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show all sequences of 1.10.3.1

Tyrosinase inhibitors from natural and synthetic sources: structure, inhibition mechanism and perspective for the future

Kim, Y.J.; Uyama, H.; Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 62, 1707-1723 (2005)

Data extracted from this reference:

Application
Application
Commentary
Organism
drug development
the enzyme is a target for development of specific inhibitors to avoid unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causing decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products
Beta vulgaris
nutrition
the enzyme is a target for development of specific inhibitors to avoid unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causing decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products
Beta vulgaris
Inhibitors
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Agaricus bisporus
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Beta vulgaris
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Homo sapiens
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Neurospora crassa
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Agaricus bisporus
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Beta vulgaris
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Homo sapiens
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Neurospora crassa
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
(R)-HTCCA
-
Agaricus bisporus
(R)-HTCCA
-
Beta vulgaris
(R)-HTCCA
-
Homo sapiens
(R)-HTCCA
-
Neurospora crassa
(R)-HTCCA
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
(S)-HTCCA
-
Agaricus bisporus
(S)-HTCCA
-
Beta vulgaris
(S)-HTCCA
-
Homo sapiens
(S)-HTCCA
-
Neurospora crassa
(S)-HTCCA
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Agaricus bisporus
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Beta vulgaris
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Homo sapiens
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Neurospora crassa
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
aloesin
-
Agaricus bisporus
aloesin
-
Beta vulgaris
aloesin
-
Homo sapiens
aloesin
-
Neurospora crassa
aloesin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Agaricus bisporus
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Beta vulgaris
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Homo sapiens
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Neurospora crassa
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
ascorbic acid
inhibition of tyrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic browning by trapping the dopaquinone intermediate with cysteine or ascorbic acid, overview
Beta vulgaris
azelaic acid
-
Agaricus bisporus
azelaic acid
-
Beta vulgaris
azelaic acid
-
Homo sapiens
azelaic acid
-
Neurospora crassa
azelaic acid
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
captopril
-
Agaricus bisporus
captopril
-
Beta vulgaris
captopril
-
Homo sapiens
captopril
-
Neurospora crassa
captopril
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Agaricus bisporus
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Beta vulgaris
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Homo sapiens
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Neurospora crassa
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Agaricus bisporus
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Beta vulgaris
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Homo sapiens
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Neurospora crassa
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Cupferron
-
Agaricus bisporus
Cupferron
-
Beta vulgaris
Cupferron
-
Homo sapiens
Cupferron
-
Neurospora crassa
Cupferron
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
cysteine
inhibition of tyrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic browning by trapping the dopaquinone intermediate with cysteine or ascorbic acid, overview
Beta vulgaris
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Agaricus bisporus
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Beta vulgaris
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Homo sapiens
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Neurospora crassa
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
dopastin
-
Agaricus bisporus
dopastin
-
Beta vulgaris
dopastin
-
Homo sapiens
dopastin
-
Neurospora crassa
dopastin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
geranyl gallate
-
Agaricus bisporus
geranyl gallate
-
Beta vulgaris
geranyl gallate
-
Homo sapiens
geranyl gallate
-
Neurospora crassa
geranyl gallate
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Agaricus bisporus
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Beta vulgaris
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Homo sapiens
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Neurospora crassa
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Agaricus bisporus
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Beta vulgaris
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Homo sapiens
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Neurospora crassa
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Agaricus bisporus
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Beta vulgaris
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Homo sapiens
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Neurospora crassa
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Streptomyces glaucescens
kaempferol
-
Agaricus bisporus
kaempferol
-
Beta vulgaris
kaempferol
-
Homo sapiens
kaempferol
-
Neurospora crassa
kaempferol
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Agaricus bisporus
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Beta vulgaris
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Homo sapiens
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Neurospora crassa
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
L-mimosine
-
Agaricus bisporus
L-mimosine
-
Beta vulgaris
L-mimosine
-
Homo sapiens
L-mimosine
-
Neurospora crassa
L-mimosine
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Agaricus bisporus
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Beta vulgaris
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Homo sapiens
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Neurospora crassa
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Agaricus bisporus
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Beta vulgaris
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Homo sapiens
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Neurospora crassa
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Methimazole
-
Agaricus bisporus
Methimazole
-
Beta vulgaris
Methimazole
-
Homo sapiens
Methimazole
-
Neurospora crassa
Methimazole
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
additional information
structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Agaricus bisporus
additional information
structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Beta vulgaris
additional information
melanin plays a crucial protective role against skin photocarcinogenesis, however, the production of abnormal melanin pigmentation is a serious esthetic problem in humans, melanin biosynthesis can be inhibited by avoiding UV exposure, the inhibition of tyrosinase, the inhibition of melanocyte metabolism and proliferation, or the removal of melanin with corneal ablation, overview, structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Homo sapiens
additional information
structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Neurospora crassa
additional information
structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Streptomyces glaucescens
morin
-
Agaricus bisporus
morin
competitive, IC50: 2.320 mM
Beta vulgaris
morin
-
Homo sapiens
morin
-
Neurospora crassa
morin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
quercetin
-
Agaricus bisporus
quercetin
-
Beta vulgaris
quercetin
-
Homo sapiens
quercetin
-
Neurospora crassa
quercetin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
tropolone
-
Agaricus bisporus
tropolone
-
Beta vulgaris
tropolone
-
Homo sapiens
tropolone
-
Neurospora crassa
tropolone
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
Localization
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
membrane
bound
Homo sapiens
16020
-
Metals/Ions
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Agaricus bisporus
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Beta vulgaris
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Homo sapiens
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Neurospora crassa
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, presently available for any tyrosinases, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Streptomyces glaucescens
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Agaricus bisporus
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Beta vulgaris
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Homo sapiens
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Neurospora crassa
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Streptomyces glaucescens
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
30900
-
1 * 30900
Streptomyces glaucescens
40000
-
1 * 40000
Beta vulgaris
43000
-
2 * 134000 + 2 * 43000, alpha2beta2 subunit composition
Agaricus bisporus
46000
-
1 * 46000
Neurospora crassa
66700
-
1 * 66700
Homo sapiens
134000
-
2 * 134000 + 2 * 43000, alpha2beta2 subunit composition
Agaricus bisporus
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
Homo sapiens
cytotoxicity of TOPA
?
