BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 1.8.4.2

Glutathione-insulin transhydrogenase (protein-disulfide interchange enzyme)

Varandani, P.T.; Coenzymes and cofactors, Glutathione, Chem. Biochem. Med. Aspects Pt. A (Dolphin D, Poulson R, Avromonic O, eds. ) John Wiley & Sons, New York 3, 753-765 (1989)
No PubMed abstract available

Data extracted from this reference:

Activating Compound
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Chelating agents
e.g. EDTA, EGTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, activation
Homo sapiens
Chelating agents
e.g. EDTA, EGTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, activation
Mus musculus
Chelating agents
e.g. EDTA, EGTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, activation
Rattus norvegicus
Chelating agents
e.g. EDTA, EGTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, activation
Bos taurus
EDTA
and other chelating agents activate
Bos taurus
EDTA
and other chelating agents activate
Homo sapiens
EDTA
and other chelating agents activate
Mus musculus
EDTA
and other chelating agents activate
Rattus norvegicus
additional information
overview
Bos taurus
additional information
overview
Homo sapiens
additional information
overview
Mus musculus
additional information
overview
Rattus norvegicus
phosphatidylethanolamine
activates at low concentration
Mus musculus
phosphatidylethanolamine
activates at low concentration
Homo sapiens
phosphatidylethanolamine
activates at low concentration
Bos taurus
phosphatidylethanolamine
activates at low concentration
Rattus norvegicus
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Aprotinin
-
Bos taurus
Aprotinin
-
Homo sapiens
Aprotinin
-
Mus musculus
Aprotinin
-
Rattus norvegicus
bacitracin
-
Bos taurus
bacitracin
-
Homo sapiens
bacitracin
-
Mus musculus
bacitracin
-
Rattus norvegicus
Ca2+
slight
Homo sapiens
Ca2+
slight
Mus musculus
Ca2+
slight
Rattus norvegicus
Ca2+
slight
Bos taurus
Cu2+
-
Homo sapiens
Cu2+
-
Mus musculus
Cu2+
-
Rattus norvegicus
Cu2+
-
Bos taurus
Hg2+
-
Homo sapiens
Hg2+
-
Mus musculus
Hg2+
-
Rattus norvegicus
Hg2+
-
Bos taurus
lysolecithin
-
Mus musculus
lysolecithin
-
Bos taurus
lysolecithin
-
Homo sapiens
lysolecithin
-
Rattus norvegicus
additional information
overview
Bos taurus
additional information
overview
Homo sapiens
additional information
overview
Mus musculus
additional information
overview
Rattus norvegicus
Ni2+
slight
Bos taurus
Ni2+
slight
Homo sapiens
Ni2+
slight
Mus musculus
Ni2+
slight
Rattus norvegicus
phosphatidic acid
-
Mus musculus
phosphatidic acid
-
Homo sapiens
phosphatidic acid
-
Bos taurus
phosphatidic acid
-
Rattus norvegicus
Se2+
-
Homo sapiens
Se2+
-
Mus musculus
Se2+
-
Rattus norvegicus
Se2+
-
Bos taurus
Zn2+
-
Bos taurus
Zn2+
-
Homo sapiens
Zn2+
-
Mus musculus
Zn2+
-
Rattus norvegicus
KM Value [mM]
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
-
Bos taurus
additional information
-
additional information
-
Homo sapiens
additional information
-
additional information
-
Mus musculus
additional information
-
additional information
-
Rattus norvegicus
0.01
-
Insulin
-
Bos taurus
0.01
-
Insulin
-
Homo sapiens
0.01
-
Insulin
-
Mus musculus
0.01
-
Insulin
-
Rattus norvegicus
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
endoplasmic reticulum
-
Rattus norvegicus
5783
-
membrane
bound to
Rattus norvegicus
16020
-
microsome
majority of the enzyme located at; weakly bound on cisternal surface of microsomes via phospholipids
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
secretory granule
of alpha and beta cells of islets of Langerhans
Rattus norvegicus
30141
-
zymogen granule
of acinar cells
Rattus norvegicus
42588
-
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
3 molecular forms: MW 56000 is the major form, MW 51000 is active and only present in spleen, possibly a proteolytic product of 56000 MW protein, MW 67000 is possibly a precursor of 56000 MW protein
Rattus norvegicus
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
GSH + protein disulfide
Mus musculus
physiological function
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Homo sapiens
physiological function
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
physiological function
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Bos taurus
physiological function
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Mus musculus
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Homo sapiens
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Bos taurus
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Mus musculus
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Homo sapiens
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Bos taurus
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Mus musculus
feedback control via insulin in the liver
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Homo sapiens
feedback control via insulin in the liver
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
feedback control via insulin in the liver
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Bos taurus
feedback control via insulin in the liver
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Bos taurus
-
-
-
Homo sapiens
-
-
-
Mus musculus
-
-
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
-
Posttranslational Modification
Posttranslational Modification
