Ligand Phospholipid

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Basic Ligand Information

Molecular Structure
Picture of Phospholipid (click for magnification)
Molecular Formula
BRENDA Name
InChIKey
C11H18O8PR3
Phospholipid
NQPDPZPCALOTJX-SECBINFHSA-N
Synonyms:
Phospholipids

Roles as Enzyme Ligand

In Vivo Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (10 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
GDPmannose + phospholipid = GDP + mannosyl-1-phospholipid
show the reaction diagram
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In Vivo Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (2 results)

EC NUMBER
PROVEN IN VIVO REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
F2-isoprostane phospholipid + H2O = F2-isoprostane + phospholipid
show the reaction diagram
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phospholipid + alcohol = phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
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Substrate in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (19 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + phospholipids = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + phospholipid + cyclopropane fatty acid
show the reaction diagram
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GDPmannose + phospholipid = GDP + mannosyl-1-phospholipid
show the reaction diagram
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UDPgalactose + phospholipid = UMP + galactose-1-diphospho-lipid
show the reaction diagram
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Product in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (3 results)

EC NUMBER
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + phospholipids = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + phospholipid + cyclopropane fatty acid
show the reaction diagram
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F2-isoprostane phospholipid + H2O = F2-isoprostane + phospholipid
show the reaction diagram
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phospholipid + alcohol = phospholipid + alcohol
show the reaction diagram
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Enzyme Cofactor/Cosubstrate (3 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
part of the prothrombinase complex, reduce the inhibitory effect of 3-chloro-N-[2-[[(4-fluorophenyl)amino]carbonyl]-4-methylphenyl]benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide
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Activator in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (142 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
absolutely dependent on
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detergent-depleted enzyme requires exogenous phospholipid or nondenaturing detergent for activity
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H2-production from reduced methyl viologen requires phospholipids
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enhances enzyme activity
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required for expression of full activity
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time-dependent inactivation of enzyme activity after phosphlipase A treatment
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no influence on the kinetic parameters of 5-deiodinase activity of isozyme type III in placenta, but essential for activity
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stimulate
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partially purified enzyme: activation
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activation
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slightly increases activity
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slight activation by all phospholipids tested except for phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine, highest activation by phosphatidylethanolamine
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increase enzymatic activity 3-4fold
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e.g. phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin, stimulate
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phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine at 0.025 mg/ml stimulates 80%
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required, phosphatidylethanolamine most effective
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required, phosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylserine are the best activators
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no absolute requirement for phospholipid, the phospholipid is required for interaction of the enzyme with the long chain polyisoprenol substrate dolichyl phosphate
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e.g. phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine or sphingomyelin, inhibition alone, synergistic activation with the protein peak eluted from hydroxylapatite by 25 mM phosphate
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required for phosphorylation of beta2-AR, activation is associated with a conformational change in beta-ARK 1, acidic phospholipid specificity, not activated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate, direct regulation of beta-ARK 1 activity by phospholipids
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activate GRK5
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absolute requirement
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phospholipide sensitive to phospholipase necessary for enzymatic activity
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required
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enhances the hydrophobic character of the lipid binding domain of the enzyme responsible for its penetration into organized lipid structure
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IPLA-1 binds directly to multiple acidic phospholipids, including phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin, phosphatidic acid, and phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol. Presence of phospholipids in mixed micelles stimualtes activiy compared to micelles consisting of palmitoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine
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the full catalytic activity requires phospholipid interfaces
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the enzyme is tightly associated with phospholipids
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activates
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activation of prothrombin cleavage in presence of Ca2+ by HRgpA not RgpB, 1.5fold at 0.04 mg/ml
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activation, acetone-washed membrane-bound enzyme
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lipid-protein interactions
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requirement, dose-dependent stimulation, phosphatidylcholine is preferred, phopshatidylserine and phopshatidylethanolamine substitute less effectively
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addition of phospholipids is necessary to restore the activity of the delipidated enzyme stabilized by high concentrations of glucose and sucrose
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stimulate
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solubilized ZntA is increased in the presence of negatively charged phospholipids and at slightly acidic pH. Among the most abundant naturally accuring phospholipids, only phosphatidyl-glycerol enhances the in vitro ATPase activity of TntA. Relipidation of detergent-purified ZntA with 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidyl-glycerol increases the ATPase activity 4fold compared to the purified state. Among the phosphatidylglycerol family, highest activity is observed for 1,2-dioleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol followed by 1,2-dimyristoyl-phosphatidylglycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and 1,2-distearoyl-phosphatidylglycerol
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addition of phospholipids leads to a significant increase in CopA phosphomonoesterase turnover
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stimulated up to 4fold by phospholipids with an optimum at 74°C. Membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes containing SecYE and SecYEG support 2fold to 4fold stimulation of the precursor dependent SecA ATPase activity
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stimulate the ATPase activity of the purified enzyme
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The activity of purified MsbA is dependent upon the presence of phospholipids.
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Inhibitor in Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions (6 results)

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
ENZYME 3D STRUCTURE
activity inhibited by high concentrations of
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stable bilayer forming, e.g. phosphatidylcholine, restorable by addition of cholesterol, dolichol and dolichol-derivatives
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phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine or lysophosphatidylethanolamine activates, lysophosphatidylcholine inhibits
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at high concentrations
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Enzyme Kinetic Parameters

References & Links

Links to other databases for Phospholipid

ChEBI
PubChem
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PubChem