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
Beta vulgaris
formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate which then could interact with NH2 groups of lysine, SCH3 groups of methionines and indole rings of tryptophan in nucleophilic addition and in polymerization reactions, the so-called browning and greening reactions
?
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Beta vulgaris
-
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Neurospora crassa
-
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Agaricus bisporus
-
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Streptomyces glaucescens
-
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Homo sapiens
pathway of melanin biosynthesis, detailed overview
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
cytotoxicity of L-DOPA
-
?
additional information
Homo sapiens
tyrosinase is known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair, various dermatological disorders, such as melasma, age spots and sites of actinic damage, arise from the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation
?
-
-
-
Organism
Organism
Primary Accession No. (UniProt)
Commentary
Textmining
Agaricus bisporus
-
-
-
Beta vulgaris
-
spinach-beet
-
Homo sapiens
-
-
-
Neurospora crassa
-
-
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
-
-
-
Posttranslational Modification
Posttranslational Modification
Commentary
Organism
glycoprotein
13% carbohydrate
Homo sapiens
Source Tissue
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
melanocyte
-
Homo sapiens
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
cytotoxicity of TOPA
673001
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
i.e. TOPA
673001
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate which then could interact with NH2 groups of lysine, SCH3 groups of methionines and indole rings of tryptophan in nucleophilic addition and in polymerization reactions, the so-called browning and greening reactions
673001
Beta vulgaris
?
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate
673001
Beta vulgaris
?
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Beta vulgaris
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Neurospora crassa
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Agaricus bisporus
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Streptomyces glaucescens
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Beta vulgaris
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Homo sapiens
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Neurospora crassa
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Agaricus bisporus
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Streptomyces glaucescens
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
pathway of melanin biosynthesis, detailed overview
673001
Homo sapiens
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
cytotoxicity of L-DOPA
-
-
?
additional information
tyrosinase is known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair, various dermatological disorders, such as melasma, age spots and sites of actinic damage, arise from the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation
673001
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Beta vulgaris
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Neurospora crassa
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Agaricus bisporus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Streptomyces glaucescens
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
monomer
1 * 40000
Beta vulgaris
monomer
1 * 66700
Homo sapiens
monomer
1 * 46000
Neurospora crassa
monomer
1 * 30900
Streptomyces glaucescens
tetramer
2 * 134000 + 2 * 43000, alpha2beta2 subunit composition
Agaricus bisporus
Cofactor
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Agaricus bisporus
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Beta vulgaris
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Homo sapiens
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Neurospora crassa
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Streptomyces glaucescens
IC50 Value
IC50 Value
IC50 Value Maximum
Commentary
Organism
Inhibitor
Structure
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Agaricus bisporus
glabridin
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Beta vulgaris
glabridin
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Homo sapiens
glabridin
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Neurospora crassa
glabridin
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
glabridin
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Agaricus bisporus
kojic acid
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Beta vulgaris
kojic acid
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Homo sapiens
kojic acid
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Neurospora crassa
kojic acid
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
kojic acid
0.047
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047 mM
Agaricus bisporus
isoliquiritigenin
0.047
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047 mM
Beta vulgaris
isoliquiritigenin
0.047
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047 mM
Neurospora crassa
isoliquiritigenin
0.047
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
isoliquiritigenin
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Agaricus bisporus
cuminaldehyde
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Beta vulgaris
cuminaldehyde
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Homo sapiens
cuminaldehyde
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Neurospora crassa
cuminaldehyde
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
cuminaldehyde
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Agaricus bisporus
luteolin
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Beta vulgaris
luteolin
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Homo sapiens
luteolin
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Neurospora crassa
luteolin
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
luteolin
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Agaricus bisporus
Anisaldehyde
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Beta vulgaris
Anisaldehyde
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Homo sapiens
Anisaldehyde
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Neurospora crassa
Anisaldehyde
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Anisaldehyde
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Agaricus bisporus
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Beta vulgaris
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Homo sapiens
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Neurospora crassa
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
2.32
-
competitive, IC50: 2.320 mM
Beta vulgaris
morin
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Agaricus bisporus
glabrene
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Beta vulgaris
glabrene
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Homo sapiens
glabrene
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Neurospora crassa
glabrene
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
glabrene
Application (protein specific)
Application
Commentary
Organism
drug development
the enzyme is a target for development of specific inhibitors to avoid unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causing decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products
Beta vulgaris
nutrition
the enzyme is a target for development of specific inhibitors to avoid unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causing decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products
Beta vulgaris
Cofactor (protein specific)
Cofactor
Commentary
Organism
Structure
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Agaricus bisporus
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Beta vulgaris
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Homo sapiens
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Neurospora crassa
additional information
if L-DOPA is an active cofactor, its formation as an intermediate during o-dopaquinone production is controversial
Streptomyces glaucescens
IC50 Value (protein specific)
IC50 Value
IC50 Value Maximum
Commentary
Organism
Inhibitor
Structure
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Agaricus bisporus
glabridin
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Beta vulgaris
glabridin
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Homo sapiens
glabridin
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Neurospora crassa
glabridin
0.004
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
glabridin
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Agaricus bisporus
kojic acid
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Beta vulgaris
kojic acid
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Homo sapiens
kojic acid
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Neurospora crassa
kojic acid
0.014
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
kojic acid
0.047
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047 mM
Agaricus bisporus
isoliquiritigenin
0.047
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047 mM
Beta vulgaris
isoliquiritigenin
0.047
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047 mM
Neurospora crassa
isoliquiritigenin
0.047
-
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
isoliquiritigenin
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Agaricus bisporus
cuminaldehyde
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Beta vulgaris
cuminaldehyde
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Homo sapiens
cuminaldehyde
