BRENDA - Enzyme Database show
show all sequences of 1.2.1.44

CCR1, an enzyme required for lignin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, mediates cell proliferation exit for leaf development

Xue, J.; Luo, D.; Xu, D.; Zeng, M.; Cui, X.; Li, L.; Huang, H.; Plant J. 83, 375-387 (2015)

Data extracted from this reference:

Cloned(Commentary)
Commentary
Organism
gene CCR1, the gene locus maps to chromosome 1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
Arabidopsis thaliana
Engineering
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
identification and analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant 'asymmetric leaves1/2 enhancer7' (ae7), which shows defective cell proliferation, ae7 has reduced numbers of cells in the leaf and root, Gene CCR1 in this mutant carries a C to T substitution in the third exon, resulting in an amino acid change from serine to phenylalanine. Mutational modification and analysis, phenotypes, overview
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
cinnamaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
r
cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
cinnamaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
r
feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
best substrate
coniferaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
r
feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
best substrate
coniferaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
r
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
-
-
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
-
-
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
CCR1 is expressed basipetally in the leaf, CCR1 expression is developmentally regulated in leaves,overview. Leaves on day 9 show CCR1 expression strongly at the tip, mildly in the middle, and no expression at the proximal regions
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
additional information
CCR1 is a developmentally regulated gene, whose basipetally ordered expression pattern perfectly matches that of exit from the cell proliferation phase during leaf development
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
root
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
-
743470
Arabidopsis thaliana
cinnamaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
-
r
cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
-
743470
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
cinnamaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
-
r
feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
best substrate
743470
Arabidopsis thaliana
coniferaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
-
r
feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
best substrate
743470
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
coniferaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
-
r
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADPH
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Commentary
Organism
gene CCR1, the gene locus maps to chromosome 1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
Arabidopsis thaliana
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
NADPH
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
Engineering (protein specific)
Amino acid exchange
Commentary
Organism
additional information
identification and analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mutant 'asymmetric leaves1/2 enhancer7' (ae7), which shows defective cell proliferation, ae7 has reduced numbers of cells in the leaf and root, Gene CCR1 in this mutant carries a C to T substitution in the third exon, resulting in an amino acid change from serine to phenylalanine. Mutational modification and analysis, phenotypes, overview
Arabidopsis thaliana
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
cinnamaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
r
cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
cinnamaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
r
feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana
best substrate
coniferaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
r
feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
best substrate
coniferaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
r
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
leaf
CCR1 is expressed basipetally in the leaf, CCR1 expression is developmentally regulated in leaves,overview. Leaves on day 9 show CCR1 expression strongly at the tip, mildly in the middle, and no expression at the proximal regions
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
additional information
CCR1 is a developmentally regulated gene, whose basipetally ordered expression pattern perfectly matches that of exit from the cell proliferation phase during leaf development
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
root
-
Arabidopsis thaliana
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
-
743470
Arabidopsis thaliana
cinnamaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
-
r
cinnamoyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
-
743470
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
cinnamaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
-
r
feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
best substrate
743470
Arabidopsis thaliana
coniferaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
-
r
feruloyl-CoA + NADPH + H+
best substrate
743470
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
coniferaldehyde + CoA + NADP+
-
-
-
r
Expression
Organism
Commentary
Expression
Arabidopsis thaliana
soluble ferulic acid in leaf cells is closely negatively correlated with CCR1 expression
down
General Information
General Information
Commentary
Organism
malfunction
ccr1 mutants exhibits multiple abnormalities, including increased cell proliferation. The ccr1 phenotypes are not due to the reduced lignin content, but instead are due to the dramatically increased level of ferulic acid (FeA), an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ccr1 are markedly reduced. Reduced ferulic acid levels in plants result in an increase in ROS levels and defective cell proliferation
Arabidopsis thaliana
physiological function
cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (CCR1) is a key factor involved in progressive exit from the cell proliferation phase. CCR1 catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of cinnamoyl CoA esters to their corresponding cinnamaldehydes, an important step in the biosynthesis of lignin monomers. Enzyme CCR1, ferulic acid, and reactive oxygen species coordinate cell proliferation exit in normal leaf development. Ferulic acid is known to have antioxidant activity. CCR1 acts through depletion of feruclic acid to coordinate with ROS to direct exit from the cell proliferation phase during leaf development
Arabidopsis thaliana
General Information (protein specific)
General Information
Commentary
Organism
malfunction
ccr1 mutants exhibits multiple abnormalities, including increased cell proliferation. The ccr1 phenotypes are not due to the reduced lignin content, but instead are due to the dramatically increased level of ferulic acid (FeA), an intermediate in lignin biosynthesis. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ccr1 are markedly reduced. Reduced ferulic acid levels in plants result in an increase in ROS levels and defective cell proliferation
Arabidopsis thaliana
physiological function
cinnamoyl CoA reductase 1 (CCR1) is a key factor involved in progressive exit from the cell proliferation phase. CCR1 catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of cinnamoyl CoA esters to their corresponding cinnamaldehydes, an important step in the biosynthesis of lignin monomers. Enzyme CCR1, ferulic acid, and reactive oxygen species coordinate cell proliferation exit in normal leaf development. Ferulic acid is known to have antioxidant activity. CCR1 acts through depletion of feruclic acid to coordinate with ROS to direct exit from the cell proliferation phase during leaf development
Arabidopsis thaliana
Expression (protein specific)
Organism
Commentary
Expression
Arabidopsis thaliana
soluble ferulic acid in leaf cells is closely negatively correlated with CCR1 expression
down
Other publictions for EC 1.2.1.44
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [C]
Temperature Range [C]
Temperature Stability [C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
743501
Sattler
Structural and biochemical ch ...
