
-
-
?
L-aspartate
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
-
beta-alanine + CO2
-
-
?
additional information
Thermococcus kodakarensis
the enzyme is a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor
?
-
-
-
additional information
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
the enzyme is a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor
?
-
-
-
Organism
Organism
UniProt
Commentary
Textmining
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Q5JJ82
i.e. Pyrococcus kodakaraensis
-
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
Q5JJ82
i.e. Pyrococcus kodakaraensis
-
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
additional information
anaerobic cultivation at 85°C in a nutrient-rich medium
Thermococcus kodakarensis
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
Substrate Product ID
L-aspartate
-
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis
beta-alanine + CO2
-
-
-
?
L-aspartate
-
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
beta-alanine + CO2
-
-
-
?
additional information
the enzyme is a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the kcat/Km value with Asp is much higher than that with Glu, suggesting that Asp is the preferred substrate of the TK1814 protein
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme is a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the kcat/Km value with Asp is much higher than that with Glu, suggesting that Asp is the preferred substrate of the TK1814 protein
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
dimer
recombinant GAD
Thermococcus kodakarensis
More
the Escherichia coli aspartate decarboxylase, ADC, is hexameric
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Synonyms
Synonyms
Commentary
Organism
ADC
-
Thermococcus kodakarensis
aspartate decarboxylase
-
Thermococcus kodakarensis
MfnA
-
Thermococcus kodakarensis
TK1814
-
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
85
-
assay at
Thermococcus kodakarensis
pH Optimum
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
8
-
assay at
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
dependent on
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
gene TK1814, phylogenetic analysis, recombinant overexpression in Escherichia coli strain BL21-CodonPlus(DE3)-RIL
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
dependent on
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Engineering (protein specific)
Protein Variants
Commentary
Organism
additional information
construction of a TK1814 gene disruption strain, phenotype, overview. The TK1814 strain does not show growth for 24 h, suggesting that the ADC and/or GAD activities of TK1814 are essential for growth in this medium. When exogenous beta-alanine, the product of ADC activity, is added to the medium, the growth defects are almost fully recovered. In contrast, the addition of GABA, the product of GAD activity, does not complement TK1814 disruption at all
Thermococcus kodakarensis
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
Michaelis-Menten kinetics
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
ID
L-aspartate
Thermococcus kodakarensis
-
beta-alanine + CO2
-
-
?
L-aspartate
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
-
beta-alanine + CO2
-
-
?
additional information
Thermococcus kodakarensis
the enzyme is a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor
?
-
-
-
additional information
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
the enzyme is a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor
?
-
-
-
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
additional information
anaerobic cultivation at 85°C in a nutrient-rich medium
Thermococcus kodakarensis
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
ID
L-aspartate
-
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis
beta-alanine + CO2
-
-
-
?
L-aspartate
-
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
beta-alanine + CO2
-
-
-
?
additional information
the enzyme is a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the kcat/Km value with Asp is much higher than that with Glu, suggesting that Asp is the preferred substrate of the TK1814 protein
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the enzyme is a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the kcat/Km value with Asp is much higher than that with Glu, suggesting that Asp is the preferred substrate of the TK1814 protein
748086
Thermococcus kodakarensis ATCC BAA-918 / JCM 12380 / KOD1
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
dimer
recombinant GAD
Thermococcus kodakarensis
More
the Escherichia coli aspartate decarboxylase, ADC, is hexameric
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Optimum Maximum [°C]
Commentary
Organism
85
-
assay at
Thermococcus kodakarensis
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Optimum Minimum
pH Optimum Maximum
Commentary
Organism
8
-
assay at
Thermococcus kodakarensis
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
evolution
TK1814 homologues are distributed in a wide range of archaea and may be responsible for beta-alanine biosynthesis in these organisms. The GAD-type proteins from bacteria and those from plants, fungi, and yeast are actually GADs, as diverse members of this clade have been experimentally shown to display GAD activity. The six members of GAD-type proteins from mammals and acari (an arachnid subclass) are proven to be authentic GADs, but GADL1 from mammals and GAD-type proteins from insects within this clade have been shown to be ADCs and do not harbor the corresponding Asn residues that are important for recognition of gamma-carboxylate of Glu in human GAD65 (Asn203 in human GAD65). The ADC-type proteins from bacteria can be expected to function as ADCs, but none of the ADC-type proteins from hyperthermophilic bacteria (from Aquifex aeolicus) or from archaea have been examined
Thermococcus kodakarensis
malfunction
gene disruption of TK1814 results in a strain that cannot grow in standard medium. Addition of beta-alanine, 4'-phosphopantothenate, or CoA complements the growth defect, whereas gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) cannot complement
Thermococcus kodakarensis
physiological function
the enzyme is a a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor. The GAD activity of TK1814 is not necessary for growth
Thermococcus kodakarensis
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
evolution
TK1814 homologues are distributed in a wide range of archaea and may be responsible for beta-alanine biosynthesis in these organisms. The GAD-type proteins from bacteria and those from plants, fungi, and yeast are actually GADs, as diverse members of this clade have been experimentally shown to display GAD activity. The six members of GAD-type proteins from mammals and acari (an arachnid subclass) are proven to be authentic GADs, but GADL1 from mammals and GAD-type proteins from insects within this clade have been shown to be ADCs and do not harbor the corresponding Asn residues that are important for recognition of gamma-carboxylate of Glu in human GAD65 (Asn203 in human GAD65). The ADC-type proteins from bacteria can be expected to function as ADCs, but none of the ADC-type proteins from hyperthermophilic bacteria (from Aquifex aeolicus) or from archaea have been examined
Thermococcus kodakarensis
malfunction
gene disruption of TK1814 results in a strain that cannot grow in standard medium. Addition of beta-alanine, 4'-phosphopantothenate, or CoA complements the growth defect, whereas gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) cannot complement
Thermococcus kodakarensis
physiological function
the enzyme is a a glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) homologue encoded by gene TK1814. The recombinant bifunctional TK1814 protein displays not only GAD activity but also ADC activity using pyridoxal 5'-phosphate as a cofactor. The GAD activity of TK1814 is not necessary for growth
Thermococcus kodakarensis
Other publictions for EC 4.1.1.11
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Synonyms
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
749207
Zhang
-
Glu56Ser mutation improves th ...
Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus subtilis 168, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 / DSM 20300 / JCM 1318 / LMG 3730 / NCIMB 10025, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC BAA-793 / NCIMB 8826 / WCFS1
Process Biochem.
70
117-123
2018
-
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
11
-
4
3
-
-
-
6
-
7
4
20
3
3
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
4
3
-
-
6
-
7
4
3
3
-
-
3
3
-
4
-
10
10
-
-
-
746598
Gopal
In vivo-selected pyrazinoic a ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
ACS Infect. Dis.
3
492-501
2017
-
-
-
-
18
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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18
-
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
746859
Pei
Molecular engineering of L-as ...
Bacillus subtilis 168, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 / DSM 20300 / JCM 1318 / LMG 3730 / NCIMB 10025, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli K-12 / DH5alpha
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
101
6015-6021
2017
-
-
3
-
2
-
2
6
-
-
-
6
-
10
-
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
12
-
9
3
2
6
3
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
2
-
-
2
-
6
-
-
-
6
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
-
12
-
3
2
6
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
747128
Arnott
The mechanism of regulation o ...
Escherichia coli
Biochemistry
56
4931-4939
2017
1
1
1
1
4
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
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-
1
-
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1
1
1
1
1
4
-
-
2
-
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-
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
4
-
-
-
747799
Gliessman
Pantothenate auxotrophy in Zy ...
Escherichia coli, no activity in Zymomonas mobilis, no activity in Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 / ATCC 31821 / CP4
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
364
fnx113
2017
-
-
1
-
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1
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7
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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747435
Stuecker
Phylogenetic and amino acid c ...
Bacillus halodurans, Bacillus halodurans ATCC BAA-125 / DSM 18197 / FERM 7344 / JCM 9153 / C-125, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella pertussis Tohama I / ATCC BAA-589 / NCTC 13251, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 / DSM 20300 / JCM 1318 / LMG 3730 / NCIMB 10025, Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter pylori 26695, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 700721 / MGH 78578, Legionella pneumophila, Magnetospirillum magneticum, Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 / ATCC 700264, Moorella thermoacetica, Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073 / JCM 9320, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 700825 / FA 1090, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 / DSM 22644 / CIP 104116 / JCM 14847 / LMG 12228 / 1C / PRS 101 / PAO1, Ralstonia solanacearum, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 / SGSC1412 / ATCC 700720
BMC Res. Notes
8
354
2015
-
-
12
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
22
-
24
-
12
-
-
-
1
-
-
22
-
24
-
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3
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12
3
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1
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22
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12
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1
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22
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-
-
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15
15
-
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-
747497
Monteiro
The structure of the PanD/Pan ...
Escherichia coli
Chem. Biol.
22
492-503
2015
2
-
-
1
1
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2
-
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-
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1
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1
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3
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1
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1
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1
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4
4
-
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747593
Deng
Characterization of L-asparta ...
Bacillus subtilis 168, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium glutamicum DSM 20300, Escherichia coli
Chin. J. Biotechnol.
31
1184-1193
2015
1
3
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5
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7
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3
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3
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5
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9
2
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2
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1
3
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5
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3
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3
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5
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2
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2
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-
-
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749304
Dai
Aspartate decarboxylase is re ...
Bombyx mori
Sci. Rep.
5
10885
2015
-
-
1
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1
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1
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5
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4
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1
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1
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1
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4
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1
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3
3
-
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726592
Webb
Threonine 57 is required for t ...
Escherichia coli
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. D
70
1166-1172
2014
1
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1
7
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1
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1
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
1
7
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1
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1
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1
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3
3
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727234
Cui
Significance of Arg3, Arg54, a ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032
Biotechnol. Lett.
36
121-126
2014
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1
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10
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2
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4
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1
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5
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1
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1
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1
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1
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10
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1
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5
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4
1
1
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1
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1
1
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727235
Shen
Synthesis of beta-alanine from ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032
Biotechnol. Lett.
36
1681-1686
2014
-
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1
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1
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2
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4
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1
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3
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4
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