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Neurospora crassa
cuminaldehyde
0.05
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
cuminaldehyde
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Agaricus bisporus
luteolin
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Beta vulgaris
luteolin
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Homo sapiens
luteolin
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Neurospora crassa
luteolin
0.19
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
luteolin
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Agaricus bisporus
Anisaldehyde
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Beta vulgaris
Anisaldehyde
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Homo sapiens
Anisaldehyde
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Neurospora crassa
Anisaldehyde
0.32
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Anisaldehyde
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Agaricus bisporus
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Beta vulgaris
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Homo sapiens
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Neurospora crassa
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
0.5
-
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
2.32
-
competitive, IC50: 2.320 mM
Beta vulgaris
morin
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Agaricus bisporus
glabrene
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Beta vulgaris
glabrene
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Homo sapiens
glabrene
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Neurospora crassa
glabrene
7.6
-
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
glabrene
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Inhibitors
Commentary
Organism
Structure
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Agaricus bisporus
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Beta vulgaris
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Homo sapiens
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Neurospora crassa
(-)-epigallocatechin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Agaricus bisporus
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Beta vulgaris
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Homo sapiens
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Neurospora crassa
(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
(R)-HTCCA
-
Agaricus bisporus
(R)-HTCCA
-
Beta vulgaris
(R)-HTCCA
-
Homo sapiens
(R)-HTCCA
-
Neurospora crassa
(R)-HTCCA
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
(S)-HTCCA
-
Agaricus bisporus
(S)-HTCCA
-
Beta vulgaris
(S)-HTCCA
-
Homo sapiens
(S)-HTCCA
-
Neurospora crassa
(S)-HTCCA
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Agaricus bisporus
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Beta vulgaris
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Homo sapiens
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Neurospora crassa
4-hexylresorcinol
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
aloesin
-
Agaricus bisporus
aloesin
-
Beta vulgaris
aloesin
-
Homo sapiens
aloesin
-
Neurospora crassa
aloesin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Agaricus bisporus
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Beta vulgaris
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Homo sapiens
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Neurospora crassa
Anisaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.320 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
ascorbic acid
inhibition of tyrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic browning by trapping the dopaquinone intermediate with cysteine or ascorbic acid, overview
Beta vulgaris
azelaic acid
-
Agaricus bisporus
azelaic acid
-
Beta vulgaris
azelaic acid
-
Homo sapiens
azelaic acid
-
Neurospora crassa
azelaic acid
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
captopril
-
Agaricus bisporus
captopril
-
Beta vulgaris
captopril
-
Homo sapiens
captopril
-
Neurospora crassa
captopril
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Agaricus bisporus
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Beta vulgaris
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Homo sapiens
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Neurospora crassa
cinnamaldehyde
noncompetitive, 0.980 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Agaricus bisporus
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Beta vulgaris
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Homo sapiens
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Neurospora crassa
cuminaldehyde
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.050 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Cupferron
-
Agaricus bisporus
Cupferron
-
Beta vulgaris
Cupferron
-
Homo sapiens
Cupferron
-
Neurospora crassa
Cupferron
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
cysteine
inhibition of tyrosinase-catalyzed enzymatic browning by trapping the dopaquinone intermediate with cysteine or ascorbic acid, overview
Beta vulgaris
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Agaricus bisporus
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Beta vulgaris
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Homo sapiens
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Neurospora crassa
decahydro-2-naphthyl gallate
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
dopastin
-
Agaricus bisporus
dopastin
-
Beta vulgaris
dopastin
-
Homo sapiens
dopastin
-
Neurospora crassa
dopastin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
geranyl gallate
-
Agaricus bisporus
geranyl gallate
-
Beta vulgaris
geranyl gallate
-
Homo sapiens
geranyl gallate
-
Neurospora crassa
geranyl gallate
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Agaricus bisporus
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Beta vulgaris
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Homo sapiens
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Neurospora crassa
glabrene
mixed-type, IC50: 7.600 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Agaricus bisporus
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Beta vulgaris
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Homo sapiens
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Neurospora crassa
glabridin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.004 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Agaricus bisporus
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Beta vulgaris
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Homo sapiens
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Neurospora crassa
isoliquiritigenin
mixed-type, IC50: 0.047
Streptomyces glaucescens
kaempferol
-
Agaricus bisporus
kaempferol
-
Beta vulgaris
kaempferol
-
Homo sapiens
kaempferol
-
Neurospora crassa
kaempferol
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Agaricus bisporus
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Beta vulgaris
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Homo sapiens
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Neurospora crassa
kojic acid
mixed-type, IC50: 0.014 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
L-mimosine
-
Agaricus bisporus
L-mimosine
-
Beta vulgaris
L-mimosine
-
Homo sapiens
L-mimosine
-
Neurospora crassa
L-mimosine
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Agaricus bisporus
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Beta vulgaris
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Homo sapiens
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Neurospora crassa
luteolin
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.190 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Agaricus bisporus
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Beta vulgaris
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Homo sapiens
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Neurospora crassa
Luteolin 7-O-glucoside
noncompetitive, IC50: 0.500 mM
Streptomyces glaucescens
Methimazole
-
Agaricus bisporus
Methimazole
-
Beta vulgaris
Methimazole
-
Homo sapiens
Methimazole
-
Neurospora crassa
Methimazole
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
additional information
structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Agaricus bisporus
additional information
structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Beta vulgaris
additional information
melanin plays a crucial protective role against skin photocarcinogenesis, however, the production of abnormal melanin pigmentation is a serious esthetic problem in humans, melanin biosynthesis can be inhibited by avoiding UV exposure, the inhibition of tyrosinase, the inhibition of melanocyte metabolism and proliferation, or the removal of melanin with corneal ablation, overview, structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Homo sapiens
additional information
structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Neurospora crassa
additional information
structure, application and importance of inhibitors, overview
Streptomyces glaucescens
morin
-
Agaricus bisporus
morin
competitive, IC50: 2.320 mM
Beta vulgaris
morin
-
Homo sapiens
morin
-
Neurospora crassa
morin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
quercetin
-
Agaricus bisporus
quercetin
-
Beta vulgaris
quercetin
-
Homo sapiens
quercetin
-
Neurospora crassa
quercetin
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
tropolone
-
Agaricus bisporus
tropolone
-
Beta vulgaris
tropolone
-
Homo sapiens
tropolone
-
Neurospora crassa
tropolone
-
Streptomyces glaucescens
Localization (protein specific)
Localization
Commentary
Organism
GeneOntology No.
