Ligand betaine

Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.

Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of betaine (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C5H11NO2
betaine
KWIUHFFTVRNATP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Synonyms:
2-trimethylammonioacetate, carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium, glycine-betaine, glycine betaine, glycinebetaine, N,N,N-trimethylglycine, trimethylammonioacetate


Show all pahtways known for Show all BRENDA pathways known for betaine

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (5 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
glycine betaine + H2O2 = betaine aldehyde + O2 + H2O
show the reaction diagram
N,N,N-trimethylglycine + phosphate + thioredoxin = acetyl phosphate + trimethylamine + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
-
ATP + H2O + glycine betaine/out = ADP + phosphate + glycine betaine/in
show the reaction diagram
-

In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (20 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
choline + 2 acceptor + H2O = glycine-betaine + 2 reduced acceptor + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(trimethylamino)ethyl]phosphonate + O2 = glycine betaine + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N,N-dimethylglycine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N,N-trimethylglycine
show the reaction diagram
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N,N-dimethylglycine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N,N-trimethylglycine
show the reaction diagram
-
ATP + H2O + glycine betaine/out = ADP + phosphate + glycine betaine/in
show the reaction diagram
-

Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (15 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
glycine betaine + H2O2 = betaine aldehyde + O2 + H2O
show the reaction diagram
betaine + NADH = betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
betaine + L-homocysteine = dimethylglycine + L-methionine
show the reaction diagram
-
glycine betaine + cob(I)alamin = dimethylglycine + methylcob(III)alamin
show the reaction diagram
-
ATP + H2O + betaine/out = ADP + phosphate + betaine/in
show the reaction diagram
-

Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (38 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(trimethylamino)ethyl]phosphonate + O2 = glycine betaine + phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ + H2O = 2-trimethylammonioacetate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
betaine aldehyde + NAD+ = betaine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N,N-dimethylglycine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N,N-trimethylglycine
show the reaction diagram
-
ATP + H2O + betaine/out = ADP + phosphate + betaine/in
show the reaction diagram
-

Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (16 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
activates the wild-type enzyme but not the mutant enzyme
-
recombinant enzyme: 20% activation at 0.5 M with sarcosine, no activation with glycine
attenuates alcoholic steatosis by restoring phosphatidylcholine generation via the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase pathway, the effect is enhanced by ethanol, which alone has no effect on expression levels of the enzyme, overview
-
activity is extremely low in vitro in 100 mM buffers, 100fold stimulation by exogenous addition of 2-3 M glycinebetaine
-
stimulates enzyme self-association and interaction with glycogen, prevents complex formation with phosphorylase b
-
stimulates, stimulation pattern of MtrA is similar to that of MtrB
-
it enhances the enzyme activity 2fold at 50°C and 3 M, and 1.5fold at 45°C and 1-3 M, while it reduces the enzyme activity at 35-40°C, by 20% at 40°C and 3 M, about 5% at 1 M, overview
-
activates
-
1 M betaine activates the enzyme 1.8fold in the absence of monovalent cations
-
activates, effects on wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview
-
0.4 M, 67.7% residual activity after 60°C heat treatment
-

Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (28 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
competitive inhibitor of (S)-carnitine oxidation; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
-
25% inhibition at 1 M NaCl, below 10% activity at 3 M, inactive at 4 M NaCl
-
300 mM betaine give 50% inhibition
-
0.1 M
-
stimulates enzyme self-association and interaction with glycogen, prevents complex formation with phosphorylase b
-
it enhances the enzyme activity 2fold at 50°C and 3 M, and 1.5fold at 45°C and 1-3 M, while it reduces the enzyme activity at 35-40°C, by 20% at 40°C and 3 M,about % at 1 M, overview
-
linear competitive inhibitor
-
complete inhibition at 2 mM
-
competitive inhibitor of His uptake
-

Metals and Ions (1 result)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
high concentrations of salt may be substituted with 30% DMSO or betaine with good stability and activity
-

3D Structure of Enzyme-Ligand-Complex (PDB) (29 results)

Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

kcat Value (Turnover Number) (17 results)

EC NUMBER
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/S]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM [1/S]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE

KM Value (47 results)

EC NUMBER
KM VALUE [MM]
KM VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
9
-
pH 7.7, 30°C

Ki Value (3 results)

EC NUMBER
KI VALUE [MM]
KI VALUE MAXIMUM [MM]
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
15
-
pH 8.0, 25°C

References & Links

Links to other databases for betaine

ChEBI
PubChem
-
PubChem