Ligand cytochrome c

Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.

Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of cytochrome c (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C40H48FeN8O6R2S2
cytochrome c
VFEXYZINKMLLAK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Synonyms:
cytochrome c1

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (12 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
cytochrome c + H2O2 = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
arsenite + cytochrome c + H2O = arsenate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
L-galactono-1,4-lactone + cytochrome c = L-ascorbate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
taurine + H2O + cytochrome c = sulfoacetaldehyde + NH3 + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
spermidine + cytochrome c = 1,3-diaminopropane + gamma-aminobutylaldehyde
show the reaction diagram
-
NADPH + H+ + cytochrome c = NADP+ + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
NADPH + H+ + cytochrome c = NADP+ + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
thiosulfate + cytochrome c = tetrathionate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
sulfite + cytochrome c = sulfate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-

In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (1 result)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
nitrous oxide + 2 reduced cytochrome c = nitrogen + H2O + 2 cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
-

Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (85 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
cytochrome c + NADPH + H+ = reduced cytochrome c + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
(S)-lactate + cytochrome c = pyruvate + oxidized cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
polyvinyl alcohol + cytochrome c = polyvinylketone + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
ethanol + cytochrome c = ethanal + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
(S)-mandelate + cytochrome c = 2-oxo-2-phenylacetate + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
cytochrome c + H2O2 = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
cytochrome c + NAD(P)H + O2 = reduced cytochrome c + NAD(P)+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
cytochrome c + FAD + FMN + O2 = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
cytochrome c + NADPH + H+ = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
formate + cytochrome c = CO2 + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
xanthine + cytochrome c + H2O = urate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
oxalate + cytochrome c = CO2 + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
benzaldehyde + H2O + cytochrome c = benzoate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
arsenite + cytochrome c + H2O = arsenate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
arsenite + cytochrome c + H2O = arsenate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
L-galactono-1,4-lactone + cytochrome c = L-ascorbate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
cytochrome c + O2 = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
taurine + H2O + cytochrome c = sulfoacetaldehyde + NH3 + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
L-phenylalanine + H2O + 2 cytochrome c = phenylpyruvate + NH3 + 2 reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
L-proline + cytochrome c = (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline + cytochrome c = (3R,5S)-3-hydroxy-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
N6-(2-isopentenyl)adenine + cytochrome c = adenine + 3-methylbut-2-enal + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
N-methylglutamate + cytochrome c + H2O = L-glutamate + formaldehyde + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
spermidine + cytochrome c = 1,3-diaminopropane + gamma-aminobutylaldehyde
show the reaction diagram
-
L-proline + cytochrome c + H2O = (S)-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
NADPH + H+ + cytochrome c = NADP+ + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
NADPH + H+ + cytochrome c = NADP+ + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
cytochrome C + menadione + NADH = ? + reduced menadione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
cytochrome c + NADPH = reduced cytochrome c + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
thiosulfate + cytochrome c = tetrathionate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
sulfite + cytochrome c = sulfate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
dithiothreitol + cytochrome c = dithiothreitol disulfide + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
Cytochrome c + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
Cytochrome c + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
Cytochrome c + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
Cytochrome c + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
Cytochrome c + H2O = ?
show the reaction diagram
-
Cytochrome c + H2O = Hydrolyzed cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
plastoquinol + cytochrome c1 = plastoquinone + reduced cytochrome c1
show the reaction diagram
-

Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (5 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
reduced cytochrome c + superoxide + H+ = cytochrome c + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-

Enzyme Cofactor/Cosubstrate (110 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
cytochrome c involved in the pva operon is a physiological primary electron acceptor for polyvinyl-alcohol dehydrogenase
-
strain DSM 4025, physiological electron acceptor
-
can replace dichlorophenolindophenol as acceptor
-
the enzyme is an extracellular flavocytochrome
-
possible physiological acceptor
-
nonaheme cytochrome c is a competent physiological electron acceptor
-
cytochrome c also inhibits the reaction and half-inhibition is found in the presence of 17 microM cytochrome c. The addition of cytochrome c to the reaction mixture containing 2-nitropropane and 2-nitropropane dioxygenase causes an increase in absorbance at 550 nm indicating the reduction of cytochrome c
-
one of three protein components is a soluble CO-binding cytochrome c
-
the gamma-subunit of the alpha3beta3gamma3 enzyme is cytochrome c1
-
artificial electron carrier
-
a quinohaemoprotein, contains one covalently bound haem per molecule, the C-terminal domain contains characteristics of a cytochrome c. The heme accepts only one electron, for the two-electron dehydrogenase reaction, a second electron acceptor must be present (pyrroloquinoline quinone)
-
in its purest state the enzyme contains one molecule of cytochrome co-ordinated by two histidine side chains in the oxidized state
-
in a cytochrome bc1 complex
-
multiheme
-
presence of a cytochrome that may be an intermediary hydrogen carrier involved in reducing systems for sulfate and other sulfur compounds
-
the cytochrome c motifs of subunit SoxD are buried in the protein core
-
octaheme cytochrome
-

Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (9 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
role of cyt c in activation of glycerol-3-phosphate and succinate oxidation in frozenthawed mitochondria
-
maximal activation of hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate at 0.0125 mg/ml
-

Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (58 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
inhibits rate of phenazine methosulfate stimulated dichlorophenolindophenol reduction
-
substrate inhibition
-
95% inhibition at 0.05 mM
-
50% inhibition at 0.001 mM
-
32.9% residual activity at 0.1 mM
-
inhibition by oxidized cytochrome c, 20 microM, 52.4% residual activity
-
0.01 mM: 25% inhibition, 0.025 mM: 64% inhibition, 0.05 mM: 85% inhibition
-
0.01 mM, 46% inhibition
-
72% inhibition at 0.5 nM
-
70% inhibition at 10 mM
-
complete inhibition at 0.1 mM, 0.003 mM
-
0.01 mM, 96% inhibition
-
0.4 mM, 50% inhibition
-
strong
-
less than 0.01 mM, 50% inhibition
-
0.05 mM, complete inhibition
-
0.01 mM, 44.9% inhibition, 0.1 mM, 59.6% inhibition
-
0.01 mM reduces activity to 4%, 0.1 mM reduces activity to 1%
-
0.01 mM cytochrome c reduces activity to 14%, 0.1 mM cytochrome c reduces activity to 4%
-
hydroxylase activity with NADPH is strongly inhibited, activity with NADH is less susceptible
-
97% inhibition at 0.1 mM
-
76% inhibition at 0.1 mM
-
strong
-
1 mM, 78% inhibition of recombinant nicotine demethylase activity in yeast microsomes
-
addition of cytochrome c to the incubation medium inhibits hydroxylase activity
-
partial inhibition
-
microsomal-bound enzyme
-
above 0.15 mM
-
inhibition of O2 consumption
-
enzyme activity is inhibited in both normoxic and hypoxic groups. The IC50 increases 1.5fold following hypoxia, suggesting a hypoxia-induced modification of the cytochrome binding site. 70% inhibition by 0.003 mM
-

Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (91 results)

EC NUMBER
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
9.1
-
pH 7.6, 22C
225
-
pH 7.5, 25C
1.83
-
25C, wild-type enzyme
122.4
-
CYP102A7, at pH 7.5
0.717
-
cosubstrate xanthine
151
-
in the presence of L-galactono-1,4-lactone, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 8.8), at 25C
0.8
-
pH 6.5, recombinant enzyme
4.5
-
wild type enzyme
0.333
-
-
50
100
soluble enzyme, higher values for particulate enzyme

KM Value (129 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0176
-
pH 7.6, 22C
0.0041
-
CYP102A7, at pH 7.5
0.034
-
wild type enzyme, in the presence of L-galactono-1,4-lactone, in 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 8.8), at 25C
0.0039
-
apparent value, at pH 8.0 and 30C
0.06
-
-
0.01
-
wild type enzyme

Ki Value (5 results)

EC NUMBER
KI VALUE [MM]
KI VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.005
-
-

IC50 Value (6 results)

EC NUMBER
IC50 VALUE
IC50 VALUE MAXIMUM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0009
-
pH 7.5, 32C
0.004
-
pH 7.5, 32C
0.03
-
using 24-methylenecycloartanol as substrate, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.035
-
using 24-ethylidenelophenol as substrate, at 30C, pH not specified in the publication
0.0018
-
at 37C
0.0025
-
pH 7.5, 12C

References & Links

Links to other databases for cytochrome c

ChEBI
PubChem
-
PubChem