Textmining
membrane
bound
Homo sapiens
16020
-
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Metals/Ions
Commentary
Organism
Structure
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Agaricus bisporus
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Beta vulgaris
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Homo sapiens
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Neurospora crassa
Cu2+
bound to the enzyme, presently available for any tyrosinases, the central domain contains two copper binding sites, mettyrosinase, the resting form of tyrosinase, contains two tetragonal Cu(II) ions antiferromagnetically coupled through an endogenous bridge, although hydroxide exogenous ligands other than peroxide are bound to the copper site, the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers
Streptomyces glaucescens
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Agaricus bisporus
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Beta vulgaris
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Homo sapiens
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Neurospora crassa
H2O2
the exogenous oxygen molecule is bound as peroxide and bridges the two copper centers, conferring a distinct O2-Cu(II) charge transfer
Streptomyces glaucescens
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da]
Molecular Weight Maximum [Da]
Commentary
Organism
30900
-
1 * 30900
Streptomyces glaucescens
40000
-
1 * 40000
Beta vulgaris
43000
-
2 * 134000 + 2 * 43000, alpha2beta2 subunit composition
Agaricus bisporus
46000
-
1 * 46000
Neurospora crassa
66700
-
1 * 66700
Homo sapiens
134000
-
2 * 134000 + 2 * 43000, alpha2beta2 subunit composition
Agaricus bisporus
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Natural Substrates
Organism
Commentary (Nat. Sub.)
Natural Products
Commentary (Nat. Pro.)
Organism (Nat. Pro.)
Reversibility
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
Homo sapiens
cytotoxicity of TOPA
?
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
Beta vulgaris
formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate which then could interact with NH2 groups of lysine, SCH3 groups of methionines and indole rings of tryptophan in nucleophilic addition and in polymerization reactions, the so-called browning and greening reactions
?
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Beta vulgaris
-
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Neurospora crassa
-
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Agaricus bisporus
-
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Streptomyces glaucescens
-
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
Homo sapiens
pathway of melanin biosynthesis, detailed overview
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
cytotoxicity of L-DOPA
-
?
additional information
Homo sapiens
tyrosinase is known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair, various dermatological disorders, such as melasma, age spots and sites of actinic damage, arise from the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation
?
-
-
-
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification
Commentary
Organism
glycoprotein
13% carbohydrate
Homo sapiens
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Source Tissue
Commentary
Organism
Textmining
melanocyte
-
Homo sapiens
-
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Substrates
Commentary Substrates
Literature (Substrates)
Organism
Products
Commentary (Products)
Literature (Products)
Organism (Products)
Reversibility
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
cytotoxicity of TOPA
673001
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
3,4,5-trihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + O2
i.e. TOPA
673001
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate which then could interact with NH2 groups of lysine, SCH3 groups of methionines and indole rings of tryptophan in nucleophilic addition and in polymerization reactions, the so-called browning and greening reactions
673001
Beta vulgaris
?
-
-
-
?
chlorogenic acid + O2
formation of a highly reactive o-quinone intermediate
673001
Beta vulgaris
?
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Beta vulgaris
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Neurospora crassa
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Agaricus bisporus
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Streptomyces glaucescens
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Beta vulgaris
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Homo sapiens
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Neurospora crassa
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Agaricus bisporus
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
-
673001
Streptomyces glaucescens
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
o-dopaquinone is unstable in aqueous solution and rapidly suffers a non-enzymatic cyclization to leukodopachrome
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + L-dopa + O2
pathway of melanin biosynthesis, detailed overview
673001
Homo sapiens
L-dopa + dopaquinone + H2O
cytotoxicity of L-DOPA
-
-
?
additional information
tyrosinase is known to be a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair, various dermatological disorders, such as melasma, age spots and sites of actinic damage, arise from the accumulation of an excessive level of epidermal pigmentation
673001
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Beta vulgaris
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Homo sapiens
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Neurospora crassa
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Agaricus bisporus
?
-
-
-
-
additional information
tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis: the hydroxylation of tyrosine by monophenolase action and the oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) to o-dopaquinone by diphenolase action
673001
Streptomyces glaucescens
?
-
-
-
-
Subunits (protein specific)
Subunits
Commentary
Organism
monomer
1 * 40000
Beta vulgaris
monomer
1 * 66700
Homo sapiens
monomer
1 * 46000
Neurospora crassa
monomer
1 * 30900
Streptomyces glaucescens
tetramer
2 * 134000 + 2 * 43000, alpha2beta2 subunit composition
Agaricus bisporus
Other publictions for EC 1.10.3.1
No.