Commentary
Organism
phospholipoprotein
-
Rattus norvegicus
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
adipose tissue
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
brain
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
diaphragm
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
erythrocyte
-
Homo sapiens
-
heart
-
Mus musculus
-
heart
-
Homo sapiens
-
heart
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
heart
-
Bos taurus
-
intestine
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
kidney
-
Mus musculus
-
kidney
-
Homo sapiens
-
kidney
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
kidney
-
Bos taurus
-
lens
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
leukocyte
-
Homo sapiens
-
liver
-
Mus musculus
-
liver
-
Homo sapiens
-
liver
-
Bos taurus
-
liver
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
lung
-
Homo sapiens
-
lung
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
additional information
-
Bos taurus
-
additional information
higher activity in mononuclear cells than in polymorphonuclear cells
Homo sapiens
-
additional information
-
Mus musculus
-
additional information
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
pancreas
-
Homo sapiens
-
pancreas
-
Mus musculus
-
pancreas
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
pancreas
-
Bos taurus
-
placenta
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
retina
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
skeletal muscle
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
spleen
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
testis
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
thymus
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
assay methods
Bos taurus
additional information
-
assay methods
Homo sapiens
additional information
-
assay methods
Mus musculus
additional information
-
assay methods
Rattus norvegicus
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
2,3-dimercaptopropanol + protein disulfide
-
394810
Mus musculus
2,3-dimercaptopropanol disulfide + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
2,3-dimercaptopropanol + protein disulfide
-
394810
Homo sapiens
2,3-dimercaptopropanol disulfide + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
2,3-dimercaptopropanol + protein disulfide
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
2,3-dimercaptopropanol disulfide + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
2,3-dimercaptopropanol + protein disulfide
-
394810
Bos taurus
2,3-dimercaptopropanol disulfide + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
cysteamine + protein disulfide
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
?
cysteamine + protein disulfide
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
cysteamine + protein disulfide
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
?
cysteamine + protein disulfide
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
?
dihydrolipoic acid + protein disulfide
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
?
dihydrolipoic acid + protein disulfide
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
dihydrolipoic acid + protein disulfide
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
?
dihydrolipoic acid + protein disulfide
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + insulin
proinsulin
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + reduced insulin chain A and B
-
-
-
-
GSH + insulin
proinsulin
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + reduced insulin chain A and B
-
-
-
-
GSH + insulin
proinsulin
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + reduced insulin chain A and B
-
-
-
-
GSH + insulin
proinsulin
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + reduced insulin chain A and B
-
-
-
-
GSH + oxytoxin
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + oxytoxin
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + oxytoxin
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + oxytoxin
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
-
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
GSH + protein disulfide
-
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
GSH + protein disulfide
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
GSH + protein disulfide
-
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
GSH + protein disulfide
physiological function
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
physiological function
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
physiological function
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
physiological function
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
feedback control via insulin in the liver
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
feedback control via insulin in the liver
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
feedback control via insulin in the liver
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
feedback control via insulin in the liver
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + vasopressin
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + vasopressin
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + vasopressin
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + vasopressin
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
?
