BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 2.3.3.14

Acid-base chemical mechanism of homocitrate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Qian, J.; West, A.H.; Cook, P.F.; Biochemistry 45, 12136-12143 (2006)

Data extracted from this reference:

Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
2-oxoglutarate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2-Oxomalonate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Glutarate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
glyoxylate
competitive, analysis of pH-dependence of inhibition
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
oxalate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
oxaloacetate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
oxalylglycine
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
pyridine-2-carboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
succinyl phosphonate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Metals/Ions
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Zinc
bound in the active site
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
-
Reaction
Reaction
Commentary
Organism
acetyl-CoA + H2O + 2-oxoglutarate = (2R)-2-hydroxybutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylate + CoA
mechanism: 2-oxoglutarate first binds to the active site zinc via its alpha-carboxylate and 2-oxo groups, followed by acetyl-CoA. A general base then accepts a proton from the methyl of acetyl-CoA, and a general acid protonates the carbonyl of 2-oxoglutarate in the formation of homocitryl-CoA. The general acid then acts as a base in deprotonating Zn-OH2 in the hydrolysis of homocitryl-CoA to give homocitrate and CoA
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value maximum [mM]
Inhibitor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.4
-
glyoxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.43
-
pyridine-2-carboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.6
-
Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.7
-
pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
1
-
oxalate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
3
-
pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
4
-
oxaloacetate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
7.7
-
oxalylglycine
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
10
-
2-Oxomalonate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
14
-
Pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
26
-
2-oxoglutarate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
26
-
Glutarate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
46
-
succinyl phosphonate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
2-oxoglutarate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
2-Oxomalonate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Glutarate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
glyoxylate
competitive, analysis of pH-dependence of inhibition
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
oxalate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
oxaloacetate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
oxalylglycine
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
pyridine-2-carboxylate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
succinyl phosphonate
-
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM]
Ki Value maximum [mM]
Inhibitor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
0.4
-
glyoxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.43
-
pyridine-2-carboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.6
-
Pyridine-2,4-dicarboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.7
-
pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
1
-
oxalate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
3
-
pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
4
-
oxaloacetate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
7.7
-
oxalylglycine
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
10
-
2-Oxomalonate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
14
-
Pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
26
-
2-oxoglutarate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
26
-
Glutarate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
46
-
succinyl phosphonate
pH 7.2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Zinc
bound in the active site
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Other publictions for EC 2.3.3.14
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Range [C]
Temperature Stability [C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
746605
Wang
De novo biosynthesis of gluta ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 204508
ACS Synth. Biol.
6
1922-1930
2017
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
737195
Gabriel
Characterization of recombinan ...
Candida albicans
Protein Expr. Purif.
125
7-18
2016
-
-
1
-
-
-
10
4
-
-
6
1
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
7
10
-
4
-
-
6
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
735992
Liu
Homocitrate synthase expressio ...
Flammulina velutipes, Flammulina velutipes W23
Curr. Microbiol.
70
821-828
2015
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
719956
Kumar
Kinetic and chemical mechanism ...
Thermus thermophilus
J. Biol. Chem.
286
29428-29439
2011
-
-
1
-
-
-
5
-
-
3
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
720500
Quezada
The Lys20 homocitrate synthase ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741
Mol. Microbiol.
82
578-590
2011
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
59
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
704648
Bulfer
Structural basis for L-lysine ...
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
J. Biol. Chem.
285
10446-10453
2010
-
-
1
1
4
-
1
10
-
1
-
1
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
10
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
4
-
-
1
-
10
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
704692
Okada
Mechanism of substrate recogni ...
Thermus thermophilus
J. Biol. Chem.
285
4195-4205
2010
-
-
1
1
1
-
1
4
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
9
-
1
-
1
-
-
4
1
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
1
2
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
9
-
1
-
1
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
719384
Schoebel
Evaluation of lysine biosynthe ...
Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus fumigatus CBS 144.89
Eukaryot. Cell
9
878-893
2010
-
-
1
-
-
-
10
2
-
1
6
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
2
2
1
1
-
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
10
-
2
-
1
6
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
2
2
1
1
-
1
1
1
-
1
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
719553
Scott
Homocitrate synthase connects ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Genes Dev.