Sorghum bicolor
Plant Physiol.
173
1031-1044
2017
-
-
1
1
3
-
-
9
-
-
-
3
-
4
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
4
1
1
-
-
8
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
3
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
1
1
-
-
8
1
-
-
-
-
4
4
-
8
8
743559
Chao
Characterization of the cinna ...
Populus tomentosa
Planta
245
61-75
2017
-
-
1
-
9
-
-
16
-
-
-
5
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
7
1
1
2
-
15
1
2
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
2
2
-
9
-
-
-
-
17
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
7
2
2
2
-
15
2
2
-
2
-
3
5
-
5
5
743405
Li
Cloning and expression analys ...
Sorghum bicolor
PeerJ
4
e2005
2016
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
2
6
3
-
-
743161
Ghosh
-
Developmental- and stress-med ...
Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus cannabinus C-9
J. Plant Interact.
10
158-166
2015
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
2
2
3
-
-
743233
Liu
Overexpression of artificiall ...
Populus tomentosa
Microb. Cell Fact.
14
118
2015
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
743422
Srivastava
Abiotic stress induces change ...
Leucaena leucocephala
Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants
21
197-205
2015
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
1
2
-
-
743427
Zhang
Functional characterization o ...
Betula platyphylla x Betula pendula
Physiol. Plant.
154
283-296
2015
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
3
-
-
-
743470
Xue
CCR1, an enzyme required for ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
Plant J.
83
375-387
2015
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
25
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
2
1
-
-
742589
Yeh
FaPOD27 functions in the meta ...
Fragaria x ananassa
Front. Plant Sci.
5
518
2014
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
5
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
9
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
9
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
-
-
1
2
2
1
3
3
742677
Sonawane
Conformational transitions of ...
Leucaena leucocephala
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
64
30-35
2014
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
743007
Sonawane
Steady state fluorescence stu ...
Leucaena leucocephala
J. Fluoresc.
24
665-673
2014
-
-
-
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
743156
Han
-
Preparation of cinnamoyl-CoA ...
Populus tomentosa
J. Plant Biochem. Biotechnol.
23
348-357
2014
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
5
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
6
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
743447
Pan
Structural studies of cinnamo ...
Medicago truncatula, Petunia x hybrida
Plant Cell
26
3709-3727
2014
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
-
11
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
19
-
1
-
2
3
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
6
1
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
-
11
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
19
-
1
-
2
3
1
-
-
-
-
4
6
-
3
3
743683
Van Acker
Improved saccharification and ...
Populus tremula x Populus alba
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
111
845-850
2014
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
743848
Ghosh
Characterization of developme ...
Hibiscus cannabinus
ScientificWorldJournal
2014
601845
2014
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
4
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
4
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
2
3
3
-
-
724494
Sonawane
In silico mutagenesis and dock ...
Leucaena leucocephala
Bioinformation
9
224-232
2013
-
-
-
-
33
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
33
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
725147
Sonawane
Biochemical characterization o ...
Leucaena leucocephala
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
58
154-159
2013
2
-
1
-
-
-
11
8
-
-
1
6
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
6
1
1
-
1
8
2
-
1
2
-
-
-
2
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
11
-
8
-
-
1
6
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
1
1
-
1
8
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
8
8
725148
Sonawane
Probing the active site of cin ...
Leucaena leucocephala
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
60C
33-38
2013
-
-
1
-
14
-
7
12
-
-
-
2
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
12
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
14
-
-
7
-
12
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
12
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
12
743012
Khraiwesh
-
Molecular cloning and charact ...
Vaccinium corymbosum
J. Gen. Eng. Biotechnol.
11
1-8
2013
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
726155
Prashant
-
Isolation of cinnamoyl CoA red ...
Leucaena leucocephala
Plant Cell
108
421-436
2012
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
726178
Wang
-
Downregulation of cinnamoyl Co ...
Salvia miltiorrhiza
Plant Mol. Biol. Rep.
30
1229-1236
2012
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
725626
Tamasloukht
Characterization of a cinnamoy ...
Zea mays
J. Exp. Bot.
62
3837-3848
2011
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
725759
Prasad
Structural and docking studies ...
Leucaena leucocephala
J. Mol. Model.
17
533-541
2011
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
712994
Hu
Isolation and characterization ...
Isatis tinctoria
Mol. Biol. Rep.