additional information
the two activities, cleavage and formation of protein-disulfide bonds, present alternate activities of the same enzyme
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the two activities, cleavage and formation of protein-disulfide bonds, present alternate activities of the same enzyme
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the two activities, cleavage and formation of protein-disulfide bonds, present alternate activities of the same enzyme
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the two activities, cleavage and formation of protein-disulfide bonds, present alternate activities of the same enzyme
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
immunoglobulin IgM and IgG
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
immunoglobulin IgM and IgG
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
immunoglobulin IgM and IgG
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
immunoglobulin IgM and IgG
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
scrambled lysozyme
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
scrambled lysozyme
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
scrambled lysozyme
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
scrambled lysozyme
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2 and thiol:protein-disulfide isomerase EC 5.3.4.1 are immunological identical
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2 and thiol:protein-disulfide isomerase EC 5.3.4.1 are immunological identical
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2 and thiol:protein-disulfide isomerase EC 5.3.4.1 are immunological identical
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2 and thiol:protein-disulfide isomerase EC 5.3.4.1 are immunological identical
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
enzyme also catalyzes reactivation and folding of protein containing incorrectly paired disulfide bond, e.g.: scrambled ribonuclease
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
enzyme also catalyzes reactivation and folding of protein containing incorrectly paired disulfide bond, e.g.: scrambled ribonuclease
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
enzyme also catalyzes reactivation and folding of protein containing incorrectly paired disulfide bond, e.g.: scrambled ribonuclease
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
enzyme also catalyzes reactivation and folding of protein containing incorrectly paired disulfide bond, e.g.: scrambled ribonuclease
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Activating Compound
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Chelating agents
e.g. EDTA, EGTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, activation
Homo sapiens
Chelating agents
e.g. EDTA, EGTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, activation
Mus musculus
Chelating agents
e.g. EDTA, EGTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, activation
Rattus norvegicus
Chelating agents
e.g. EDTA, EGTA, 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1,10-phenanthroline, activation
Bos taurus
EDTA
and other chelating agents activate
Bos taurus
EDTA
and other chelating agents activate
Homo sapiens
EDTA
and other chelating agents activate
Mus musculus
EDTA
and other chelating agents activate
Rattus norvegicus
additional information
overview
Bos taurus
additional information
overview
Homo sapiens
additional information
overview
Mus musculus
additional information
overview
Rattus norvegicus
phosphatidylethanolamine
activates at low concentration
Mus musculus
phosphatidylethanolamine
activates at low concentration
Homo sapiens
phosphatidylethanolamine
activates at low concentration
Bos taurus
phosphatidylethanolamine
activates at low concentration
Rattus norvegicus
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Aprotinin
-
Bos taurus
Aprotinin
-
Homo sapiens
Aprotinin
-
Mus musculus
Aprotinin
-
Rattus norvegicus
bacitracin
-
Bos taurus
bacitracin
-
Homo sapiens
bacitracin
-
Mus musculus
bacitracin
-
Rattus norvegicus
Ca2+
slight
Homo sapiens
Ca2+
slight
Mus musculus
Ca2+
slight
Rattus norvegicus
Ca2+
slight
Bos taurus
Cu2+
-
Homo sapiens
Cu2+
-
Mus musculus
Cu2+
-
Rattus norvegicus
Cu2+
-
Bos taurus
Hg2+
-
Homo sapiens
Hg2+
-
Mus musculus
Hg2+
-
Rattus norvegicus
Hg2+
-
Bos taurus
lysolecithin
-
Mus musculus
lysolecithin
-
Bos taurus
lysolecithin
-
Homo sapiens
lysolecithin
-
Rattus norvegicus
additional information
overview
Bos taurus
additional information
overview
Homo sapiens
additional information
overview
Mus musculus
additional information
overview
Rattus norvegicus
Ni2+
slight
Bos taurus
Ni2+
slight
Homo sapiens
Ni2+
slight
Mus musculus
Ni2+
slight
Rattus norvegicus
phosphatidic acid
-
Mus musculus
phosphatidic acid
-
Homo sapiens
phosphatidic acid
-
Bos taurus
phosphatidic acid
-
Rattus norvegicus
Se2+
-
Homo sapiens
Se2+
-
Mus musculus
Se2+
-
Rattus norvegicus
Se2+
-
Bos taurus
Zn2+
-
Bos taurus
Zn2+
-
Homo sapiens
Zn2+
-
Mus musculus
Zn2+
-
Rattus norvegicus
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM]
KM Value Maximum [mM]
Substrate
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
-
additional information
-
Bos taurus
additional information
-
additional information
-
Homo sapiens
additional information
-
additional information
-
Mus musculus
additional information
-
additional information
-
Rattus norvegicus
0.01
-
Insulin
-
Bos taurus
0.01
-