24
1903-1913
2010
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
704600
Bulfer
Crystal structure and function ...
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
J. Biol. Chem.
284
35769-35780
2009
-
1
1
1
18
-
-
18
-
2
-
1
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
18
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
18
-
-
-
-
18
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
18
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
705889
Hakoyama
Host plant genome overcomes th ...
Lotus japonicus
Nature
462
514-517
2009
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
685263
Qian
Evidence for a catalytic dyad ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
47
6851-6858
2008
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
688873
Quezada
Specialization of the paralogu ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Microbiology
154
1656-1667
2008
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674333
Li
Re-citrate synthase from Clost ...
Clostridium kluyveri
J. Bacteriol.
189
4299-4304
2007
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
684570
Masukawa
Effects of disruption of homoc ...
Nostoc sp. PCC 7120
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
73
7562-7570
2007
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
672072
Qian
Acid-base chemical mechanism o ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
45
12136-12143
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
13
13
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674553
Kwon
Inactivation of homocitrate sy ...
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
J. Biol. Chem.
281
1345-1351
2006
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
662403
Andi
Regulatory mechanism of Histid ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
280
31624-31632
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
662404
Andi
Regulatory mechanism of Histid ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
280
31633-31640
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
660793
Andi
Stabilization and characteriza ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
421
243-254
2004
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
661086
Andi
Kinetic mechanism of histidine ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochemistry
43
11790-11795
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488151
Wulandari
Characterization of bacterial ...
Thermus thermophilus
FEBS Lett.
522
35-40
2002
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
-
-
1
1
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
1
1
1
3
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
4
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
1
1
1
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488153
Banuelos
Subcellular localization of th ...
Penicillium chrysogenum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Mol. Gen. Genet.
266
711-719
2002
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488152
Banuelos
Overexpression of the lys1 gen ...
Penicillium chrysogenum
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
54
69-77
2000
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488144
Banuelos
Characterization and lysine co ...
Penicillium chrysogenum
Gene
226
51-59
1999
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488150
Feller
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, f ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Eur. J. Biochem.
261
163-170
1999
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488148
Zheng
Purification of the Acobacter ...
Azotobacter vinelandii
J. Bacteriol.
179
5963-5966
1997
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488149
Chen
Homocitrate synthase is locate ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Biol. Chem.
272
10839-10846
1997
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488146
Ramos
Identification of the gene enc ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Yeast
12
1315-1320
1996
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488147
Perez-Campo
Cloning and sequencing of the ...
Yarrowia lipolytica
Yeast
12
1459-1469
1996
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488145
Jaklitsch
Homocitrate synthase from Peni ...
Penicillium chrysogenum
Biochem. J.
269
247-253
1990
-
-
-
-
-
2
7
1
4
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
7
1
1
4
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288190
Ye
Lysine biosynthesis pathway an ...
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
J. Bacteriol.
170
5968-5970
1988
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288192
Schmidt
-
Lysine biosynthesis in the yea ...
Candida maltosa
J. Basic Microbiol.
25
675-681
1985
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
2
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
3
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488141
Shimizu
-
Effects of a selenium analogue ...
Wickerhamomyces anomalus
Agric. Biol. Chem.
48
2871-2872
1984
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488140
Takenouchi
-
Homocitrate synthase of S-(bet ...
Wickerhamomyces anomalus
J. Ferment. Technol.
59
429-433
1981
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488139
Luengo
Inhibition and repression of h ...
Penicillium chrysogenum
J. Bacteriol.
144
869-876
1980
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488136
Gaillardin
A kinetic study of homocitrate ...
Saccharomycopsis lipolytica
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
422
390-406
1976
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488137
Gray
Biosynthesis of lysine in Sacc ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Can. J. Microbiol.
22
1664-1667
1976
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488138
Gray
Biosynthesis of lysine in Sacc ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
J. Gen. Microbiol.
97
117-120
1976
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488133
Demain
Lysine inhibition of in vivo h ...
Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium chrysogenum Wis. 54-1255
J. Gen. Microbiol.
82
143-151
1974
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488135
Masurekar
Insensitivity of homocitrate s ...
Penicillium chrysogenum
Appl. Microbiol.
28
265-270
1974
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488134
Tucci
Homocitrate synthase from yeas ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
153
742-750
1972
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488132
Hogg
Homocitrate formation in Neuro ...
Neurospora crassa
J. Biol. Chem.
243
1839-1845
1968
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
488131
Strassman
Enzymatic formation of homocit ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
14
262-267
1964
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-