38
2075-2083
2010
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
726367
Zhou
Distinct cinnamoyl CoA reducta ...
Medicago truncatula
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
107
17803-17808
2010
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
700489
Escamilla-Trevino
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) ...
Panicum virgatum
New Phytol.
185
143-155
2009
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
8
-
-
2
12
-
5
-
-
1
-
-
5
-
-
12
-
1
-
-
8
1
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
8
-
-
2
12
-
-
-
2
-
10
-
-
12
-
2
-
-
8
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
694669
Ralph
Identification of the structur ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, Populus trichocarpa
Plant J.
53
368-379
2008
-
3
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
694775
Mir Derikvand
Redirection of the phenylpropa ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Planta
227
943-956
2008
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
695222
Wadenbaeck
Lignin biosynthesis in transge ...
Picea abies
Transgenic Res.
17
379-392
2008
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
693407
Ma
Characterization of a cinnamoy ...
Triticum aestivum
J. Exp. Bot.
58
2011-2021
2007
1
1
1
-
-
-
1
4
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
4
-
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
694626
Leple
Downregulation of cinnamoyl-co ...
Populus trichocarpa
Plant Cell
19
3669-3691
2007
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675132
van der Rest
Down-regulation of cinnamoyl-C ...
Solanum lycopersicum
J. Exp. Bot.
57
1399-1411
2006
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
6
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
10
-
-
-
-
5
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
2
-
-
-
2
-
6
-
-
10
-
-
-
-
5
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676522
Laskar
The Arabidopsis cinnamoyl CoA ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant J.
48
674-686
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676843
Kawasaki
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, a key ...
Oryza sativa
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
103
230-235
2006
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
2
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
672472
Ma
Biochemical characterization o ...
Triticum aestivum
Biol. Chem.
386
553-560
2005
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
2
1
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673861
Thumma
Polymorphisms in cinnamoyl CoA ...
Eucalyptus sp.
Genetics
171
1257-1265
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676451
Li
Clarification of cinnamoyl co- ...
Populus tremuloides
Plant Cell Physiol.
46
1073-1082
2005
-
-
1
-
-
-
4
4
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
5
-
6
-
-
-
-
4
1
1
-
1
6
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
4
6
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
5
-
6
-
-
-
-
4
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676643
Baltas
Kinetic and inhibition studies ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
43
746-753
2005
-
-
1
-
-
-
5
3
-
-
1
1
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
-
1
10
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
5
10
3
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
4
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
656624
Larsen
Molecular cloning and characte ...
Hordeum vulgare, Solanum tuberosum
J. Plant Physiol.
161
105-112
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
657109
Larsen
Cloning and characterization o ...
Lolium perenne
Plant Sci.
166
569-581
2004
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
656926
Ruelland
-
Cellular and subcellular local ...
Saccharum officinarum, Zea mays
Physiol. Plant.
117
93-99
2003
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288238
Pincon
Simultaneous down-regulation o ...
Nicotiana tabacum
Plant Physiol.
126
145-155
2001
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288239
Lauvergeat
Two cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (C ...
Arabidopsis thaliana
Phytochemistry
57
1187-1195
2001
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
2
-
-
8
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288237
Ralph
NMR characterization of altere ...
Nicotiana tabacum
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
95
12803-12808
1998
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288240
Pichon
Cloning and characterization o ...
Zea mays
Plant Mol. Biol.
38
671-676
1998
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288235
Goffner
-
Purification and characterizat ...
Eucalyptus gunnii
Colloq. Inst. Natl. Rech. Agron.
69
329-330
1995
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288236
Goffner
-
Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and ci ...
Eucalyptus gunnii
Colloq. Inst. Natl. Rech. Agron.
69
331-332
1995
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288231
Grima-Pettenati
-
Stimulation of lignification i ...
Vigna mungo
Plant Sci.
61
179-188
1989
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288232
Rolfs
Cell-suspension culture of Ara ...
Arachis hypogaea
Planta
172
238-244
1987
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288228
Sarni
Purification and properties of ...
Populus x canadensis
Eur. J. Biochem.
139
259-265
1984
3
-
-
-
-
2
3
6
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
1
4
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
3
-
6
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
1
4
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288233
Luderitz
Enzymic synthesis of lignin pr ...
Glycine max, Picea abies
Eur. J. Biochem.
119
115-124
1981
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
2
1
-
3
-
-
5
-
-
2
-
-
3
2
1
8
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
4
-
-
-
2
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
2
-
3
2
1
8
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288230
Wengenmayer
Enzymic synthesis of lignin pr ...
Glycine max
Eur. J. Biochem.
65
529-536
1976
-
-
-
-
-
2
4
9
-
-
2
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
1
6
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
4
-
9
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
1
6
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
288234
Gross
Reduction of coenzyme A thioes ...
Forsythia suspensa
FEBS Lett.
54
259-262
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
1
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
8
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
389601
Rhodes
-
Enzymes involved in the reduct ...
Brassica napus subsp. rapifera
Phytochemistry
14
1235-1240
1975
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-