Insulin
-
Homo sapiens
0.01
-
Insulin
-
Mus musculus
0.01
-
Insulin
-
Rattus norvegicus
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
endoplasmic reticulum
-
Rattus norvegicus
5783
-
membrane
bound to
Rattus norvegicus
16020
-
microsome
majority of the enzyme located at; weakly bound on cisternal surface of microsomes via phospholipids
Rattus norvegicus
-
-
secretory granule
of alpha and beta cells of islets of Langerhans
Rattus norvegicus
30141
-
zymogen granule
of acinar cells
Rattus norvegicus
42588
-
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
3 molecular forms: MW 56000 is the major form, MW 51000 is active and only present in spleen, possibly a proteolytic product of 56000 MW protein, MW 67000 is possibly a precursor of 56000 MW protein
Rattus norvegicus
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
GSH + protein disulfide
Mus musculus
physiological function
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Homo sapiens
physiological function
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
physiological function
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Bos taurus
physiological function
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Mus musculus
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Homo sapiens
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Bos taurus
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Mus musculus
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Homo sapiens
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Bos taurus
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Mus musculus
feedback control via insulin in the liver
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Homo sapiens
feedback control via insulin in the liver
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
feedback control via insulin in the liver
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
Bos taurus
feedback control via insulin in the liver
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
?
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification
Commentary
Organism
phospholipoprotein
-
Rattus norvegicus
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
adipose tissue
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
brain
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
diaphragm
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
erythrocyte
-
Homo sapiens
-
heart
-
Mus musculus
-
heart
-
Homo sapiens
-
heart
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
heart
-
Bos taurus
-
intestine
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
kidney
-
Mus musculus
-
kidney
-
Homo sapiens
-
kidney
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
kidney
-
Bos taurus
-
lens
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
leukocyte
-
Homo sapiens
-
liver
-
Mus musculus
-
liver
-
Homo sapiens
-
liver
-
Bos taurus
-
liver
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
lung
-
Homo sapiens
-
lung
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
additional information
-
Bos taurus
-
additional information
higher activity in mononuclear cells than in polymorphonuclear cells
Homo sapiens
-
additional information
-
Mus musculus
-
additional information
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
pancreas
-
Homo sapiens
-
pancreas
-
Mus musculus
-
pancreas
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
pancreas
-
Bos taurus
-
placenta
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
retina
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
skeletal muscle
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
spleen
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
testis
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
thymus
-
Rattus norvegicus
-
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Specific Activity Minimum [µmol/min/mg]
Specific Activity Maximum [µmol/min/mg]
Commentary
Organism
additional information
-
assay methods
Bos taurus
additional information
-
assay methods
Homo sapiens
additional information
-
assay methods
Mus musculus
additional information
-
assay methods
Rattus norvegicus
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
2,3-dimercaptopropanol + protein disulfide
-
394810
Mus musculus
2,3-dimercaptopropanol disulfide + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
2,3-dimercaptopropanol + protein disulfide
-
394810
Homo sapiens
2,3-dimercaptopropanol disulfide + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
2,3-dimercaptopropanol + protein disulfide
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
2,3-dimercaptopropanol disulfide + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
2,3-dimercaptopropanol + protein disulfide
-
394810
Bos taurus
2,3-dimercaptopropanol disulfide + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
cysteamine + protein disulfide
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
?
cysteamine + protein disulfide
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
cysteamine + protein disulfide
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
?
cysteamine + protein disulfide
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
?
dihydrolipoic acid + protein disulfide
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
?
dihydrolipoic acid + protein disulfide
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
dihydrolipoic acid + protein disulfide
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
?