1st author
Pub Med
title
organims
journal
volume
pages
year
Activating Compound
Application
Cloned(Commentary)
Crystallization (Commentary)
Engineering
General Stability
Inhibitors
KM Value [mM]
Localization
Metals/Ions
Molecular Weight [Da]
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates)
Organic Solvent Stability
Organism
Oxidation Stability
Posttranslational Modification
Purification (Commentary)
Reaction
Renatured (Commentary)
Source Tissue
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg]
Storage Stability
Substrates and Products (Substrate)
Subunits
Temperature Optimum [°C]
Temperature Range [°C]
Temperature Stability [°C]
Turnover Number [1/s]
pH Optimum
pH Range
pH Stability
Cofactor
Ki Value [mM]
pI Value
IC50 Value
Activating Compound (protein specific)
Application (protein specific)
Cloned(Commentary) (protein specific)
Cofactor (protein specific)
Crystallization (Commentary) (protein specific)
Engineering (protein specific)
General Stability (protein specific)
IC50 Value (protein specific)
Inhibitors (protein specific)
Ki Value [mM] (protein specific)
KM Value [mM] (protein specific)
Localization (protein specific)
Metals/Ions (protein specific)
Molecular Weight [Da] (protein specific)
Natural Substrates/ Products (Substrates) (protein specific)
Organic Solvent Stability (protein specific)
Oxidation Stability (protein specific)
Posttranslational Modification (protein specific)
Purification (Commentary) (protein specific)
Renatured (Commentary) (protein specific)
Source Tissue (protein specific)
Specific Activity [micromol/min/mg] (protein specific)
Storage Stability (protein specific)
Substrates and Products (Substrate) (protein specific)
Subunits (protein specific)
Temperature Optimum [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Range [°C] (protein specific)
Temperature Stability [°C] (protein specific)
Turnover Number [1/s] (protein specific)
pH Optimum (protein specific)
pH Range (protein specific)
pH Stability (protein specific)
pI Value (protein specific)
Expression
General Information
General Information (protein specific)
Expression (protein specific)
KCat/KM [mM/s]
KCat/KM [mM/s] (protein specific)
744956
de Oliveira Carvalho
Heat stability and effect of ...
Mauritia flexuosa
Food Chem.
233
159-163
2017
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744661
Gul Guven
Purification and characteriza ...
Zea mays
Cell. Mol. Biol.
62
6-11
2016
3
1
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3
3
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744955
Bravo
Characterization of polypheno ...
Physalis peruviana, Physalis peruviana Colombian ecotype
Food Chem.
197
185-190
2016
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1
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13
3
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1
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744952
Cheema
Characterization of polypheno ...
Mangifera indica
Food Chem.
171
382-387
2015
1
1
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10
12
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6
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744954
Liu
Purification and structural a ...
Malus domestica
Food Chem.
183
72-77
2015
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-
744221
Cheng
Characterization of germin-li ...
Citrus unshiu
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
449
313-318
2014
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2
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745732
Hua
-
Characterization of polypheno ...
Raphanus sativus
Mod. Food Sci. Technol.
30
69-73
2014
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3
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1
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1
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1
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2
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1
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725559
Hakulinen
The crystal structure of an ex ...
Aspergillus oryzae
J. Biol. Inorg. Chem.
18
917-929
2013
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1
1
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1
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1
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1
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3
3
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-
727570
Liu
Purification and partial chara ...
Lonicera japonica
Food Chem.
138
478-483
2013
1
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10
3
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6
2
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1
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10
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6
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2
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4
1
1
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1
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1
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1
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-
727645
Bae
Expression pattern and substra ...
Clonorchis sinensis
Int. J. Parasitol.
43
891-900
2013
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1
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1
2
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1
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9
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9
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1
1
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726187
Dirks-Hofmeister
Site-directed mutagenesis of a ...
Taraxacum officinale
Plant Mol. Biol.
80
203-217
2012
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1
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1
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711789
Kim
Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxida ...
Erimacrus isenbeckii
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B
159
103-108
2011
5
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1
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1
1
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-
713239
Palma-Orozco
Purification and partial bioch ...
Pouteria sapota
Phytochemistry
72
82-88
2011
3
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7
2
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2
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2
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1
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1
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7
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1
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1
3
1
4
1
1
1
1
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1
1
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-
713387
Diwakar
Purification and biochemical c ...
Musa x paradisiaca
Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol.
41
187-200
2011
2
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9
2
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5
1
2
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710798
Holzapfel
Polyphenol oxidase activity in ...
Bromus inermis, Bromus rubens
Am. J. Bot.
97
1195-1199
2010
4
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712216
Virador
Cloning, sequencing, purificat ...
Vitis vinifera
J. Agric. Food Chem.
58
1189-1201
2010
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1
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712219
Todaro
Polyphenol oxidase activity fr ...
Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus
J. Agric. Food Chem.
58
1714-1718
2010
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3
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4
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7
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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712530
Wu
Cloning, microbial expression ...
Camellia sinensis
J. Biotechnol.
145
66-72
2010
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1
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8
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5
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5
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1
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5
-
-
712878
Liu
Prokaryotic expression and pur ...
Camellia sinensis
J. Sci. Food Agric.
90
2490-2494
2010
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1
1
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1
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699242
Dedeoglu
Differential in vitro inhibiti ...
Lactarius salmonicolor
J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem.
24
464-470
2009
1
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7
3
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701760
Kouakou
Purification and biochemical c ...
Gossypium hirsutum
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
158
285-301
2009
1
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8
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1
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2
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701876
Gasparetti
Discovery of a new tyrosinase- ...
Aspergillus oryzae
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
86
213-226
2009
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1
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3
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1
1
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704845
Gheibi
Dual effects of aliphatic carb ...
Agaricus bisporus
J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem.