dihydrolipoic acid + protein disulfide
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + insulin
proinsulin
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + reduced insulin chain A and B
-
-
-
-
GSH + insulin
proinsulin
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + reduced insulin chain A and B
-
-
-
-
GSH + insulin
proinsulin
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + reduced insulin chain A and B
-
-
-
-
GSH + insulin
proinsulin
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + reduced insulin chain A and B
-
-
-
-
GSH + oxytoxin
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + oxytoxin
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + oxytoxin
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + oxytoxin
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
-
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
GSH + protein disulfide
-
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
GSH + protein disulfide
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
GSH + protein disulfide
-
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
GSH + protein disulfide
physiological function
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
physiological function
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
physiological function
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
physiological function
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
reductive degradation and assembly of proteins
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
modulation of enzymatic activity from latent to active form and vice versa
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
feedback control via insulin in the liver
394810
Mus musculus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
feedback control via insulin in the liver
394810
Homo sapiens
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
feedback control via insulin in the liver
394810
Rattus norvegicus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + protein disulfide
feedback control via insulin in the liver
394810
Bos taurus
GSSG + protein-dithiol
-
-
-
?
GSH + vasopressin
-
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + vasopressin
-
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + vasopressin
-
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
?
GSH + vasopressin
-
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
?
additional information
the two activities, cleavage and formation of protein-disulfide bonds, present alternate activities of the same enzyme
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the two activities, cleavage and formation of protein-disulfide bonds, present alternate activities of the same enzyme
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the two activities, cleavage and formation of protein-disulfide bonds, present alternate activities of the same enzyme
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
the two activities, cleavage and formation of protein-disulfide bonds, present alternate activities of the same enzyme
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
immunoglobulin IgM and IgG
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
immunoglobulin IgM and IgG
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
immunoglobulin IgM and IgG
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
immunoglobulin IgM and IgG
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
scrambled lysozyme
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
scrambled lysozyme
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
scrambled lysozyme
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
scrambled lysozyme
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2 and thiol:protein-disulfide isomerase EC 5.3.4.1 are immunological identical
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2 and thiol:protein-disulfide isomerase EC 5.3.4.1 are immunological identical
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2 and thiol:protein-disulfide isomerase EC 5.3.4.1 are immunological identical
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
thiol:protein-disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2 and thiol:protein-disulfide isomerase EC 5.3.4.1 are immunological identical
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
enzyme also catalyzes reactivation and folding of protein containing incorrectly paired disulfide bond, e.g.: scrambled ribonuclease
394810
Mus musculus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
enzyme also catalyzes reactivation and folding of protein containing incorrectly paired disulfide bond, e.g.: scrambled ribonuclease
394810
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
enzyme also catalyzes reactivation and folding of protein containing incorrectly paired disulfide bond, e.g.: scrambled ribonuclease
394810
Rattus norvegicus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
enzyme also catalyzes reactivation and folding of protein containing incorrectly paired disulfide bond, e.g.: scrambled ribonuclease
394810
Bos taurus
?
-
-
-
-
Other publictions for EC 1.8.4.2
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
742796
Luong
Reoxidation of the thiol-disu ...
Actinomyces oris
J. Bacteriol.
199
e00817
2017
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
741551
Chauhan
Role of cysteine-58 and cyste ...
Wuchereria bancrofti
Acta Trop.
153
14-20
2016
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
742794
Davey
Mutation of the thiol-disulfi ...
Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus gordonii SecCR1
J. Bacteriol.
198
321-331
2016
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
742200
Roszczenko
Helicobacter pylori HP0377, a ...
Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter pylori ATCC 700392
BMC Microbiol.
15
135
2015
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
743311
Reardon-Robinson
A thiol-disulfide oxidoreduct ...
Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae ATCC 700971
Mol. Microbiol.
98
1037-1050
2015
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
743646
Grabowska
Functional and bioinformatics ...
Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni
PLoS ONE
9
e106247
2014
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
725524
Davey
Functional analysis of paralog ...
Streptococcus gordonii
J. Biol. Chem.
288
16416-16429
2013
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
725470
Garcin
Structural and mechanistic ins ...
Desulfovibrio vulgaris
J. Biol. Chem.
287
1688-1697
2012
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
669136
Borsetti
The thiol:disulfide oxidoreduc ...
Rhodobacter capsulatus
J. Bacteriol.
189
851-859
2007
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
670797
Garg
Characterization of Mycobacter ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Protein Expr. Purif.
52
422-432
2007
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
686037
Osipova
-
GSH-dependent protein disulfid ...
Triticum aestivum
Cereal Res. Commun.
35
1477-1486
2007
-
-
-
-
-
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Bacillus subtilis ResA is a th ...
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The bdbDC operon of Bacillus s ...
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Thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase ...
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Erlendsson
Mutations in the thiol-disulfi ...
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Philipps
Randomization of the entire ac ...
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394858
Tang
Zinc fingers and thiol-disulfi ...
Escherichia coli
Biochemistry
40
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2001
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1
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394853
Fabianek
Periplasmic protein thiol:disu ...
Dickeya chrysanthemi, Dickeya chrysanthemi DsbA homologous, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus influenzae DsbA homologous, Klebsiella sp., Klebsiella sp. DsbA homologous, Legionella pneumophila, Legionella pneumophila DsbA homologous, Lelliottia amnigena, Lelliottia amnigena DsbA homologous, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Pectobacterium carotovorum DsbA homologous, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DsbA homologous, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas syringae DsbA homologous, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis DsbA homologous, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium DsbA homologous, Shigella flexneri, Shigella flexneri DsbA homologous, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio cholerae DsbA homologous, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pestis DsbA homologous
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394854
Biaglow
A method for measuring disulfi ...
Cricetulus griseus, Homo sapiens
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2000
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5
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5
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394857
Moessner
Influence of the pKa value of ...
Escherichia coli
FEBS Lett.
477
21-26
2000
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1
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394863
Kleemann
Dissection of the enzymatic an ...
Homo sapiens
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1
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394861
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The functional properties of D ...
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Heuck
Di-fluoresceinthiocarbamyl-ins ...
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Ishihara
Cloning and characterization o ...
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394855
Loferer
Protein disulfide oxidoreducta ...
Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus influenzae DsbA homologous, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio cholerae DsbA homologous
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394810
Varandani
-
Glutathione-insulin transhydro ...
Bos taurus, Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus
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16
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5
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16
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35
4
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64
-
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394812
Morris
Characterization of a cDNA for ...
Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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169-180
1988
2
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2
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13
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5
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394828
Bjelland
Tissue distribution and molecu ...
Bos taurus
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B
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1987
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10
2
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394835
Pace
Nonspecific reaction of a thio ...
Bos taurus
Experientia
41
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394849
Varandani
Inhibition of glutathione-insu ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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1985
3
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3
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2
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2
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394829
Bjelland
Purification of thiol:protein- ...
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394813
Chowdhary
Studies on the subcellular loc ...
Rattus norvegicus
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323-329
1983
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2
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394814
Hern
Nonlatent and latent hepatic g ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
116
909-915
1983
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-
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1
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1
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2
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394823
Hern
Topology of glutathione-insuli ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
732
170-178
1983
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2
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1
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1
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394827
Bjelland
Immunological identity between ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
747
197-199
1983
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-
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4
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394841
Morin
Identification of thiol:protei ...
Homo sapiens
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
111
872-877
1983
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394845
Lambert
Kinetics and specificity of ho ...
Bos taurus
Biochem. J.
213
235-243
1983
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1
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1
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1
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3
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1
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394832
Barbieri
Reduction of ricin and other p ...
Bos taurus, Rattus norvegicus
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
216
380-383
1982
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-
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2
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2
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2
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5
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5
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394830
Roth
Bacitracin: an inhibitor of th ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
98
431-438
1981
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-
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1
1
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1
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2
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394844
Roth
Role of disulfide interchange ...
Mus musculus
Biochemistry
20
6594-6599
1981
1
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1
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1
2
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1
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3
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2
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1
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1
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1
3
-
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1
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-
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-
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-
3051
Hillson
Resolution of protein disulphi ...
Bos taurus
Biochem. J.
191
373-388
1980
-
-
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2
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1
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1
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1
-
-
1
-
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394834
Moss
Activation of choleragen by th ...
Bos taurus
J. Biol. Chem.
255
11085-11087
1980
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3
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-
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394839
Hillson
Bovine liver thiol-protein dis ...
Bos taurus
Biochem. J.
191
389-393
1980
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-
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1
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1
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1
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-
394836
Pace
The nature of the multiple for ...
Bos taurus
Int. J. Pept. Protein Res.