24
1076-1081
2009
6
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710702
Fan
Purification and characterizat ...
Amphioctopus fangsiao
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin.
41
865-872
2009
1
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12
2
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3
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5
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1
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12
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2
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1
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1
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1
1
1
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1
1
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1
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-
684646
Sutay Kocabas
Purification, characterization ...
Aspergillus niger, Bos taurus, Homo sapiens
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
79
407-415
2008
-
-
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7
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2
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15
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3
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3
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2
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15
-
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-
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-
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-
684704
Campello
Role of the tertiary structure ...
Octopus vulgaris
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
471
159-167
2008
-
-
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-
-
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1
1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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-
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686692
Jaenicke
Kinetic properties of catechol ...
Aphonopelma californicum (nomen dubium)
FEBS J.
275
1518-1528
2008
1
-
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1
6
2
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1
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6
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1
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7
-
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2
1
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5
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1
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1
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6
5
2
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1
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1
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7
-
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2
1
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-
-
-
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-
687246
Chisari
Characterization and role of p ...
Cucumis melo
J. Agric. Food Chem.
56
132-138
2008
-
1
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2
2
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2
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1
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1
1
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2
1
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2
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1
-
1
1
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2
1
-
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-
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-
-
-
-
696393
Perdomo-Morales
Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxida ...
Panulirus argus
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1780
652-658
2008
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-
-
-
-
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2
3
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5
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3
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1
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1
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1
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2
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5
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1
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1
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4
1
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2
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706120
Pinto
A wounding-induced PPO from co ...
Vigna unguiculata
Phytochemistry
69
2297-2302
2008
1
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4
2
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3
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1
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6
1
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1
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1
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4
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1
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1
1
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6
1
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1
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1
1
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1
1
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674138
Gandia-Herrero
Characterization of the activi ...
Agaricus bisporus
J. Agric. Food Chem.
55
1546-1551
2007
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2
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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2
-
1
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1
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-
-
-
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-
674142
Munoz
Kinetic characterization of th ...
Agaricus bisporus
J. Agric. Food Chem.
55
920-928
2007
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-
-
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7
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1
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6
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6
2
1
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7
-
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1
-
-
6
-
-
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-
6
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
686666
Kanade
Functional interaction of diph ...
Ipomoea batatas, Lablab purpureus
FEBS J.
274
4177-4187
2007
-
-
-
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-
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19
11
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1
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2
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1
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2
2
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12
1
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-
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6
-
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2
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9
-
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9
19
2
11
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1
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1
-
2
2
-
12
1
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
688112
Fang
-
Extraction and characterizatio ...
Asimina triloba
J. Food Biochem.
31
603-620
2007
-
1
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1
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2
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
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1
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2
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1
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1
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
671593
Selles-Marchart
Isolation of a latent polyphen ...
Eriobotrya japonica
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
446
175-185
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
5
2
1
1
-
-
3
-
-
1
-
-
3
2
-
12
1
2
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
12
-
5
2
1
1
-
-
-
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1
-
3
2
-
12
1
2
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
671857
Kanade
The conformational state of po ...
Lablab purpureus
Biochem. J.
395
551-562
2006
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
-
1
1
-
2
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1
1
-
1
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3
2
1
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2
-
3
1
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2
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3
-
1
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1
1
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1
-
1
-
-
3
2
1
-
2
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
672540
Khan
Tetraketones: a new class of t ...
Agaricus bisporus
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
14
344-351
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
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1
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1
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6
-
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6
7
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
672546
Khan
Oxazolones: new tyrosinase inh ...
Agaricus bisporus
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
14
6027-6033
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
8
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
7
-
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7
8
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-
1
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-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
672547
Khan
Tyrosinase inhibition studies ...
Agaricus bisporus
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
14
6085-6088
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
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-
1
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-
2
-
1
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-
-
1
-
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-
1
-
-
-
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-
-
1
11
-
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-
1
-
1
-
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-
1
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
672593
Cho
N-Benzylbenzamides: A new clas ...
Agaricus bisporus
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
16
2682-2684
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
19
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
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-
-
-
-
1
-
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2
-
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-
-
-
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-
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-
18
-
-
-
-
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-
18
19
-
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-
1
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-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673046
Koval
Catecholase activity of a copp ...
Ipomoea batatas
Chem. Eur. J.
12
6138 - 6150
2006
1
-
-
-
-
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-
1
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1
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1
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3
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1
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1
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-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673560
Selinheimo
Production and characterizatio ...
Trichoderma reesei
FEBS J.
273
4322-4335
2006
-
-
1
-
-
-
6
-
-
1
2
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
1
-
6
2
1
-
3
-
1
1
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
6
-
-
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1
2
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
1
-
6
2
1
-
3
-
1
1
4
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
673779
Erat
-
Purification and characterizat ...
Ferula sp.
Food Chem.
95
503-508
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
10
-
-
-
6
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
3
3
-
14
-
1
1
4
-
1
1
1
-
10
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
10
10
-
-
-
6
-
-
-
1
-
3
3
-
14
-
1
1
4
-
1
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673785
Lim
-
Purification and characterizat ...
Malus sp.
Food Sci. Biotechnol.
15
177-182
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
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-
1
-
-
1
-
-
4
1
1
-
2
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
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-
1
-
-
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1
-
1
-
-
4
1
1
-
2
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674120
Matsuura
Tyrosinase inhibitory activity ...
Agaricus bisporus
J. Agric. Food Chem.
54
2309-2313
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
-
-
-
-
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1
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674774
Matoba
Crystallographic evidence that ...
Beta vulgaris
J. Biol. Chem.
281
8981-8990
2006
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
1
2
-
-
2
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1
-
-
-
1
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2
1
1
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-
-
3
1
-
-
-
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-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
1
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
1
-
-
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675166
Dalmadi
-
Characterization and inactivat ...
Fragaria x ananassa
J. Food Biochem.
30
56-76
2006
-
-
-
-
-
1
1
2
-
1
-
2
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
2
-
3
-
1
-
3
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
2
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
1
2
-
3
-
1
-
3
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675167
Ni Eidhinn
-
Polyphenol oxidase from apple ...
Malus domestica
J. Food Sci.
71
C51-C58
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
7
-
1
1
5
-
1
1
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
1
-
7
-
1
1
5
-
1
1
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676381
Aclecio Melo
Polyphenoloxidase activity in ...
Coffea arabica, Coffea brevipes, Coffea canephora, Coffea eugenioides, Coffea guarini, Coffea kapakata, Coffea liberica, Coffea liberica var. dewevrei, Coffea racemosa, Coffea salvatrix, Coffea stenophylla
Phytochemistry
67
277-285
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
-
15
-
-
-
-
-
12
68
-
82
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
-
-
-
-
-
12
68
-
82
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
676649
Wuyts
Extraction and partial charact ...
Musa acuminata
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
44
308-314
2006
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
8
-
-
-
3
-
5
-
-
1
-
-
6
1
-
10
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
8
-
-
-
3
-
-
-
1
-
6
1
-
10
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658960
Dogan
Characterization and purificat ...
Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus
J. Agric. Food Chem.
53
776-785
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
4
-
-
1
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
5
1
3
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
1
-
6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
6
7
1
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
1
-
5
1
3
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
671429
Hernandez-Romero
Polyphenol oxidase activity ex ...
Ralstonia solanacearum
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
71
6808-6815
2005
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673001
Kim
Tyrosinase inhibitors from nat ...
Agaricus bisporus, Beta vulgaris, Homo sapiens, Neurospora crassa, Streptomyces glaucescens
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
62
1707-1723
2005
-
2
-
-
-
-
142
-
1
10
6
8
-
5
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
20
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
-
40
-
2
-
5
-
-
-
40
142
-
-
1
10
6
8
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
20
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673775
Dogan
-
Polyphenol oxidase activity of ...
Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum
Food Chem.
91
341-345
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
2
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
3
-
-
2
-
1
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
-
2
-
1
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
673783
Jang
-
Characterization of polyphenol ...
Solanum tuberosum
Food Sci. Biotechnol.
14
117-122
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
1
-
2
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
7
-
1
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
1
-
-
1
1
1
-
2
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674089
Dog An
Purification and characterizat ...
Ocimum basilicum
J. Agric. Food Chem.
53
10224-10230
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
3
-
3
1
3
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
3
-
3
1
3
-
3
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674090
Orenes-Pinero
A kinetic study of p-cresol ox ...
Cydonia oblonga
J. Agric. Food Chem.
53
1196-1200
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
1
-
-
3
1
-
3
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
1
-
3
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674092
Spagna
Characterization of a tomato p ...
Solanum lycopersicum
J. Agric. Food Chem.
53
2032-2038
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
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-
-
-
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2
1
1
3
-
1
1
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-
1
1
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
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-
-
1
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-
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2
1
1
3
-
1
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674096
Rapeanu
Thermal and high-pressure inac ...
Vitis vinifera
J. Agric. Food Chem.
53
2988-2994
2005
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
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1
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3
-
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
-
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674108
Gandia-Herrero
Differential activation of a l ...
Beta vulgaris
J. Agric. Food Chem.
53
6825-6830
2005
1
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2
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2
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1
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1
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1
2
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1
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3
-
1
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
674114
Gandia-Herrero
Characterization of the activi ...
Agaricus bisporus
J. Agric. Food Chem.
53
9207-9212
2005
-
1
-
-
-
-
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
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4
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
1
-
4
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675076
Olianas
Tyrosinase activity and hemocy ...
Scyllarides latus
J. Comp. Physiol. B
175
405-411
2005
2
-
-
-
-
-
3
1
-
1
2
-
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4
-
1
1
-
-
3
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2
1
1
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1
1
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2
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-
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3
-
1
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1
2
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1
1
-
3
-
-
2
1
1
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675101
Guelcin
Purification and characterizat ...
Urtica dioica
J. Enzyme Inhib. Med. Chem.
20
297-302
2005
-
-
-
-
-
-
11
5
-
-
-
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2
-
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1
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1
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6
-
1
1
1
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1
1
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-
-
-
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-
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11
-
5
-
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1
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1
-
6
-
1
1
1
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
675458
Garcia-Molina
-
Kinetic study of monophenol an ...
Agaricus bisporus, Neurospora crassa, Streptomyces glaucescens
J. Mol. Catal. B
32
185-192
2005
-
-
-
-
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30
-
3
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-
-
3
-
-
-
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-
3
-
30
-
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-
28
-
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-
-
-
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30
-
3
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3
-
30
-
-
-
-
28
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658150
Wang
Enzymatic characterization and ...
Sarcophaga bullata
Biochemistry (Moscow)
69
918-920
2004
-
-
-
-
-
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3
1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
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1
3
1
1
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1
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1
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-
1
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658788
Arslan
-
Purification of mulberry (Moru ...
Morus alba
Food Chem.
88
479-484
2004
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
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1
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1
1
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4
1
2
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3
-
3
-
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-
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1
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1
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1
-
1
1
-
4
1
2
-
3
-
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658952
Le Bourvellec
Inhibition of apple polyphenol ...
Malus domestica
J. Agric. Food Chem.
52
122-130
2004
-
-
-
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-
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2
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2
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2
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1
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2
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1
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658955
Gandia-Herrero
Purification and characterizat ...
Beta vulgaris
J. Agric. Food Chem.
52
609-615
2004
1
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4
3
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2
1
-
2
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1
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1
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1
1
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-
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-
1
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1
-
1
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4
3
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2
1
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1
-
1
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-
1
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
659821
Xu
-
Purification and characterizat ...