14
409-413
1979
-
-
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1
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2
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1
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2
1
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1
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2
2
1
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-
394811
Varandani
-
Mechanistic and structural asp ...
Bos taurus, Homo sapiens, Rattus norvegicus
Dev. Biochem.
1
29-42
1978
2
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9
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3
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3
-
3
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30
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2
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9
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3
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30
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394848
Morin
Characterization, kinetics and ...
Bos taurus
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
189
354-363
1978
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3
6
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1
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1
1
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10
-
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2
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1
1
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3
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6
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1
1
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10
-
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2
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1
1
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-
394838
Carmichael
Purification and characterizat ...
Bos taurus
J. Biol. Chem.
252
7163-7167
1977
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-
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3
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1
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1
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1
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2
1
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-
394842
Ferrier
Glutathione-insulin transhydro ...
Mus musculus
Can. J. Biochem.
55
340-345
1977
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-
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1
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3
1
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2
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3052
Hawkins
Thiol-protein disulphide oxido ...
Bos taurus
Biochem. J.
159
385-393
1976
-
-
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1
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1
2
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3
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-
-
-
3067
Ibbetson
Thiol-protein disulphide oxido ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochem. J.
159
377-384
1976
-
-
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1
2
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2
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1
1
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2
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1
2
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1
1
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2
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-
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-
-
-
-
394843
Kohnert
Demonstration of insulin degra ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
422
254-259
1976
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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1
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1
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-
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1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394847
Varandani
Interaction of glutathione-ins ...
Bos taurus, Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
438
358-369
1976
2
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4
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1
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3
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1
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4
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3
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2
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4
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1
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1
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4
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3
-
-
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-
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-
-
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-
394833
Chandler
Insulin degradation. XV. Use o ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
397
307-317
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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1
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1
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2
-
1
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1
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1
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2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394837
Varandani
Interaction of insulin analogs ...
Bos taurus
Biochemistry
14
2115-2120
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
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5
-
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1
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2
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5
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1
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2
-
-
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-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
394851
Chandler
Kinetic analysis of the mechan ...
Bos taurus
Biochemistry
14
2107-2115
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
1
-
-
-
-
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-
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-
-
1
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394824
Kohnert
-
Breakdown of exogenous insulin ...
Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
338
68-77
1974
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
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-
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2
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-
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-
-
2
1
-
3
-
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-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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2
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394826
Varandani
Insulin degradation. XII. The ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
371
577-581
1974
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
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2
-
1
1
-
-
2
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
1
-
-
-
1
1
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2
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394846
Varandani
Insulin degradation in insulin ...
Homo sapiens
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
60
1119-1126
1974
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
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-
1
-
-
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-
1
-
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2
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-
-
-
-
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-
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
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-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394818
Varandani
Insulin degradation. V. Unmask ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
304
642-659
1973
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
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-
-
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2
-
1
-
-
-
2
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
3
-
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-
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394819
Chandler
Insulin degradation. 8. Protei ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
320
258-266
1973
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
1
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1
-
-
1
-
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3
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394820
Ansorge
Metabolism of insulin and gluc ...
Rattus norvegicus
Eur. J. Biochem.
32
27-35
1973
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
3
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
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2
1
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3
-
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-
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1
-
2
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
394821
Varandani
Insulin degradation. X. Identi ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
55
689-696
1973
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
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2
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3
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3
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2
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394816
Varandani
Insulin degradation. I. Purifi ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
286
126-135
1972
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1
2
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1
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2
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1
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394817
Chandler
Insulin degradation. II. The w ...
Bos taurus, Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
286
136-145
1972
2
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4
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3
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1
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19
3
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3
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2
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4
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19
3
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3
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394840
Tomizawa
-
Glutathione-insulin transhydro ...
Bos taurus
Methods Enzymol.
17B
515-519
1971
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4
1
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4
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1
1
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2
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2
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1
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394815
Spolter
Rat-liver thiol: protein-disul ...
Rattus norvegicus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
167
525-537
1968
1
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2
2
7
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2
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1
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6
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7
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6
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394831
Varandani
Mechanism of action of glutath ...
Bos taurus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
151
273-275
1968
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3
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1
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394825
Schneider
Reversibility of glutathione-i ...
Bos taurus
Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem.
348
391-400
1967
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1
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5
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5
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