Castanea henryi
J. Wood Sci.
50
260-265
2004
-
-
-
-
-
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4
-
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1
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1
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1
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3
-
1
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1
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1
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4
-
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1
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1
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-
-
3
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
657987
Senior
Catecholase activity associate ...
Bos taurus
Biochemistry
42
4392-4397
2003
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
1
-
1
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2
-
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1
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1
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5
-
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-
4
-
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4
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
5
-
-
-
-
4
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
658787
Billaud
-
Effect of glutathione and Mail ...
Malus domestica
Food Chem.
84
223-233
2003
-
-
-
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-
-
2
-
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1
-
1
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1
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2
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2
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1
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1
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2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
658789
Pruidze
-
Multiple forms of phenol oxida ...
Camellia sinensis, Mycelia sterilia, Mycelia sterilia IBR 35219/2
Food Res. Int.
36
587-595
2003
-
-
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-
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5
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2
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3
-
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1
8
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15
-
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2
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-
-
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-
-
-
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5
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2
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1
8
-
15
-
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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658893
Jiang
Activation of tobacco leaf pol ...
Nicotiana tabacum
Indian J. Biochem. Biophys.
40
350-353
2003
1
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2
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2
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2
1
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1
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2
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-
-
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2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
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658894
Goswami
Purification of catecholase fr ...
Solanum melongena
Indian J. Biochem. Biophys.
40
442-446
2003
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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2
-
2
1
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1
1
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2
1
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1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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658950
Yemenicioglu
Consistency of polyphenol oxid ...
Prunus armeniaca
J. Agric. Food Chem.
51
2371-2379
2003
-
-
-
-
-
-
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3
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1
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4
-
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1
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-
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1
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-
-
4
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
440438
Shi
The purification of polyphenol ...
Nicotiana tabacum
Protein Expr. Purif.
24
51-55
2002
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
2
1
-
5
-
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1
-
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2
1
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6
1
1
1
-
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
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2
1
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1
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2
1
-
6
1
1
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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440439
Haase
Catecholase activity of a seri ...
Ipomoea batatas
Inorg. Chem.
41
1788-1794
2002
-
-
-
1
-
-
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1
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1
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-
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-
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1
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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440440
Gerdemann
The crystal structure of catec ...
Embryophyta
Acc. Chem. Res.
35
183-191
2002
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
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440441
Yamamoto
-
Purification and characterizat ...
Portulaca grandiflora
Plant Biotechnol.
19
95-101
2002
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
3
-
-
5
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
-
1
1
-
4
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
-
3
-
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5
-
-
-
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1
-
1
1
-
4
2
-
-
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
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440442
Endo
A novel extracytoplasmic pheno ...
Streptomyces griseus
Microbiology
148
1767-1776
2002
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1
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1
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1
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-
-
-
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1
2
-
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-
-
-
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-
-
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-
-
1
-
-
-
-
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1
-
3
-
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1
-
-
-
-
1
2
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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440437
Yang
Partial purification and chara ...
Musa x paradisiaca
J. Agric. Food Chem.
49
1446-1449
2001
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4
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1
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2
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1
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2
1
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7
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
7
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
1
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-
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440433
Yang
Purification and characterizat ...
Musa x paradisiaca
J. Agric. Food Chem.
48
2732-2735
2000
-
-
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5
1
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2
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2
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1
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2
1
-
8
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
5
-
1
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
2
1
-
8
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
1
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-
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440434
Paul
Purification and characterizat ...
Lablab purpureus
J. Agric. Food Chem.
48
3839-3846
2000
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-
-
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4
4
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2
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2
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1
-
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-
1
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
4
4
-
-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
1
-
4
1
-
-
-
-
1
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
440435
Gentschev
-
New functional models for cate ...
Ipomoea batatas
Inorg. Chim. Acta
300-302
442-452
2000
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
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-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
440436
Mazzafera
Characterization of polyphenol ...
Coffea arabica
Phytochemistry
55
285-296
2000
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
2
-
-
-
1
-
2
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
4
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
2
-
-
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
4
-
-
4
1
1
-
1
-
1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
440432
Rompel
Substrate specificity of catec ...
Lycopus europaeus
FEBS Lett.
445
103-110
1999
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-
-
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-
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1
9
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9
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
9
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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440431
Klabunde
Crystal structure of a plant c ...
Ipomoea batatas
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1084-1090
1998
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1
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3
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-
-
-
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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1
-
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-
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
440430
Dry
Molecular cloning and characte ...
Vitis vinifera
Plant Mol. Biol.
26
495-502
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1
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2
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2
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1
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3
1
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1
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-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
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1
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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-
2
-
-
-
-
1
-
3
1
-
-
1
-
-
-
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440429
Palmieri
Stability and activity of a ph ...
Pleurotus ostreatus
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
39
632-636
1993
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-
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1
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1
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1
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1
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-
-
-
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-
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-
-
1
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-
1
-
1
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440427
Motoda
-
Properties of polyphenol oxida ...
Alternaria alternata
J. Ferment. Technol.
57
79-85
1979
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21
1
-
5
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1
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-
1
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17
-
-
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-
-
-
-
-
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21
-
1
-
5
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
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17
-
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440428
Motoda
Purification and some properti ...
Alternaria alternata, Alternaria alternata A-2
J. Ferment. Technol.
57
71-78
1979
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1
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2
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1
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1
1
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1
1
1
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1
1
1
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1
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1
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1
1
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1
1
1
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1
1
1
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440426
Wong
Isolation and characterization ...
Prunus persica
Plant Physiol.
48
19-23
1971
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7
4
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2
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1
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1
1
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10
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1
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4
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7
-
4
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1
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1
1
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10
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1
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4
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